Teisė tuoktis ir kurti šeimą garantuojama pagal šios teisės įgyvendinimą reguliuojančius nacionalinius įstatymus.
Šis straipsnis grindžiamas EŽTK 12 straipsniu, kuris yra išdėstytas taip: `Vyras ir moteris, sulaukę santuokinio amžiaus, turi teisę tuoktis ir kurti šeimą pagal naudojimąsi šia teise reguliuojančius valstybės įstatymus.` Šio straipsnio tekstas buvo pakeistas pagal šių dienų reikalavimus, kad apimtų atvejus, kuriais nacionaliniuose teisės aktuose be santuokos pripažįstamos ir kitos šeimos kūrimo formos. Šiame straipsnyje nedraudžiamas ir neįvedamas vedybinio statuso suteikimas tos pačios lyties žmonių sąjungai. Taigi ši teisė yra panaši į EŽTK suteiktą teisę, tačiau jos esmė gali būti platesnė, kai tai numatyta nacionaliniuose teisės aktuose.
Article 32 (1) Parenthood and the family are under the protection of the law. Special protection is guaranteed to children and adolescents. (2) Pregnant women are guaranteed special care, protection in labor relations, and suitable labor conditions. (3) Children, whether born in or out of wedlock, enjoy equal rights. (4) It is the parents’ right to care for and bring up their children; children have the right to parental upbringing and care. Parental rights may be limited and minor children may be removed from their parents’ custody against the latters’ will only by the decision of a court on the basis of the law. (5) Parents who are raising children have the right to assistance from the state. (6) Detailed provisions shall be set by law.
Článek 32 (1) Rodičovství a rodina jsou pod ochranou zákona. Zvláštní ochrana dětí a mladistvých je zaručena. (2) Ženě v těhotenství je zaručena zvláštní péče, ochrana v pracovních vztazích a odpovídající pracovní podmínky. (3) Děti narozené v manželství i mimo ně mají stejná práva. (4) Péče o děti a jejich výchova je právem rodičů; děti mají právo na rodičovskou výchovu a péči. Práva rodičů mohou být omezena a nezletilé děti mohou být od rodičů odloučeny proti jejich vůli jen rozhodnutím soudu na základě zákona. (5) Rodiče, kteří pečují o děti, mají právo na pomoc státu. (6) Podrobnosti stanoví zákon.
See ECHR provisions of Article 12 which have been incorporated into UK law by the Human Rights Act 1998. Schedule 1 Article 12 Right to marry Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry and to found a family, according to the national laws governing the exercise of this right.
Artículo 321. El hombre y la mujer tienen derecho a contraer matrimonio con plena igualdad jurídica. 2. La ley regulará las formas de matrimonio, la edad y capacidad para contraerlo, los derechos y deberes de los cónyuges, las causas de separación y disolución y sus efectos.
Section 32 (1) Man and woman have the right to marry with full legal equality. (2) The law shall make provision for the forms of marriage, the age and capacity for concluding it, the rights and duties of the spouses, the grounds for separation and dissolution, and their effects
Article 53 Marriage is based on the equality of spouses. Marriages shall be solemnised before an empowered state authority. Marriage and the legal relations within it and the family, as well as those within an extramarital union, shall be regulated by law. The state shall protect the family, motherhood, fatherhood, children, and young people and shall create the necessary conditions for such protection. Article 54 Parents have the right and duty to maintain, educate, and raise their children. This right and duty may be revoked or restricted only for such reasons as are provided by law in order to protect the child's interests. Children born out of wedlock have the same rights as children born within it. Article 55 Everyone shall be free to decide whether to bear children. The state shall guarantee the opportunities for exercising this freedom and shall create such conditions as will enable parents to decide to bear children. Article 56 Children shall enjoy special protection and care. Children shall enjoy human rights and fundamental freedoms consistent with their age and maturity. Children shall be guaranteed special protection from economic, social, physical, mental, or other exploitation and abuse. Such protection shall be regulated by law. Children and minors who are not cared for by their parents, who have no parents or who are without proper family care shall enjoy the special protection of the state. Their position shall be regulated by law.
53. člen Zakonska zveza temelji na enakopravnosti zakoncev. Sklene se pred pristojnim državnim organom. Zakonsko zvezo in pravna razmerja v njej, v družini in v zunajzakonski skupnosti ureja zakon. Država varuje družino, materinstvo, očetovstvo, otroke in mladino ter ustvarja za to varstvo potrebne razmere.
