Article 14 - Right to education
1. Everyone has the right to education and to have access to vocational and continuing training.
2. This right includes the possibility to receive free compulsory education.
3. The freedom to found educational establishments with due respect for democratic principles and the right of parents to ensure the education and teaching of their children in conformity with their religious, philosophical and pedagogical convictions shall be respected, in accordance with the national laws governing the exercise of such freedom and right.
1. This Article is based on the common constitutional traditions of Member States and on Article 2 of the Protocol to the ECHR, which reads as follows:
"No person shall be denied the right to education. In the exercise of any functions which it assumes in relation to education and to teaching, the State shall respect the right of parents to ensure such education and teaching in conformity with their own religious and philosophical convictions."
"No person shall be denied the right to education. In the exercise of any functions which it assumes in relation to education and to teaching, the State shall respect the right of parents to ensure such education and teaching in conformity with their own religious and philosophical convictions."
It was considered useful to extend this right to vocational and continuing training (see point 15 of the Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers and Article 10 of the Social Charter) and to add the principle of free compulsory education. As it is worded, the latter principle merely implies that as regards compulsory education, each child has the possibility of attending an establishment which offers free education. It does not require all establishments which provide education, in particular private ones, to be free of charge. Nor does it exclude certain specific forms of education having to be paid for, if the State takes measures to grant financial compensation. Insofar as the Charter applies to the Union, this means that in its training policies the Union must respect free compulsory education, but this does not, of course, create new powers. Regarding the right of parents, it must be interpreted in conjunction with the provisions of Article 24.
2. Freedom to found public or private educational establishments is guaranteed as one of the aspects of freedom to conduct a business but it is limited by respect for democratic principles and is exercised in accordance with the arrangements defined by national legislation.
Artikel 23 1. Het onderwijs is een voorwerp van de aanhoudende zorg der regering. 2. Het geven van onderwijs is vrij, behoudens het toezicht van de overheid en, voor wat bij de wet aangewezen vormen van onderwijs betreft, het onderzoek naar de bekwaamheid en de zedelijkheid van hen die onderwijs geven, een en ander bij de wet te regelen. 3. Het openbaar onderwijs wordt, met eerbiediging van ieders godsdienst of levensovertuiging, bij de wet geregeld. 4. In elke gemeente wordt van overheidswege voldoend openbaar algemeen vormend lager onderwijs gegeven in een genoegzaam aantal openbare scholen. Volgens bij de wet te stellen regels kan afwijking van deze bepaling worden toegelaten, mits tot het ontvangen van zodanig onderwijs gelegenheid wordt gegeven, al dan niet in een openbare school. 5. De eisen van deugdelijkheid, aan het geheel of ten dele uit de openbare kas te bekostigen onderwijs te stellen, worden bij de wet geregeld, met inachtneming, voor zover het bijzonder onderwijs betreft, van de vrijheid van richting. 6. Deze eisen worden voor het algemeen vormend lager onderwijs zodanig geregeld, dat de deugdelijkheid van het geheel uit de openbare kas bekostigd bijzonder onderwijs en van het openbaar onderwijs even afdoende wordt gewaarborgd. Bij die regeling wordt met name de vrijheid van het bijzonder onderwijs betreffende de keuze der leermiddelen en de aanstelling der onderwijzers geëerbiedigd. 7. Het bijzonder algemeen vormend lager onderwijs, dat aan de bij de wet te stellen voorwaarden voldoet, wordt naar dezelfde maatstaf als het openbaar onderwijs uit de openbare kas bekostigd. De wet stelt de voorwaarden vast, waarop voor het bijzonder algemeen vormend middelbaar en voorbereidend hoger onderwijs bijdragen uit de openbare kas worden verleend. 8. De regering doet jaarlijks van de staat van het onderwijs verslag aan de Staten-Generaal.
