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- Publication date:
- 21 January 2019
Koostöö romadega: kohalike kogukondade osalemine ja nende võimestamine - Kokkuvõte
Käesolevas koondaruandes esitatakse välitööde põhitulemused ja nendel põhinevad FRA arvamused.
Igaühel on õigus ennetavale tervishoiule ning ravile siseriiklike õigusaktide ja tavadega ettenähtud tingimustel. Kõigi liidu poliitika ja meetmete määratlemisel ja rakendamisel tagatakse inimeste tervise kõrgetasemeline kaitse.
Käesolevas artiklis sätestatud põhimõte põhineb Euroopa Ühenduse asutamislepingu artiklil 152, mis on asendatud Euroopa Liidu toimimise lepingu artikliga 168, ning Euroopa sotsiaalharta artiklitel 11 ja 13. Artikli teine lause kordab artikli 168 lõiget 1.
Article 31 Everyone has the right to the protection of her health. Citizens shall have the right, on the basis of public insurance, to free medical care and to medical aids under conditions provided for by law.
Článek 31 Každý má právo na ochranu zdraví. Občané mají na základě veřejného pojištění právo na bezplatnou zdravotní péči a na zdravotní pomůcky za podmínek, které stanoví zákon.
Chapter 1 - Basic principles of the form of government: Article 2 (...) The personal, economic and cultural welfare of the private person shall be fundamental aims of public activity. In particular, it shall be incumbent upon the public institutions to secure the right to health, employment, housing and education, and to promote social care and social security (...).
1 kapitlet - Statsskickets grunder: 2 § (...) Den enskildes personliga, ekonomiska och kulturella välfärd skall vara grundläggande mål för den offentliga verksamheten. Det skall särskilt åligga det allmänna att trygga rätten till hälsa, arbete, bostad och utbildning samt att verka för social omsorg och trygghet. (...).
Artículo 43 1. Se reconoce el derecho a la protección de la salud. 2. Compete a los poderes públicos organizar y tutelar la salud pública a través de medidas preventivas y de las prestaciones y servicios necesarios. La ley establecerá los derechos y deberes de todos al respecto. 3. Los poderes públicos fomentarán la educación sanitaria, la educación física y el deporte. Asimismo facilitarán la adecuada utilización del ocio.
Section 43 1. The right to health protection is recognised.2. It is incumbent upon the public authorities to organize and watch over public health by means of preventive measures and the necessary benefits and services. The law shall establish the rights and duties of all in this respect.3. The public authorities shall foster health education, physical education and sports. Likewise, they shall encourage the proper use of leisure time.
Article 51 (Right to Health Care) Everyone has the right to health care under conditions provided by law.The rights to health care from public funds shall be provided by law.No one may be compelled to undergo medical treatment except in cases provided by law. Article 72 Everyone has the right in accordance with the law to a healthy living environment. The state shall promote a healthy living environment. To this end, the conditions and manner in which economic and other activities are pursued shall be established by law. The law shall establish under which conditions and to what extent a person who has damaged the living environment is obliged to provide compensation. The protection of animals from cruelty shall be regulated by law.
51. člen (pravica do zdravstvenega varstva)Vsakdo ima pravico do zdravstvenega varstva pod pogoji, ki jih določa zakon.Zakonsko določa pravice do zdravstvenega varstva iz javnih sredstev. Nikogar ni mogoče prisiliti k zdravljenju, razen v primerih, ki jih določa zakon. 72. členVsakdo ima v skladu z zakonom pravico do zdravega življenjskega okolja. Država skrbi za zdravo življenjsko okolje. V ta namen zakon določa pogoje in načine za opravljanje gospodarskih in drugih dejavnosti. Zakon določa, ob katerih pogojih in v kakšnem obsegu je povzročitelj škode v življenjskem okolju dolžan poravnati škodo. Varstvo živali pred mučenjem ureja zakon.
Article 40 Everyone has a right to the protection of health. Based on public insurance, citizens have the right to free health care and to medical supplies under conditions which shall be laid down by law.
Čl. 40 Každý má právo na ochranu zdravia. Na základe zdravotného poistenia majú občania právo na bezplatnú zdravotnú starostlivosť a na zdravotnícke pomôcky za podmienok, ktoré ustanoví zákon.
Articolul 34(1) Dreptul la ocrotirea sanatatii este garantat. (2) Statul este obligat sa ia masuri pentru asigurarea igienei si a sanatatii publice. (3) Organizarea asistentei medicale si a sistemului de asigurari sociale pentru boala, accidente, maternitate si recuperare, controlul exercitarii profesiilor medicale si a activitatilor paramedicale, precum si alte masuri de protectie a sanatatii fizice si mentale a persoanei se stabilesc potrivit legii.
Article 34(1) The right to the protection of health is guaranteed. (2) The State shall be bound to take measures to ensure public hygiene and health. (3) The organization of the medical care and social security system in case of sickness, accidents, maternity and recovery, the control over the exercise of medical professions and paramedical activities, as well as other measures to protect physical and mental health of a person shall be established according to the law.
