1. Tá ag gach duine an ceart go ndéanfaidh institiúidí, comhlachtaí, oifigí agus gníomhaireachtaí an Aontais a ghnóthaí nó a gnóthaí a láimhseáil go neamhchlaon, go cóir agus laistigh de thréimhse réasúnta. 2. Folaíonn an ceart sin: (a) ceart gach duine chun éisteacht a fháil sula nglactar aon bheart leithleach i ndáil leis nó léi ar beart é a dhéanfadh dochar dó nó di; (b) ceart gach duine rochtain a fháil ar a chomhad nó a comhad, agus leasanna dlisteanacha rúndachta agus sicréideachta gairmiúla agus gnó á n-urramú ag an am céanna; (c) an oibleagáid atá ar an lucht riaracháin cúiseanna a thabhairt lena chinntí. 3. I gcomhréir leis na prionsabail ghinearálta is coiteann do dhlíthe na mBallstát, tá ag gach duine an ceart go ndéanfaidh an tAontas aon damáiste a shlánú a raibh a institiúidí nó a oifigigh ina siocair leis i bhfeidhmiú a gcuid feidhmeanna. 4. Féadfaidh gach duine scríobh chuig institiúidí an Aontais i gceann de theangacha na gConarthaí agus caithfidh sé nó sí freagra a fháil sa teanga chéanna.
Tá Airteagal 41 bunaithe ar an Aontas a bheith faoi réir smacht reachta a ndearnadh a shaintréithe a fhorbairt sa chásdlí inar cumhdaíodh an dea-riarachán inter alia mar phrionsabal ginearálta dlí (féach inter alia breithiúnas na Cúirte Breithiúnais an 31 Márta 1992, i gCás C–255/90 P, Burban  ECR I–2253, agus breithiúnais na Cúirte Céadchéime an 18 Meán Fómhair 1995 i gCás T-167/94 Nölle  ECR II–2589, agus an 9 Iúil 1999 i gCás T231/97, New Europe Consulting e.a.,  ECR II–2403). Is ón gcásdlí a eascraíonn an fhoclaíocht atá ar an gceart sin sa chéad dá mhír (breithiúnas na Cúirte Breithiúnais an 15 Deireadh Fómhair 1987, i gCás 222/86 Heylens  ECR 4097, mír 15 de na forais, breithiúnas an 18 Deireadh Fómhair 1989 i gCás 374/87 Orkem  ECR 3283, breithiúnas an 21 Samhain 1991 i gCás C–269/90, TU München  ECR I-5469, agus breithiúnais na Cúirte Céadchéime an 6 Nollaig 1994 i gCás T–450/93, Lisrestal  ECR, II–1177, an 18 Meán Fómhair 1995 i gCás T167/94 Nölle  ECR II–2589) agus is as Airteagal 296 den Chonradh ar Fheidhmiú an Aontais Eorpaigh a thagann an fhoclaíocht maidir leis an oibleagáid réasúin a lua (féach freisin an bonn dlíthiúil in Airteagal 298 den Chonradh ar Fheidhmiú an Aontais Eorpaigh chun reachtaíocht a ghlacadh ar mhaithe le riarachán Eorpach atá oscailte, éifeachtach, neamhspleách).
Atáirgeann mír 3 an ceart a ráthaítear anois le hAirteagal 340 den Chonradh ar Fheidhmiú an Aontais Eorpaigh. Atáirgeann mír 4 an ceart a ráthaítear anois le hAirteagail 20(2)(d) agus 25 den Chonradh ar Fheidhmiú an Aontais Eorpaigh. I gcomhréir le hAirteagal 52(2) den Chairt, tá na cearta sin le feidhmiú faoi na coinníollacha agus faoi na teorainneacha a shainítear sna conarthaí.
Is gné thábhachtach den cheist seo é an ceart chun leigheas éifeachtach agus ráthaítear in Airteagal 47 den Chairt seo é.
Article 36 (1) Everyone may assert, through the prescribed procedure, her rights before an independent and impartial court or, in specified cases, before another body. (2) Unless a law provides otherwise, a person who claims that her rights were curtailed by a decision of a public administrative authority may turn to a court for review of the legality of that decision. However, judicial review of decisions affecting the fundamental rights and freedoms listed in this Charter may not be removed from the jurisdiction of courts. (3) Everybody is entitled to compensation for damage caused her by an unlawful decision of a court, other State bodies, or public administrative authorities, or as the result of an incorrect official procedure. (4) Conditions therefor and detailed provisions shall be set by law.
