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UNAR (2020), Relazione sull'effettiva applicazione del principio di parità di trattamento tra le persone indipendentemente dalla razza e dall'origine etnica e sull'efficacia dei meccanismi di tutela, UNAR

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Type of publication


Geographical coverage


Area/location of interest

Not applicable - national level

Type of Institution

Human rights or equality body


Italy, Ufficio Nazionale Antidiscriminazioni Razziali a difesa delle differenze

Main Thematic Focus


Target Population

General population

Key findings

This is the annual report presented by the Antidiscrimination Office of the Italian Government (UNAR) to both the Government and the Parliament, providing an overview of the Office's activities and the results of its monitoring operations on discrimination cases and episodes. The report does not deal specifically with Islamophobia but rather with discrimination episodes perpetrated on any grounds, including religion. The report refers to 2018 data and was presented to the above-mentioned Institutions in January 2020. 4,068 episodes were reported to UNAR in 2018, compared to 3,574 of 2017. 25.4% of the episodes were reported by witnesses; 14.1% by the victims; 8.7% by associations/institutions and 51.7% were mapped directly by UNAR. As per the grounds of discriminations, 70.4% concerned cases of racial/ethnic discriminations. 411 (10.1%) episodes concerned cases of discriminations on grounds of religion/personal beliefs, compared to 354 (9.9%) cases of 2017. Out of these 411 cases, 288 concerned cases of Islamophobia. Moreover, 106 episodes of multiple discriminations were reported: out of these, 64 concerned discriminations on grounds of race/ethnic origins and religion/personal beliefs.

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

UNAR carries out its mapping activities receiving information from different sources: it free helpline; e-mail; the on-line form available at the UNAR website; ordinary mail; the daily monitoring of social media and social network. More specifically, in 2018 the primary source of information was the "Media &Web Monitoring" activity: thanks to this programme, 1,265 cases of on-line hatred and discriminations were spotted (31% of the overall amout of cases).

Sample details and representativeness

The sample is made by all the episodes mapped by UNAR using the sources described in the methodology section. As of 2018, the overall sample was 4,068 episodes.

DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.