Article 16 (3) The conditions under which religious instruction may be given at state schools shall be set by law. Article 26 (1) Everybody has the right to the free choice of her profession and the training for that profession, as well as the right to engage in enterprise and pursue other economic activity. Article 33 (1) Everyone has the right to education. School attendance shall be obligatory for the period specified by law. (2) Citizens have the right to free elementary and secondary school education, and, depending on particular citizens’ ability and the capability of society, also to university-level education. (3) Private schools may be established and instruction provided there only under conditions set by law; education may be provided at such schools for tuition. (4) The conditions under which citizens have the right to assistance from the state during their studies shall be set by law.
Článek 16 (...) (3) Zákon stanoví podmínky vyučování náboženství na státních školách. Článek 26 (1) Každý má právo na svobodnou volbu povolání a přípravu k němu, jakož i právo podnikat a provozovat jinou hospodářskou činnost. (...) Článek 33 (1) Každý má právo na vzdělání. Školní docházka je povinná po dobu, kterou stanoví zákon. (2) Občané mají právo na bezplatné vzdělání v základních a středních školách, podle schopností občana a možností společnosti též na vysokých školách. (3) Zřizovat jiné školy než státní a vyučovat na nich lze jen za podmínek stanovených zákonem; na takových školách se může vzdělání poskytovat za úplatu. (4) Zákon stanoví, za jakých podmínek mají občané při studiu právo na pomoc státu.
See ECHR provisions of Article 2 of the First Protocol which have been incorporated into UK law by the Human Rights Act 1998. Schedule 1, Part II, The First Protocol Article 2 Right to education
No person shall be denied the right to education. In the exercise of any functions which it assumes in relation to education and to teaching, the State shall respect the right of parents to ensure such education and teaching in conformity with their own religious and philosophical convictions.
Section 7 Duty of parents to secure education of children of compulsory school age.
The parent of every child of compulsory school age shall cause him to receive efficient full-time education suitable—
(a) to his age, ability and aptitude, and
(b) to any special educational needs he may have, either by regular attendance at school or otherwise.
Section 1 Persons to whom Part 1 applies
This Part applies to any person who is resident in England and who—
(a) has ceased to be of compulsory school age,
(b) has not reached the age of 18, and
(c) has not attained a level 3 qualification (see section 3).
Section 2 Duty to participate in education or training
(1) A person to whom this Part applies must—
(a) be participating in appropriate full-time education or training (see section 4),
(b) be participating in training in accordance with a contract of apprenticeship[F1or an apprenticeship agreement], or
(i) be in full-time occupation (see section 5), and
(ii) participate in sufficient relevant training or education in each relevant period (see sections 6 to 8).
(2)For the purposes of this Part, a person who is in full-time occupation is to be taken to be participating in sufficient relevant training or education at any particular time if—
(a) arrangements have been made (whether by means of enrolment on a course or courses, or otherwise) for the person to receive sufficient relevant training or education during the current relevant period, and
(b) where the arrangements call for the person to be participating in training or education at the time, the person is so participating.
Chapter 1 - Basic Principles of the form of government: Article 2 The personal, economic and cultural welfare of the individual shall be fundamental aims of public activity. In particular, the public institutions shall secure the right to employment, housing and education, and shall promote social care and social security, as well as favourable conditions for good health. (...) Chapter 2 - Fundamental Rights and Freedoms: Article 18 All children covered by compulsory schooling shall be entitled to a free basic education in the public education system. The public institutions shall be responsible also for the provision of higher education. The freedom of research is protected according to rules laid down in law.
1 kapitlet - Statsskickets grunder: 2 § Den enskildes personliga, ekonomiska och kulturella välfärd ska vara grundläggande mål för den offentliga verksamheten. Särskilt ska det allmänna trygga rätten till arbete, bostad och utbildning samt verka för social omsorg och trygghet och för goda förutsättningar för hälsa (...); 2 kapitlet - Grundläggande fri- och rättigheter: 18 § Alla barn som omfattas av den allmänna skolplikten har rätt till kostnadsfri grundläggande utbildning i allmän skola. Det allmänna ska svara också för att högre utbildning finns. Forskningens frihet är skyddad enligt bestämmelser som meddelas i lag.