Článek 36 (1) Každý se může domáhat stanoveným postupem svého práva u nezávislého a nestranného soudu a ve stanovených případech u jiného orgánu. (2) Kdo tvrdí, že byl na svých právech zkrácen rozhodnutím orgánu veřejné správy, může se obrátit na soud, aby přezkoumal zákonnost takového rozhodnutí, nestanoví-li zákon jinak. Z pravomoci soudu však nesmí být vyloučeno přezkoumávání rozhodnutí týkajících se základních práv a svobod podle Listiny. (3) Každý má právo na náhradu škody způsobené mu nezákonným rozhodnutím soudu, jiného státního orgánu či orgánu veřejné správy nebo nesprávným úředním postupem. (4) Podmínky a podrobnosti upravuje zákon.
Article 22 Everyone shall be guaranteed equal protection of rights in any proceeding before a court and before other state authorities, local community authorities, and bearers of public authority that decide on his rights, duties, or legal interests. Article 26 - Right to Compensation Everyone has the right to compensation for damage caused through unlawful actions in connection with the performance of any function or other activity by a person or body performing such function or activity under state authority, local community authority or as a bearer of public authority.Any person suffering damage has the right to demand, in accordance with the law, compensation also directly from the person or body that has caused damage. Article 39 - Freedom of Expression Freedom of expression of thought, freedom of speech and public appearance, of the press and other forms of public communication and expression shall be guaranteed. Everyone may freely collect, receive and disseminate information and opinions.Except in such cases as are provided by law, everyone has the right to obtain information of a public nature in which he has a well founded legal interest under law. Article 40 - Right to Correction and Reply The right to correct published information which has damaged a right or interest of an individual, organisation or body shall be guaranteed, as shall be the right to reply to such published information.
22. člen (enako varstvo pravic) Vsakomur je zagotovljeno enako varstvo njegovih pravic v postopku pred sodiščem in pred drugimi državnimi organi, organi lokalnih skupnosti in nosilci javnih pooblastil, ki odločajo o njegovih pravicah, dolžnostih ali pravnih interesih. 26. člen (pravica do povračila škode) Vsakdo ima pravico do povračila škode, ki mu jo v zvezi z opravljanjem službe ali kakšne druge dejavnosti državnega organa, organa lokalne skupnosti ali nosilca javnih pooblastil s svojim protipravnim ravnanjem stori oseba ali organ, ki tako službo ali dejavnost opravlja. Oškodovanec ima pravico, da v skladu z zakonom zahteva povračilo tudi neposredno od tistega, ki mu je škodo povzročil. 39. člen (svoboda izražanja) Zagotovljena je svoboda izražanja misli, govora in javnega nastopanja, tiska in drugih oblik javnega obveščanja in izražanja. Vsakdo lahko svobodno zbira, sprejema in širi vesti in mnenja. Vsakdo ima pravico dobiti informacijo javnega značaja, za katero ima v zakonu utemeljen pravni interes, razen v primerih, ki jih določa zakon. 40. člen (pravica do popravka in odgovora) Zagotovljena je pravica do popravka objavljenega obvestila, s katerim sta prizadeta pravica ali interes posameznika, organizacije ali organa, in prav tako je zagotovljena pravica do odgovora na objavljeno informacijo.
Article 26 (...) (5) Public authority bodies are obliged to provide information on their activities in an appropriate manner and in the State language. The conditions and manner of execution shall be laid down by law. Article 46 (...) (2) Anyone who claims to have been deprived of his rights by a decision of a public administration body may turn to the court to have the lawfulness of such decision reexamined, unless laid down by law otherwise. The reexamination of decisions concerning basic rights and freedoms may not, however, be excluded from the court's authority. (3) Everyone is entitled to compensation for damage incurred as a result of an unlawful decision by a court, or another state or public administration body, or as a result of an incorrect official procedure.(4) Conditions and details concerning judicial and other legal protection shall be laid down by law.