Artigo 64.º (Saúde) 1. Todos têm direito à protecção da saúde e o dever de a defender e promover. 2. O direito à protecção da saúde é realizado: a) Através de um serviço nacional de saúde universal e geral e, tendo em conta as condições económicas e sociais dos cidadãos, tendencialmente gratuito; b) Pela criação de condições económicas, sociais, culturais e ambientais que garantam, designadamente, a protecção da infância, da juventude e da velhice, e pela melhoria sistemática das condições de vida e de trabalho, bem como pela promoção da cultura física e desportiva, escolar e popular, e ainda pelo desenvolvimento da educação sanitária do povo e de práticas de vida saudável. 3. Para assegurar o direito à protecção da saúde, incumbe prioritariamente ao Estado: a) Garantir o acesso de todos os cidadãos, independentemente da sua condição económica, aos cuidados da medicina preventiva, curativa e de reabilitação; b) Garantir uma racional e eficiente cobertura de todo o país em recursos humanos e unidades de saúde; c) Orientar a sua acção para a socialização dos custos dos cuidados médicos e medicamentosos; d) Disciplinar e fiscalizar as formas empresariais e privadas da medicina, articulando-as com o serviço nacional de saúde, por forma a assegurar, nas instituições de saúde públicas e privadas, adequados padrões de eficiência e de qualidade; e) Disciplinar e controlar a produção, a distribuição, a comercialização e o uso dos produtos químicos, biológicos e farmacêuticos e outros meios de tratamento e diagnóstico; f) Estabelecer políticas de prevenção e tratamento da toxicodependência. 4. O serviço nacional de saúde tem gestão descentralizada e participada.
Article 64 (Health) (1) Everyone has the right to the protection of health and the duty to defend and promote health. (2) The right to the protection of health shall be fulfilled: (a) By means of a universal and general national health service which, with particular regard to the economic and social conditions of the citizens who use it, shall tend to be free of charge; (b) By creating economic, social, cultural and environmental conditions that particularly guarantee the protection of childhood, youth and old age; by systematically improving living and working conditions, and promoting physical fitness and sport at school and among the people; and also by developing the people’s health and hygiene education and healthy living practices. (3) In order to ensure the right to the protection of health, the state is charged, as a priority, with: (a) Guaranteeing access by every citizen, regardless of his economic situation, to preventive, curative and rehabilitative medical care; (b) Guaranteeing a rational and efficient nationwide coverage in terms of human resources and healthcare units; (c) Working towards the socialisation of the costs of medical care and medicines; (d) Disciplining and inspecting entrepreneurial and private forms of medicine and articulating them with the national health service, in such a way as to ensure adequate standards of efficiency and quality in both public and private healthcare institutions; (e) Disciplining and controlling the production, distribution, marketing, sale and use of chemical, biological and pharmaceutical products and other means of treatment and diagnosis; (f) Establishing policies for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse. (4) Management of the national health service shall be decentralised and participatory.
Article 68.1. Everyone shall have the right to have his health protected.2. Equal access to health care services, financed from public funds, shall be ensured by public authorities to citizens, irrespective of their material situation. The conditions for, and scope of, the provision of services shall be established by statute.3. Public authorities shall ensure special health care to children, pregnant women, handicapped people and persons of advanced age.4. Public authorities shall combat epidemic illnesses and prevent the negative health consequences of degradation of the environment.5. Public authorities shall support the development of physical culture, particularly amongst children and young persons.
Art. 68.1. Każdy ma prawo do ochrony zdrowia.2. Obywatelom, niezależnie od ich sytuacji materialnej, władze publiczne zapewniają równy dostęp do świadczeń opieki zdrowotnej finansowanej ze środków publicznych. Warunki i zakres udzielania świadczeń określa ustawa.3. Władze publiczne są obowiązane do zapewnienia szczególnej opieki zdrowotnej dzieciom, kobietom ciężarnym, osobom niepełnosprawnym i osobom w podeszłym wieku.4. Władze publiczne są obowiązane do zwalczania chorób epidemicznych i zapobiegania negatywnym dla zdrowia skutkom degradacji środowiska.5. Władze publiczne popierają rozwój kultury fizycznej, zwłaszcza wśród dzieci i młodzieży.
Article 11.(5) La loi règle quant à ses principes la sécurité sociale, la protection de la santé, les droits des travailleurs, la lutte contre la pauvreté et l’intégration sociale des citoyens atteints d’un handicap. Article 23. L’Etat veille à l’organisation de l’instruction primaire, qui sera obligatoire et gratuite et dont l’accès doit être garanti à toute personne habitant le Grand-Duché. L’assistance médicale et sociale sera réglée par la loi. (...)
Article 11.(5) The law regulates as to their principles[:] social security, the protection of health, the rights of workers, [and] the struggle against poverty and social integration of citizens affected by a handicap. Article 23. The State sees to the organization of primary education, which will be obligatory and free and to which access must be guaranteed to every person inhabiting the Grand Duchy. Medical and social assistance is regulated by the law. (...)