Artículo 27 1. Todos tienen el derecho a la educación. Se reconoce la libertad de enseñanza. 2. La educación tendrá por objeto el pleno desarrollo de la personalidad humana en el respeto a los principios democráticos de convivencia y a los derechos y libertades fundamentales. 3. Los poderes públicos garantizan el derecho que asiste a los padres para que sus hijos reciban la formación religiosa y moral que esté de acuerdo con sus propias convicciones. 4. La enseñanza básica es obligatoria y gratuita. 5. Los poderes públicos garantizan el derecho de todos a la educación, mediante una programación general de la enseñanza, con participación efectiva de todos los sectores afectados y la creación de centros docentes. 6. Se reconoce a las personas físicas y jurídicas la libertad de creación de centros docentes, dentro del respeto a los principios constitucionales. 7. Los profesores, los padres y, en su caso, los alumnos intervendrán en el control y gestión de todos los centros sostenidos por la Administración con fondos públicos, en los términos que la ley establezca. 8. Los poderes públicos inspeccionarán y homologarán el sistema educativo para garantizar el cumplimiento de las leyes. 9. Los poderes públicos ayudarán a los centros docentes que reúnan los requisitos que la ley establezca. 10. Se reconoce la autonomía de las Universidades, en los términos que la ley establezca.
Section 27 (1) Everyone has the right to education. Freedom of teaching is recognized. (2) Education shall aim at the full development of human personality with due respect for the democratic principles of coexistence and for basic rights and freedoms. (3) The public authorities guarantee the right of parents to ensure that their children receive religious and moral instruction in accordance with their own convictions. (4) Elementary education is compulsory and free. (5) The public authorities guarantee the right of all to education, through general education programming, with the effective participation of all sectors concerned and the setting-up of educational centres. (6) The right of individuals and legal entities to set up educational centres is recognized, provided they respect constitutional principles. (7) Teachers, parents and, when appropriate, pupils shall participate in the control and management of all centres supported by the Administration out of public funds, under the terms established by the law. (8) The public authorities shall inspect and standardize the educational system in order to ensure compliance with the laws. (9) The public authorities shall help the educational centres which meet the requirements established by the law. (10) The autonomy of Universities is recognized, under the terms established by the law.
Article 54 Parents have the right and duty to maintain, educate and raise their children. This right and duty may be revoked or restricted only for such reasons as are provided by law in order to protect the child's interests. Children born out of wedlock have the same rights as children born within it.
Article 57 Freedom of education shall be guaranteed. Primary education is compulsory and shall be financed from public funds. The state shall create the opportunities for citizens to obtain a proper education.
Article 58 State universities and state institutions of higher education shall be autonomous. The manner of their financing shall be regulated by law.
54. člen Starši imajo pravico in dolžnost vzdrževati, izobraževati in vzgajati svoje otroke. Ta pravica in dolžnost se staršem lahko odvzame ali omeji samo iz razlogov, ki jih zaradi varovanja otrokovih koristi določa zakon. Otroci, rojeni zunaj zakonske zveze, imajo enake pravice kakor otroci, rojeni v njej.
57. člen Izobraževanje je svobodno. Osnovnošolsko izobraževanje je obvezno in se financira iz javnih sredstev. Država ustvarja možnosti, da si državljani lahko pridobijo ustrezno izobrazbo.
58. člen Državne univerze in državne visoke šole so avtonomne. Način njihovega financiranja ureja zakon.
Article 42(1) Everyone has the right to education. School attendance is compulsory. Its period and age limit shall be laid down by law. (2) Citizens have the right to free education at primary and secondary schools and, depending on their abilities and society's resources, also at higher educational establishments. (3) Schools other than state schools may be established, and teaching in them provided, only under conditions laid down by law; such schools may collect tuition fees. (4) A law shall lay down conditions under which citizens are entitled to assistance from the state in their studies.