Čl. 26 (...) (5) Orgány verejnej moci majú povinnosť primeraným spôsobom poskytovať informácie o svojej činnosti v štátnom jazyku. Podmienky a spôsob vykonania ustanoví zákon. Čl. 46 (...) (2) Kto tvrdí, že bol na svojich právach ukrátený rozhodnutím orgánu verejnej správy, môže sa obrátiť na súd, aby preskúmal zákonnosť takéhoto rozhodnutia, ak zákon neustanoví inak. Z právomoci súdu však nesmie byť vylúčené preskúmanie rozhodnutí týkajúcich sa základných práv a slobôd. (3) Každý má právo na náhradu škody spôsobenej nezákonným rozhodnutím súdu, iného štátneho orgánu či orgánu verejnej správy alebo nesprávnym úradným postupom. (4) Podmienky a podrobnosti o súdnej a inej právnej ochrane ustanoví zákon.
Artigo 22.º (Responsabilidade das entidades públicas) O Estado e as demais entidades públicas são civilmente responsáveis, em forma solidária com os titulares dos seus órgãos, funcionários ou agentes, por acções ou omissões praticadas no exercício das suas funções e por causa desse exercício, de que resulte violação dos direitos, liberdades e garantias ou prejuízo para outrem. Artigo 266.º (Princípios fundamentais) 1. A Administração Pública visa a prossecução do interesse público, no respeito pelos direitos e interesses legalmente protegidos dos cidadãos. 2. Os órgãos e agentes administrativos estão subordinados à Constituição e à lei e devem actuar, no exercício das suas funções, com respeito pelos princípios da igualdade, da proporcionalidade, da justiça, da imparcialidade e da boa-fé. Artigo 268.º (Direitos e garantias dos administrados) 1. Os cidadãos têm o direito de ser informados pela Administração, sempre que o requeiram, sobre o andamento dos processos em que sejam directamente interessados, bem como o de conhecer as resoluções definitivas que sobre eles forem tomadas. 2. Os cidadãos têm também o direito de acesso aos arquivos e registos administrativos, sem prejuízo do disposto na lei em matérias relativas à segurança interna e externa, à investigação criminal e à intimidade das pessoas. 3. Os actos administrativos estão sujeitos a notificação aos interessados, na forma prevista na lei, e carecem de fundamentação expressa e acessível quando afectem direitos ou interesses legalmente protegidos. 4. É garantido aos administrados tutela jurisdicional efectiva dos seus direitos ou interesses legalmente protegidos, incluindo, nomeadamente, o reconhecimento desses direitos ou interesses, a impugnação de quaisquer actos administrativos que os lesem, independentemente da sua forma, a determinação da prática de actos administrativos legalmente devidos e a adopção de medidas cautelares adequadas. 5. Os cidadãos têm igualmente direito de impugnar as normas administrativas com eficácia externa lesivas dos seus direitos ou interesses legalmente protegidos. 6. Para efeitos dos n.os 1 e 2, a lei fixará um prazo máximo de resposta por parte da Administração. Artigo 271.º (Responsabilidade dos funcionários e agentes) 1. Os funcionários e agentes do Estado e das demais entidades públicas são responsáveis civil, criminal e disciplinarmente pelas acções ou omissões praticadas no exercício das suas funções e por causa desse exercício de que resulte violação dos direitos ou interesses legalmente protegidos dos cidadãos, não dependendo a acção ou procedimento, em qualquer fase, de autorização hierárquica.