Article 41 (1) Marriage is a unique bond between a man and a woman. The Slovak Republic broadly protects and promotes its good. Marriage parenthood and the family are under the protection of the law. (…)
Čl. 41(1) Manželstvo je jedinečný zväzok medzi mužom a ženou. Slovenská republika manželstvo všestranne chráni a napomáha jeho dobru.(...)
Articolul 48(1) Familia se întemeiaza pe casatoria liber consimtita între soti, pe egalitatea acestora si pe dreptul si îndatorirea parintilor de a asigura cresterea, educatia si instruirea copiilor. (2) Conditiile de încheiere, de desfacere si de nulitate a casatoriei se stabilesc prin lege. Casatoria religioasa poate fi celebrata numai dupa casatoria civila. (3) Copiii din afara casatoriei sunt egali în fata legii cu cei din casatorie.
Article 48(1) The family is founded on the freely consented marriage of the spouses, their full equality, as well as the right and duty of the parents to ensure the upbringing, education and instruction of their children.(2) The terms for entering into marriage dissolution and nullity of marriage shall be established by law. Religious wedding may be celebrated only after the civil marriage. (3) Children born out of wedlock are equal before the law with those born in wedlock.
Artigo 36.º (Família, casamento e filiação) 1. Todos têm o direito de constituir família e de contrair casamento em condições de plena igualdade. 2. A lei regula os requisitos e os efeitos do casamento e da sua dissolução, por morte ou divórcio, independentemente da forma de celebração. 3. Os cônjuges têm iguais direitos e deveres quanto à capacidade civil e política e à manutenção e educação dos filhos. 4. Os filhos nascidos fora do casamento não podem, por esse motivo, ser objecto de qualquer discriminação e a lei ou as repartições oficiais não podem usar designações discriminatórias relativas à filiação. 5. Os pais têm o direito e o dever de educação e manutenção dos filhos. 6. Os filhos não podem ser separados dos pais, salvo quando estes não cumpram os seus deveres fundamentais para com eles e sempre mediante decisão judicial. 7. A adopção é regulada e protegida nos termos da lei, a qual deve estabelecer formas céleres para a respectiva tramitação.
Article 36 (Family, marriage and filiation) (1) Everyone shall possess the right to found a family and to marry on terms of full equality. (2) The law shall regulate the requirements for and the effects of marriage and its dissolution by death or divorce, regardless of the form in which it was entered into. (3) Spouses shall possess equal rights and duties in relation to their civil and political capacity and to the maintenance and education of their children. (4) Children born outside wedlock shall not be the object of any discrimination for that reason, and neither the law, nor official departments or services may employ discriminatory terms in relation to their filiation. (5) Parents shall possess the right and the duty to educate and maintain their children. (6) Children shall not be separated from their parents, save when the latter do not fulfil their fundamental duties towards them, and then always by judicial order. (7) Adoption shall be regulated and protected by law, which shall lay down swift forms of completion of the necessary requirements.
Article 18 Marriage, being a union of a man and a woman, as well as the family, motherhood and parenthood, shall be placed under the protection and care of the Republic of Poland.
Art. 18Małżeństwo jako związek kobiety i mężczyzny, rodzina, macierzyństwo i rodzicielstwo znajdują się pod ochroną i opieką Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej.
Article 2(1) The Law promotes the unity and stability of the family.(…)
Article 11.(1) L’Etat garantit les droits naturels de la personne humaine et de la famille. Article 21. Le mariage civil devra toujours précéder la bénédiction nuptiale.
Article 11.(1) The State guarantees the natural rights of the human person and of the family. Article 21. Civil marriage must always precede the nuptial benediction.