Čl. 42 (1) Každý má právo na vzdelanie. Školská dochádzka je povinná. Jej dĺžku po vekovú hranicu ustanoví zákon. (2) Občania majú právo na bezplatné vzdelanie v základných školách a stredných školách, podľa schopností občana a možnosti spoločnosti aj na vysokých školách. (3) Zriaďovať iné školy ako štátne a vyučovať v nich možno len za podmienok ustanovených zákonom; v takýchto školách sa môže vzdelávanie poskytovať za úhradu.( 4) Zákon ustanoví, za akých podmienok majú občania pri štúdiu právo na pomoc štátu.
Articolul 32(1) Dreptul la învatatura este asigurat prin învatamântul general obligatoriu, prin învatamântul liceal si prin cel profesional, prin învatamântul superior, precum si prin alte forme de instructie si de perfectionare. (2) Învatamântul de toate gradele se desfasoara în limba româna. În conditiile legii, învatamântul se poate desfasura si într-o limba de circulatie internationala. (3) Dreptul persoanelor apartinând minoritatilor nationale de a învata limba lor materna si dreptul de a putea fi instruite în aceasta limba sunt garantate; modalitatile de exercitare a acestor drepturi se stabilesc prin lege. (4) Învatamântul de stat este gratuit, potrivit legii. Statul acorda burse sociale de studii copiilor si tinerilor proveniti din familii defavorizate si celor institutionalizati, în conditiile legii. (5) Învatamântul de toate gradele se desfasoara în unitati de stat, particulare si confesionale, în conditiile legii. (6) Autonomia universitara este garantata. (7) Statul asigura libertatea învatamântului religios, potrivit cerintelor specifice fiecarui cult. În scolile de stat, învatamântul religios este organizat si garantat prin lege.
Article 32(1) The right to education is provided by the compulsory general education, by education in high schools and vocational schools, by higher education, as well as other forms of instruction and postgraduate improvement. (2) Education at all levels shall be carried out in Romanian. Education may also be carried out in a foreign language of international use, under the terms laid down by law. (3) The right of persons belonging to national minorities to learn their mother tongue, and their right to be educated in this language are guaranteed; the ways to exercise these rights shall be regulated by law. (4) State education shall be free, according to the law. The State shall grant social scholarships to children or young people coming from disadvantaged families and to those institutionalized, as stipulated by the law. (5) Education at all levels shall take place in state, private, or confessional institutions, according to the law. (6) The autonomy of the Universities is guaranteed. (7) The State shall ensure the freedom of religious education, in accordance with the specific requirements of each religious cult. In public schools, religious education is organized and guaranteed by law.
Artigo 43.º (Liberdade de aprender e ensinar) 1. É garantida a liberdade de aprender e ensinar. 2. O Estado não pode programar a educação e a cultura segundo quaisquer directrizes filosóficas, estéticas, políticas, ideológicas ou religiosas. 3. O ensino público não será confessional. 4. É garantido o direito de criação de escolas particulares e cooperativas. Artigo 73.º (Educação, cultura e ciência) 1. Todos têm direito à educação e à cultura. 2. O Estado promove a democratização da educação e as demais condições para que a educação, realizada através da escola e de outros meios formativos, contribua para a igualdade de oportunidades, a superação das desigualdades económicas, sociais e culturais, o desenvolvimento da personalidade e do espírito de tolerância, de compreensão mútua, de solidariedade e de responsabilidade, para o progresso social e para a participação democrática na vida colectiva. 3. O Estado promove a democratização da cultura, incentivando e assegurando o acesso de todos os cidadãos à fruição e criação cultural, em colaboração com os órgãos de comunicação social, as associações e fundações de fins culturais, as colectividades de cultura e recreio, as associações de defesa do património cultural, as organizações de moradores e outros agentes culturais. 4. A criação e a investigação científicas, bem como a inovação tecnológica, são incentivadas e apoiadas pelo Estado, por forma a assegurar a respectiva liberdade e autonomia, o reforço da competitividade e a articulação entre as instituições científicas e as empresas. Artigo 74.º (Ensino) 1. Todos têm direito ao ensino com garantia do direito à igualdade de oportunidades de acesso e êxito escolar. 