Article 22 (Liability of public entities) Jointly with the officeholders of their entities and organs and their staff and agents, the state and other public entities are civilly liable for actions or omissions that are committed in or because of the exercise of their functions and result in a breach of rights, freedoms or guarantees or in a loss to others. Article 266 (Fundamental principles) 1. The Public Administration shall seek to pursue the public interest, with respect for all those citizens’ rights and interests that are protected by law. 2. Administrative organs and agents are subject to the Constitution and the law, and in the exercise of their functions must act with respect for the principles of equality, proportionality, justice, impartiality and good faith. Article 268 (Citizens’ rights and guarantees) 1. Citizens have the right to be informed by the Administration, whenever they so request, as to the progress of the procedures and cases in which they are directly interested, together with the right to be made aware of the definitive decisions that are taken in relation to them. 2. Without prejudice to the law governing matters concerning internal and external security, criminal investigation and personal privacy, citizens also have the right of access to administrative files and records. 3. Administrative acts are subject to notification of the interested parties in the form laid down by law, and when they affect rights or interests that are protected by law, must be based on express and accessible grounds. 4. Citizens are guaranteed effective jurisdictional oversight of those of their rights and interests that are protected by law, particularly including the recognition of the said rights and interests, the impugnation of any administrative act that harms their rights and interests, regardless of its form, the issue of positive decisions requiring the practice of administrative acts that are required by law, and the adoption of adequate provisional remedies. 5. Citizens also have the right to challenge administrative norms which have external force and harm those of their rights or interests that are protected by law. 6. For the purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2) the law shall lay down a maximum time limit for responses by the Administration. Article 271 (Liability of public sector staff and agents) (1) The staff and agents of the state and of other public entities are civilly and criminally liable and subject to disciplinary proceedings for their actions and omissions in the exercise of their functions, and for any such exercise that leads to a breach of those citizens’ rights or interests that are protected by law, and no phase of any action or proceedings shall be dependent on authorisation by higher authority.
Article 51.1. No one may be obliged, except on the basis of statute, to disclose information concerning his person.2. Public authorities shall not acquire, collect nor make accessible information on citizens other than that which is necessary in a democratic state ruled by law.3. Everyone shall have a right of access to official documents and data collections concerning himself. Limitations upon such rights may be established by statute.4. Everyone shall have the right to demand the correction or deletion of untrue or incomplete information, or information acquired by means contrary to statute.5. Principles and procedures for collection of and access to information shall be specified by statute.Article 61.1. A citizen shall have the right to obtain information on the activities of organs of public authority as well as persons discharging public functions. Such right shall also include receipt of information on the activities of self-governing economic or professional organs and other persons or organizational units relating to the field in which they perform the duties of public authorities and manage communal assets or property of the State Treasury.2. The right to obtain information shall ensure access to documents and entry to sittings of collective organs of public authority formed by universal elections, with the opportunity to make sound and visual recordings.3. Limitations upon the rights referred to in paras. 1 and 2 above, may be imposed by statute solely to protect freedoms and rights of other persons and economic subjects, public order, security or important economic interests of the State.4. The procedure for the provision of information, referred to in paras. 1 and 2 above shall be specified by statute, and regarding the Sejm and the Senate by their rules of procedure.Article 63 Everyone shall have the right to submit petitions, proposals and complaints in the public interest, in his own interest or in the interests of another person - with his consent - to organs of public authority, as well as to organizations and social institutions in connection with the performance of their prescribed duties within the field of public administration. The procedures for considering petitions, proposals and complaints shall be specified by statute.Article 77.1. Everyone shall have the right to compensation for any harm done to him by any action of an organ of public authority contrary to law.2. Statutes shall not bar the recourse by any person to the courts in pursuit of claims alleging infringement of freedoms or rights.
Art. 51.1. Nikt nie może być obowiązany inaczej niż na podstawie ustawy do ujawniania informacji dotyczących jego osoby. 2. Władze publiczne nie mogą pozyskiwać, gromadzić i udostępniać innych informacji o obywatelach niż niezbędne w demokratycznym państwie prawnym. 3. Każdy ma prawo dostępu do dotyczących go urzędowych dokumentów i zbiorów danych. Ograniczenie tego prawa może określić ustawa. 4. Każdy ma prawo do żądania sprostowania oraz usunięcia informacji nieprawdziwych, niepełnych lub zebranych w sposób sprzeczny z ustawą. 5. Zasady i tryb gromadzenia oraz udostępniania informacji określa ustawa. Art. 61. 1.Obywatel ma prawo do uzyskiwania informacji o działalności organów władzy publicznej oraz osób pełniących funkcje publiczne. Prawo to obejmuje również uzyskiwanie informacji o działalności organów samorządu gospodarczego i zawodowego a także innych osób oraz jednostek organizacyjnych w zakresie, w jakim wykonują one zadania władzy publicznej i gospodarują mieniem komunalnym lub majątkiem Skarbu Państwa. 2. Prawo do uzyskiwania informacji obejmuje dostęp do dokumentów oraz wstęp na posiedzenia kolegialnych organów władzy publicznej pochodzących z powszechnych wyborów, z możliwością rejestracji dźwięku lub obrazu. 3. Ograniczenie prawa, o którym mowa w ust. 1 i 2, może nastąpić wyłącznie ze względu na określone w ustawach ochronę wolności i praw innych osób i podmiotów gospodarczych oraz ochronę porządku publicznego, bezpieczeństwa lub ważnego interesu gospodarczego państwa. 4. Tryb udzielania informacji, o których mowa w ust. 1 i 2, określają ustawy, a w odniesieniu do Sejmu i Senatu ich regulaminy. Art. 63. Każdy ma prawo składać petycje, wnioski i skargi w interesie publicznym, własnym lub innej osoby za jej zgodą do organów władzy publicznej oraz do organizacji i instytucji społecznych w związku z wykonywanymi przez nie zadaniami zleconymi z zakresu administracji publicznej. Tryb rozpatrywania petycji, wniosków i skarg określa ustawa. Art. 77.1. Każdy ma prawo do wynagrodzenia szkody, jaka została mu wyrządzona przez niezgodne z prawem działanie organu władzy publicznej. 2.Ustawa nie może nikomu zamykać drogi sądowej dochodzenia naruszonych wolności lub praw.