‘20. Child marriage, also referred to as early marriage, is any marriage where at least one of the parties is under 18 years of age. The overwhelming majority of child marriages, both formal and informal, involve girls, although at times their spouses are also under 18 years of age. A child marriage is considered to be a form of forced marriage, given that one and/or both parties have not expressed full, free and informed consent. As a matter of respecting the child’s evolving capacities and autonomy in making decisions that affect her or his life, a marriage of a mature, capable child below 18 years of age may be allowed in exceptional circumstances, provided that the child is at least 16 years of age and that such decisions are made by a judge based on legitimate exceptional grounds defined by law and on the evidence of maturity, without deference to culture and tradition.‘ ‘23. Forced marriages are marriages in which one and/or both parties have not personally expressed their full and free consent to the union. They may be manifested in various forms, including child marriage, as indicated above, exchange or trade-off marriages (i.e. baadand baadal), servile marriages and levirate marriages (coercing a widow to marry a relative of her deceased husband). In some contexts, a forced marriage may occur when a rapist is permitted to escape criminal sanctions by marrying the victim, usually with the consent of her family. Forced marriages may occur in the context of migration in order to ensure that a girl marries within the family’s community of origin or to provide extended family members or others with documents to migrate to and/or live in a particular destination country. Forced marriages are also increasingly being used by armed groups during conflict or may be a means for a girl to escape post-conflict poverty. Forced marriage may also be defined as a marriage in which one of the parties is not permitted to end or leave it. Forced marriages often result in girls lacking personal and economic autonomy and attempting to flee or commit self-immolation or suicide to avoid or escape the marriage.‘
Preamble: ‘8. [...] The right to equal recognition before the law implies that legal capacity is a universal attribute inherent in all persons by virtue of their humanity and must be upheld for persons with disabilities on an equal basis with others. Legal capacity is indispensable for the exercise of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. It acquires a special significance for persons with disabilities when they have to make fundamental decisions regarding their health, education and work. The denial of legal capacity to persons with disabilities has, in many cases, led to their being deprived of many fundamental rights, including the right to vote, the right to marry and found a family, reproductive rights, parental rights, the right to give consent for intimate relationships and medical treatment, and the right to liberty.‘ ‘29. [...] (f) Support in decision-making must not be used as justification for limiting other fundamental rights of persons with disabilities, especially the right to vote, the right to marry, or establish a civil partnership, and found a family, reproductive rights, parental rights, the right to give consent for intimate relationships and medical treatment, and the right to liberty;‘
‘Paragraph 13. Urges all States to enact, uphold and strictly enforce laws and policies aimed at preventing and ending child, early and forced marriage and protecting those at risk and to ensure that marriage is entered into only with the informed, free and full consent of the intending spouses, to enact and strictly enforce laws concerning the minimum legal age of consent and the minimum age for marriage, to raise the minimum age for marriage, engage all relevant stakeholders, including girls, where necessary, [...]‘
‘3. Further calls upon States to strengthen their efforts to ensure the timely registration of births and marriages, especially for individuals living in rural and remote areas, including by identifying and removing all physical, administrative, procedural and any other barriers that impede access to registration and by providing, where lacking, mechanisms for the registration of customary and religious marriages;‘ ‘4. Calls upon States to enact, build awareness of, enforce and uphold laws concerning a minimum age of marriage and to progressively amend laws with lower ages of marriage and/or ages of majority;‘
Preamble: ‘(1) The free movement of workers is a fundamental freedom of Union citizens and one of the pillars of the internal market in the Union enshrined in Article 45 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Its implementation is further developed by Union law aiming to guarantee the full exercise of rights conferred on Union citizens and the members of their family. ‘Members of their family’ should be understood as having the same meaning as the term defined in point (2) of Article 2 of Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (3), which applies also to family members of frontier workers. (2) The free movement of workers is also a key element in the development of a genuine Union labour market, allowing workers to move to areas where there are labour shortages or more employment opportunities, helping more people find posts which are better suited to their skills and overcoming bottlenecks in the labour market. (3) The free movement of workers gives every citizen of the Union, irrespective of his or her place of residence, the right to move freely to another Member State in order to work there and/or to reside there for work purposes. It protects them against discrimination on grounds of nationality as regards access to employment, conditions of employment and work, in particular with regard to remuneration, dismissal, and tax and social advantages, by ensuring their equal treatment, under national law, practice and collective agreements, in comparison to nationals of that Member State. Such rights should be enjoyed without discrimination by all Union citizens exercising their right to free movement, including permanent, seasonal and frontier workers. The free movement of workers needs to be distinguished from the freedom to provide services, which includes the right of undertakings to provide services in another Member State, for which they may post their own workers to another Member State temporarily in order for them to carry out the work necessary to provide services in that Member State. (4)With respect to Union workers and members of their family exercising their right to free movement, Article 45 TFEU confers substantial rights for the exercise of this fundamental freedom, which are further specified in Regulation (EU) No 492/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council (4).‘