2. Na realização da política de ensino incumbe ao Estado: a) Assegurar o ensino básico universal, obrigatório e gratuito; b) Criar um sistema público e desenvolver o sistema geral de educação pré-escolar; c) Garantir a educação permanente e eliminar o analfabetismo; d) Garantir a todos os cidadãos, segundo as suas capacidades, o acesso aos graus mais elevados do ensino, da investigação científica e da criação artística; e) Estabelecer progressivamente a gratuitidade de todos os graus de ensino; f) Inserir as escolas nas comunidades que servem e estabelecer a interligação do ensino e das actividades económicas, sociais e culturais; g) Promover e apoiar o acesso dos cidadãos portadores de deficiência ao ensino e apoiar o ensino especial, quando necessário; h) Proteger e valorizar a língua gestual portuguesa, enquanto expressão cultural e instrumento de acesso à educação e da igualdade de oportunidades; i) Assegurar aos filhos dos emigrantes o ensino da língua portuguesa e o acesso à cultura portuguesa; j) Assegurar aos filhos dos imigrantes apoio adequado para efectivação do direito ao ensino. Artigo 75.º (Ensino público, particular e cooperativo) 1. O Estado criará uma rede de estabelecimentos públicos de ensino que cubra as necessidades de toda a população. 2. O Estado reconhece e fiscaliza o ensino particular e cooperativo, nos termos da lei. Artigo 76.º (Universidade e acesso ao ensino superior) 1. O regime de acesso à Universidade e às demai instituições do ensino superior garante a igualdade de oportunidades e a democratização do sistema de ensino, devendo ter em conta as necessidades em quadros qualificados e a elevação do nível educativo, cultural e científico do país. 2. As universidades gozam, nos termos da lei, de autonomia estatutária, científica, pedagógica, administrativa e financeira, sem prejuízo de adequada avaliação da qualidade do ensino. Artigo 77.º (Participação democrática no ensino) 1. Os professores e alunos têm o direito de participar na gestão democrática das escolas, nos termos da lei. 2. A lei regula as formas de participação das associações de professores, de alunos, de pais, das comunidades e das instituições de carácter científico na definição da política de ensino.
Article 43 (Freedom to learn and to teach) (1) The freedom to learn and to teach is guaranteed. (2) The state may not programme education and culture in accordance with any philosophical, aesthetic, political, ideological or religious directives. (3) Public education shall not be linked to a religious belief. (4) The right to create private and cooperative schools is guaranteed. Article 73 (Education, culture and science) (1) Everyone has the right to education and culture. (2) The state shall promote the democratisation of education and the other conditions needed for an education conducted at school and via other means of training to contribute to equal opportunities, the overcoming of economic, social and cultural inequalities, the development of the personality and the spirit of tolerance, mutual understanding, solidarity and responsibility, to social progress and to democratic participation in collective life. (3) In cooperation with the media, cultural associations and foundations, cultural and recreational groups, cultural heritage associations, residents’ organisations and other cultural agents, the state shall promote the democratisation of culture by encouraging and ensuring access by all citizens to cultural enjoyment and creation. (4) The state shall encourage and support scientific research and creation and technological innovation, in such a way as to ensure their freedom and autonomy, strengthen competitivity and ensure articulation between scientific institutions and enterprises. Article 74 (Education) (1) Everyone has the right to education, with the guarantee of the right to equal opportunities in access to and success in schooling. (2) In implementing the education policy, the state is charged with: (a) Ensuring universal, compulsory and free basic education; (b) Creating a public, and developing the general, preschool education system; (c) Guaranteeing permanent education and eliminating illiteracy; (d) In accordance with his capabilities, guaranteeing every citizen access to the highest levels of education, scientific research and artistic creation; (e) Progressively making all levels of education free of charge; (f) Inserting schools into the communities they serve and establishing links between education and economic, social and cultural activities; (g) Promoting