Article 29. La loi réglera l’emploi des langues en matière administrative et judiciaire.
Article 29. The law regulates the use of languages in administrative and judicial matters.
Article 25. The citizen shall have the right to obtain any available information which concerns him from State institutions in the manner established by law. Article 30. A person whose constitutional rights or freedoms are violated shall have the right to apply to a court. Compensation for material and moral damage inflicted upon a person shall be established by law. Article 33. Citizens shall have the right to participate in the government of the State both directly and through their democratically elected representatives, as well as the right to enter into the State service of the Republic of Lithuania under equal conditions. Citizens shall be guaranteed the right to criticise the work of State institutions or their officials, and to appeal against their decisions. Persecution for criticism shall be prohibited. Citizens shall be guaranteed the right to petition; the procedure for its implementation shall be established by law.
25 straipsnis. Pilietis turi teisę įstatymo nustatyta tvarka gauti valstybės įstaigų turimą informaciją apie jį. 30 straipsnis. Asmuo, kurio konstitucinės teisės ar laisvės pažeidžiamos, turi teisę kreiptis į teismą. Asmeniui padarytos materialinės ir moralinės žalos atlyginimą nustato įstatymas. 33 straipsnis. Piliečiai turi teisę dalyvauti valdant savo šalį tiek tiesiogiai, tiek per demokratiškai išrinktus atstovus, taip pat teisę lygiomis sąlygomis stoti į Lietuvos Respublikos valstybinę tarnybą. Piliečiams laiduojama teisė kritikuoti valstybės įstaigų ar pareigūnų darbą, apskųsti jų sprendimus. Draudžiama persekioti už kritiką. Piliečiams laiduojama peticijos teisė, kurios įgyvendinimo tvarką nustato įstatymas.
104. Everyone has the right to address submissions to State or local government institutions and to receive a materially responsive reply. Everyone has the right to receive a reply in the Latvian language.
104. Ikvienam ir tiesības likumā paredzētajā veidā vērsties valsts un pašvaldību iestādēs ar iesniegumiem un saņemt atbildi pēc būtības. Ikvienam ir tiesības saņemt atbildi latviešu valodā
Art. 97. Public offices are organised according to the provisions of law, so as to ensure the efficiency and impartiality of administration. The regulations of the offices lay down the areas of competence, the duties and the responsibilities of the officials. Employment in public administration is accessed through competitive examinations, except in the cases established by law. Art. 113. The judicial safeguarding of rights and legitimate interests before the bodies of ordinary or administrative justice is always permitted against acts of the public administration. Such judicial protection may not be excluded or limited to particular kinds of appeal or for particular categories of acts. The law determines which judicial bodies are empowered to annul acts of public administration in the cases and with the consequences provided for by the law itself.
Article 57(…) (5) In the Republic of Hungary everyone may seek legal remedy, in accordance with the provisions of the law, to judicial, administrative or other official decisions, which infringe on his rights or justified interests. A law passed by a majority of two-thirds of the votes of the Members of Parliament present may impose restrictions on the right to legal remedy in the interest of, and in proportion with, adjudication of legal disputes within a reasonable period of time.
