Violence, threats and pressures against journalists and other media actors in the European Union

A free and pluralist media is vital to the democratic functioning of the European
Union (EU) and its Member States. However, journalists and other media actors
in the EU face various challenges, including violence, threats and other forms of
pressure, both direct and indirect.

This FRA contribution to the second Annual Colloquium on Fundamental Rights presents evidence of the diverse threats encountered by journalists and media actors in the EU; outlines the legal and policy frameworks relevant to ensuring their safety; and scrutinises particular issues encountered by women, who are often targeted because of their gender. Highlighting that safety is a serious concern even within the EU, this FRA paper underlines that there is no room for complacency when it comes to protecting freedom of expression.