Article 53. The State shall take care of the health of people and shall guarantee medical aid and services for a person in the event of sickness. The procedure for providing medical aid to citizens free of charge at state medical establishments shall be established by law. The State shall promote the physical culture of society and shall support sport. The State and each person must protect the environment from harmful influences.
53 straipsnis. Valstybė rūpinasi žmonių sveikata ir laiduoja medicinos pagalbą bei paslaugas žmogui susirgus. Įstatymas nustato piliečiams nemokamos medicinos pagalbos valstybinėse gydymo įstaigose teikimo tvarką. Valstybė skatina visuomenės kūno kultūrą ir remia sportą. Valstybė ir kiekvienas asmuo privalo saugoti aplinką nuo kenksmingų poveikių.
‘30. The ground of nationality should not bar access to Covenant rights, e.g. all children within a State, including those with an undocumented status, have a right to receive education and access to adequate food and affordable health care. The Covenant rights apply to everyone including non-nationals, such as refugees, asylum-seekers, stateless persons, migrant workers and victims of international trafficking, regardless of legal status and documentation.‘ ‘35. Individuals and groups of individuals must not be arbitrarily treated on account of belonging to a certain economic or social group or strata within society. A person’s social and economic situation when living in poverty or being homeless may result in pervasive discrimination, stigmatization and negative stereotyping which can lead to the refusal of, or unequal access to, the same quality of education and health care as others, as well as the denial of or unequal access to public places.‘
‘Acknowledging that the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities laid the foundation for a paradigm shift in mental health and created the momentum for deinstitutionalization and the identification of a model of care based on respect for human rights that, inter alia, addresses the global burden of obstacles in mental health, provides effective mental health and community-based services and respects the enjoyment of legal capacity on an equal basis with others,‘ ‘Reaffirming that the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health is an inclusive right, and reaffirming also the need to address issues related to health care and to the underlying determinants of health in this context, ‘ ‘Reaffirming the right of refugees and migrants to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, and underscoring the vulnerable situations that can have a negative impact on the mental health of persons on the move, ‘
6. The Assembly therefore calls on the Council of Europe member States to: ‘6.1. reduce, where appropriate, the proportion of health expenditure payable by the most disadvantaged patients and take all other necessary measures to ensure that the cost of care does not hinder access to care, including the promotion of increased use of generic drugs; 6.2. ensure the accessibility of health care facilities and health professionals throughout the territory by taking appropriate measures, having recourse where appropriate to incentive measures; 6.3. ensure the accessibility of information on the health system, including vaccination and screening programmes, and set up health education programmes, while taking account of the specific needs of the different vulnerable groups and of the requirement to reduce language barriers to a minimum; 6.4. ensure that pregnant women and children, as a particularly vulnerable group, have full access to health care and social protection, irrespective of their status; 6.5. simplify the administrative procedures required to be able to receive health care; 6.6. introduce measures to combat corruption in the health sector, in close co-operation with the Group of States against Corruption (GRECO); 6.7. dissociate their security and immigration policies from health policy, where appropriate by abolishing the obligation on health professionals to report migrants in an irregular situation; 6.8. introduce training policies for health professionals stressing the need to combat arbitrary applications, discrimination and corruption in the health sector. ‘
Article 17 General rules on material reception conditions and health care ‘1. Member States shall ensure that material reception conditions are available to applicants when they make their application for international protection. 2. Member States shall ensure that material reception conditions provide an adequate standard of living for applicants, which guarantees their subsistence and protects their physical and mental health. Member States shall ensure that that standard of living is met in the specific situation of vulnerable persons, in accordance with Article 21, as well as in relation to the situation of persons who are in detention. 3. Member States may make the provision of all or some of the material reception conditions and health care subject to the condition that applicants do not have sufficient means to have a standard of living adequate for their health and to enable their subsistence. 4. Member States may require applicants to cover or contribute to the cost of the material reception conditions and of the health care provided for in this Directive, pursuant to the provision of paragraph 3, if the applicants have sufficient resources, for example if they have been working for a reasonable period of time. If it transpires that an applicant had sufficient means to cover material reception conditions and health care at the time when those basic needs were being covered, Member States may ask the applicant for a refund. 5. Where Member States provide material reception conditions in the form of financial allowances or vouchers, the amount thereof shall be determined on the basis of the level(s) established by the Member State concerned either by law or by the practice to ensure adequate standards of living for nationals. Member States may grant less favourable treatment to applicants compared with nationals in this respect, in particular where material support is partially provided in kind or where those level(s), applied for nationals, aim to ensure a standard of living higher than that prescribed for applicants under this Directive.‘ Article 19 Health care ‘1. Member States shall ensure that applicants receive the necessary health care which shall include, at least, emergency care and essential treatment of illnesses and of serious mental disorders. 2. Member States shall provide necessary medical or other assistance to applicants who have special reception needs, including appropriate mental health care where needed.‘
Käesolevas koondaruandes esitatakse välitööde põhitulemused ja nendel põhinevad FRA arvamused.