XXIV. cikk (SZABADSÁG ÉS FELELŐSSÉG) (1) Mindenkinek joga van ahhoz, hogy ügyeit a hatóságok részrehajlás nélkül, tisztességes módon és ésszerű határidőn belül intézzék. A hatóságok törvényben meghatározottak szerint kötelesek döntéseiket indokolni. (2) Mindenkinek joga van törvényben meghatározottak szerint a hatóságok által feladatuk teljesítése során neki jogellenesen okozott kár megtérítésére. XXV. cikk (SZABADSÁG ÉS FELELŐSSÉG) Mindenkinek joga van ahhoz, hogy egyedül vagy másokkal együtt, írásban kérelemmel, panasszal vagy javaslattal forduljon bármely közhatalmat gyakorló szervhez.
Article XXIV (Freedom and Responsibility) (1) Everyone shall have the right to have his or her affairs handled impartially, fairly and within a reasonable time by the authorities. Authorities shall be obliged to give the reasons for their decisions, as provided for by an Act. (2) Everyone shall have the right to compensation for any damage unlawfully caused to him or her by the authorities in the performance of their duties, as provided for by an Act. Article XXV (Freedom and Responsibility) Everyone shall have the right to submit, either individually or jointly with others, written applications, complaints or proposals to any organ exercising public power.
Article 1 - Subject matter ‘This Directive establishes minimum rules concerning the definition of criminal offences and sanctions with regard to combatting fraud and other illegal activities affecting the Union's financial interests, with a view to strengthening protection against criminal offences which affect those financial interests, in line with the acquis of the Union in this field.‘ Article 3 - Fraud affecting the Union's financial interests ‘1. Member States shall take the necessary measures to ensure that fraud affecting the Union's financial interests constitutes a criminal offence when committed intentionally. 2. For the purposes of this Directive, the following shall be regarded as fraud affecting the Union's financial interests: (a) in respect of non-procurement-related expenditure, any act or omission relating to: (i) the use or presentation of false, incorrect or incomplete statements or documents, which has as its effect the misappropriation or wrongful retention of funds or assets from the Union budget or budgets managed by the Union, or on its behalf; (ii) non-disclosure of information in violation of a specific obligation, with the same effect; or (iii) the misapplication of such funds or assets for purposes other than those for which they were originally granted; (b) in respect of procurement-related expenditure, at least when committed in order to make an unlawful gain for the perpetrator or another by causing a loss to the Union's financial interests, any act or omission relating to: (i) the use or presentation of false, incorrect or incomplete statements or documents, which has as its effect the misappropriation or wrongful retention of funds or assets from the Union budget or budgets managed by the Union, or on its behalf; (ii) non-disclosure of information in violation of a specific obligation, with the same effect; or (iii) the misapplication of such funds or assets for purposes other than those for which they were originally granted, which damages the Union's financial interests; (c) in respect of revenue other than revenue arising from VAT own resources referred to in point (d), any act or omission relating to: (i) the use or presentation of false, incorrect or incomplete statements or documents, which has as its effect the illegal diminution of the resources of the Union budget or budgets managed by the Union, or on its behalf; (ii) non-disclosure of information in violation of a specific obligation, with the same effect; or (iii) misapplication of a legally obtained benefit, with the same effect; (d) in respect of revenue arising from VAT own resources, any act or omission committed in cross-border fraudulent schemes in relation to: (i) the use or presentation of false, incorrect or incomplete VAT-related statements or documents, which has as an effect the diminution of the resources of the Union budget; (ii) non-disclosure of VAT-related information in violation of a specific obligation, with the same effect; or (iii) the presentation of correct VAT-related statements for the purposes of fraudulently disguising the non-payment or wrongful creation of rights to VAT refunds.‘
‘Recommendation 1 (on the objective and scope of the regulation to be adopted) The objective of the regulation should be to guarantee the right to good administration by means of an open, efficient and independent administration based on a European Law of Administrative Procedure. The regulation should apply to the Union's institutions, bodies, offices and agencies (‘the Union's administration’) in their relations with the public. Its scope should therefore be limited to direct administration. It should codify the fundamental principles of good administration and should regulate the procedure to be followed by the Union's administration when handling individual cases to which a natural or legal person is a party, and other situations where an individual has direct or personal contact with the Union's administration. Recommendation 2 (on the relationship between the regulation and sectoral instruments) The regulation should include a universal set of principles and should lay down a procedure applicable as a de minimis rule where no lex specialis exists. The guarantees afforded to persons in sectoral instruments must never provide less protection than those provided for in the regulation. Recommendation 