FRA’s third large-scale survey on immigrants and the descendants of immigrants offers crucial insights into experiences of discrimination and racism. This report examines the experiences of almost 6,800 people of African descent in 13 EU Member States. Without this much needed data, racial discrimination remains invisible. FRA’s findings support developing a better understanding of the experiences of people of African descent in the EU and promote action on equality and inclusion.
In this report:
Please find below the links to the questionnaire in the different languages in which it was asked. Please always follow the source questionnaire in English available in the Downloads section above for for the overview and reading aid, instructions, routing and other details.
The 2022 survey findings do not show any progress. Compared to 2016, respondents mention higher levels of racial discrimination in all areas of life.
Overall, the 12-month prevalence of racial discrimination has risen from 24% to 34%. It has increased the most when searching for accommodation, looking for a job, at work and in education. For example, the 12-month prevalence of discrimination in the housing market has risen from 6% in 2016 to 28% in 2022.
There has been no progress when it comes to racist harassment or violence. As in 2016, 30% of respondents say they experienced racist harassment and 4% a racist attack in the five years before the survey.
Reporting of discrimination, harassment and violence remains extremely low. Most people still do not report discrimination to any official body.
The police stop less people of African descent, but over half of them still perceive their last stop as racial profiling. Covid-19 measures might have impacted the frequency of police stops.
To tackle racism and discrimination effectively, FRA calls on EU countries to:
Lastly, the European Commission should extend the EU anti-racism action plan beyond 2025.
Despite binding EU anti-discrimination legislation since 2000 and legal developments in recent years, people of African descent continue to face shocking levels of racism and discrimination across the continent.
The EU Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) conducts regular surveys to provide the EU and its Member States with reliable data on the views and experiences of immigrants and descendants of immigrants, and ethnic minorities living in the EU. The survey findings support policymakers in assessing the state of play and developing evidence-based policies to tackle racism and discrimination.
This report focuses on the experiences of people of Sub-Saharan African origin in 13 EU countries. It is part of a wider survey on immigrants and descendants of immigrants. It builds on previous FRA surveys from 2008 and 2016.
The findings will inform the European Commission’s first report on the implementation of the EU anti-racism action plan (2020-2025) and future equality assessments. It will also feed into the mid-term assessment of the EU action plan on integration and inclusion (2021-2027).
For this report, the survey collected information from almost 6 800 people of sub-Saharan African descent in 13 EU countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden).
FRA collected the data either in person or online:
An international Belgium-based survey company, Ipsos NV, collected the survey data in the 13 EU countries under the supervision of FRA staff.
FRA developed the questionnaire based on its previous surveys on immigrants and their descendants - EU MIDIS II Survey (2016), Roma and Travellers Survey (2019) and Roma Survey (2019). FRA also translated all survey materials into languages spoken in the sub-Sahan African countries covered in this report.
The fieldwork took place between October 2021 and October 2022. During this time, measures to limit the spread of Covid-19 were in place in several countries. This affected the time required for the data collection, as well as the sampling methodology used.
The countries were selected based on the size of the target population, their vulnerability, or the possibility to compare results with previous FRA surveys. Based on estimated population data, most people of sub-Saharan African origin in the EU live in these 13 countries.
The survey asked about people’s experiences of discrimination in different areas of life, including during police stops. It included questions on racist harassment and violence. It enquired about their rights awareness and integration in society.
Respondents were either born in a sub-Saharan African country (immigrants) or have at least one parent from sub-Saharan Africa (descendants of immigrants). In France, the sample also includes respondents from overseas departments and territories, and the Caribbean.
The report refers to all respondents as people of African descent.
As in the 2016 survey, respondents were identified based on their country of birth (immigrants) or the parents’ country of birth (descendants of immigrants).
For this survey, FRA used four different sampling methods to select respondents:
More information on the sampling methodology will be detailed in the Technical Report, to be published in early 2024.
The number of respondents in the 13 EU countries ranged from 419 in Italy to 579 in Germany, with an average of 519 per country.
The survey is representative of immigrants who were born in a sub-Saharan African country and of descendants of immigrants – people with at least one parent born in sub-Saharan Africa – living in the 13 countries surveyed.
However, the results in Sweden must be interpreted with caution as the potential impact of Covid-19 measures during the data collection could have affected the results.
Several factors affect the comparability of survey results: different countries and target groups selected for surveying in each wave, changes and improvements in the sampling methodology, and changes in the mode of data collection. Therefore, this report focuses on comparing selected indicators only.
Measures to reduce the spread of Covid-19 may also have affected some 2022 responses, such as those about everyday activities. In this regard, the 2022 results for Sweden (impact of Covid-19 measures) and Luxembourg (change of methodology) should be interpreted with caution, especially when comparing the 2022 results with the findings of the 2016 survey.