3 (on the general principles which should govern the administration) The regulation should codify the following principles: - Principle of lawfulness: the Union's administration shall act in accordance with the law and apply the rules and procedures laid down in the Union's legislation. Administrative powers shall be based on, and their content shall comply with, the law. Decisions taken or measures adopted shall never be arbitrary or driven by purposes which are not based on the law or motivated by the public interest. - Principle of non-discrimination and equal treatment: the Union's administration shall avoid any unjustified discrimination between persons based on nationality, gender, race, colour, ethnic or social origin, language, religion or beliefs, political or any other opinion, disability, age, or sexual orientation. Persons who are in a similar situation shall be treated in the same manner. Differences in treatment shall only be justified by objective characteristics of the matter in question. - Principle of proportionality: the Union's administration shall take decisions affecting the rights and interests of persons only when necessary and to the extent required to achieve the aim pursued. When taking decisions, officials shall ensure a fair balance between the interests of private persons and the general interest. In particular, they shall not impose administrative or economic burdens which are excessive in relation to the expected benefit. - Principle of impartiality: the Union's administration shall be impartial and independent. It shall abstain from any arbitrary action adversely affecting persons, and from any preferential treatment on any grounds. The Union's administration shall always act in the Union's interest and for the public good. No action shall be guided by any personal (including financial), family or national interest or by political pressure. The Union's administration shall guarantee a fair balance between different types of citizens' interests (business, consumers and other). - Principle of consistency and legitimate expectations: the Union's administration shall be consistent in its own behaviour and shall follow its normal administrative practice, which shall be made public. In the event that there are legitimate grounds for departing from such normal administrative practice in individual cases, a valid statement of reasons should be given for such departure. Legitimate and reasonable expectations that persons might have in the light of the way in which the Union's administration has acted in the past shall be respected. - Principle of respect for privacy: the Union's administration shall respect the privacy of persons in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 45/2001. The Union's administration shall refrain from processing personal data for non-legitimate purposes or transmitting such data to unauthorised third parties. - Principle of fairness: this must be respected as a basic legal principle indispensable in creating a climate of confidence and predictability in relations between individuals and the administration; - Principle of transparency: the Union's administration shall be open. It shall document the administrative procedures and keep adequate records of incoming and outgoing mail, documents received and the decisions and measures taken. All contributions from advisory bodies and interested parties should be made available in the public domain. Requests for access to documents shall be dealt with in accordance with the general principles and limits laid down in Regulation (EC) No 1049/2001. - Principle of efficiency and service: actions on the part of the Union's administration shall be governed by the criteria of efficiency and public service. Members of the staff shall advise the public on the way in which a matter which comes within their remit is to be pursued. Upon receiving a request in a matter for which they are not responsible, they shall direct the person making the request to the competent service. Recommendation 4 (on the rules governing administrative decisions) Recommendation 4.1: on the initiation of the administrative procedure Administrative decisions can be taken by the Union's administration on its own initiative or at the request of an interested party. Recommendation 4.2: on the acknowledgment of receipt Requests for individual decisions shall be acknowledged in writing, with an indication of the time-limit for the adoption of the decision in question. The consequences of any failure to adopt the decision within that time-limit (administrative silence) shall be indicated. In the event of a defective request, the acknowledgment shall indicate a deadline for remedying the defect or producing any missing document. Recommendation 4.3: on the impartiality of administrative decisions No member of staff shall take part in an administrative decision in which he or she has a financial interest. Any conflict of interest shall be communicated by the member of staff concerned to his or her immediate superior, who may take the decision to exclude the member of staff concerned from the procedure, having regard to the particular circumstances of the case. An interested member of the public may request that an official be excluded from taking part in any decision which will affect that person's individual interests. The request to that effect shall be submitted in writing and shall state the grounds on which it is based. The official's immediate superior shall take a decision after hearing the official concerned. Appropriate deadlines should be set for the handling of conflicts of interest. Recommendation 4.4: on the right to be heard The rights of the defence must be respected at every stage of the procedure. If the Union's administration takes a decision that will directly affect the rights or interests of persons, the persons concerned shall be given the opportunity to express their views in writing or orally before that decision is taken, if necessary, or if they so choose, with the assistance of a person of their choice. Recommendation 4.5: on the right to have access to one's file An interested party shall be granted full access to his or her file. It should be up to the interested party to determine which non-confidential documents are relevant. Recommendation 4.6: on time-limits Administrative decisions shall be taken within a reasonable time-limit and without delay. Time-limits shall be fixed in the corresponding rule governing each specific procedure. Where no time-limit is established, it should not exceed three months from the date of the decision to initiate a proceeding if it was initiated ex officio or from the date of the request of the interested party. If no decision can be taken within that time-limit for objective reasons, such as the need to provide time for the remedying of a defective request, the complexity of the matters raised, the obligation to suspend the procedure pending the decision of a third party, etc., the person concerned shall be informed thereof and the decision shall be taken in the shortest possible time. Recommendation 4.7: on the form of administrative decisions Administrative decisions shall be in writing and shall be worded in a clear, simple and understandable manner. They shall be drafted in the language chosen by the addressee, provided that it is one of the official languages of the Union. Recommendation 4.8: on the duty to state reasons Administrative decisions must clearly state the reasons on which they are based. They shall indicate the relevant facts and their legal basis. They must contain an individual statement of reasons. If this is not possible due to the fact that a large number of persons are concerned by similar decisions, standard communications should be allowed. In that case, however, any citizen who expressly requests an individual statement of reasons should be provided with it. Recommendation 4.9: on the notification of administrative decisions Administrative decisions which affect the rights and interests of individuals shall be notified in writing to the person or persons concerned as soon as they are adopted. Recommendation 4.10: on the indication of remedies available Administrative decisions shall clearly state — where Union law so provides — that an appeal is possible, and shall describe the procedure to be followed for the submission of such appeal, as well as the name and office address of the person or department with whom the appeal must be lodged and the deadline for lodging it. Where appropriate, administrative decisions shall refer to the possibility of starting judicial proceedings and/or lodging a complaint with the European Ombudsman. Recommendation 5 (on the review and correction of own decisions) The regulation should include the possibility for the Union's administration to correct a clerical, arithmetic or similar error at any time on its own initiative or following a request by the person concerned. Provisions should be inserted regarding the rectification of administrative decisions on other grounds, clearly differentiating between the procedure to be followed for the revision of decisions adopted which affect adversely the interests of a person and those which are beneficial to that person. Recommendation 6 (on the form and publicity to be given to the regulation) The regulation should be drafted in a clear and concise manner, and should be easily understandable by the public. It should be adequately publicised in the web pages of each Union institution, body, office and agency.‘
Article 1 - Objectives and tasks ‘1. In order to step up the fight against fraud, corruption and any other illegal activity affecting the financial interests of the European Union and of the European Atomic Energy Community (hereinafter referred to collectively, when the context so requires, as ‘the Union’), the European Anti-Fraud Office established by Decision 1999/352/EC, ECSC, Euratom (‘the Office’) shall exercise the powers of investigation conferred on the Commission by: (a) the relevant Union acts; and (b) the relevant cooperation and mutual assistance agreements concluded by the Union with third countries and international organisations. [...]‘ ‘4. Within the institutions, bodies, offices and agencies established by, or on the basis of, the Treaties (‘institutions, bodies, offices and agencies’), the Office shall conduct administrative investigations for the purpose of fighting fraud, corruption and any other illegal activity affecting the financial interests of the Union. To that end, it shall investigate serious matters relating to the discharge of professional duties constituting a dereliction of the obligations of officials and other servants of the Union liable to result in disciplinary or, as the case may be, criminal proceedings, or an equivalent failure to discharge obligations on the part of members of institutions and bodies, heads of offices and agencies or staff members of institutions, bodies, offices or agencies not subject to the Staff Regulations (hereinafter collectively referred to as ‘officials, other servants, members of institutions or bodies, heads of offices or agencies, or staff members’). [...]‘