and supporting disabled citizens’ access to education and supporting special education when necessary; (h) Protecting and developing Portuguese sign language, as an expression of culture and an instrument for access to education and equal opportunities; (i) Ensuring that emigrants’ children are taught the Portuguese language and enjoy access to Portuguese culture; (j) Ensuring that immigrants’ children receive adequate support in order to enable them to effectively enjoy the right to education. Article 75 (Public, private and cooperative education) (1) The state shall create a network of public education establishments that covers the needs of the whole population. (2) The state shall recognise and inspect private and cooperative education, as laid down by law. Article 76 (University and access to higher education) (1) The regime governing access to university and the other higher education institutions shall guarantee equal opportunities in and the democratisation of the education system, and must have due regard to the country’s needs for qualified staff and to raising its educational, cultural and scientific level. (2) As laid down by law and without prejudice to an adequate assessment of the quality of education, universities shall enjoy autonomy in drawing up their own by-laws and in scientific, pedagogical, administrative and financial matters. Article 77 (Democratic participation in education) (1) Teachers and students have the right to take part in the democratic management of schools, as laid down by law. (2) The law shall regulate the forms in which associations of teachers, students and parents, communities and institutions of a scientific nature participate in the definition of the education policy.
Article 70.1. Everyone shall have the right to education. Education to 18 years of age shall be compulsory. The manner of fulfilment of schooling obligations shall be specified by statute. 2. Education in public schools shall be without payment. Statutes may allow for payments for certain services provided by public institutions of higher education. 3. Parents shall have the right to choose schools other than public for their children. Citizens and institutions shall have the right to establish primary and secondary schools and institutions of higher education and educational development institutions. The conditions for establishing and operating non-public schools, the participation of public authorities in their financing, as well as the principles of educational supervision of such schools and educational development institutions, shall be specified by statute. 4. Public authorities shall ensure universal and equal access to education for citizens. To this end, they shall establish and support systems for individual financial and organizational assistance to pupils and students. The conditions for providing of such assistance shall be specified by statute. 5. The autonomy of the institutions of higher education shall be ensured in accordance with principles specified by statute.
Art. 70.1. Każdy ma prawo do nauki. Nauka do 18 roku życia jest obowiązkowa. Sposób wykonywania obowiązku szkolnego określa ustawa. 2. Nauka w szkołach publicznych jest bezpłatna. Ustawa może dopuścić świadczenie niektórych usług edukacyjnych przez publiczne szkoły wyższe za odpłatnością. 3. Rodzice mają wolność wyboru dla swoich dzieci szkół innych niż publiczne. Obywatele i instytucje mają prawo zakładania szkół podstawowych, ponadpodstawowych i wyższych oraz zakładów wychowawczych. Warunki zakładania i działalności szkół niepublicznych oraz udziału władz publicznych w ich finansowaniu, a także zasady nadzoru pedagogicznego nad szkołami i zakładami wychowawczymi, określa ustawa. 4. Władze publiczne zapewniają obywatelom powszechny i równy dostęp do wykształcenia. W tym celu tworzą i wspierają systemy indywidualnej pomocy finansowej i organizacyjnej dla uczniów i studentów. Warunki udzielania pomocy określa ustawa. 5. Zapewnia się autonomię szkół wyższych na zasadach określonych w ustawie.
HEREBY RECOMMENDS THAT MEMBER STATES:
In accordance with national and European legislation, available resources and national circumstances, and in close cooperation with all relevant stakeholders:
1. Improve access to high-quality early childhood education and care systems in line with the statements set out in the ‘Quality framework for early childhood education and care’ presented in the Annex to this Recommendation and with the 11th principle of the European Pillar of Social Rights.
2. Work towards ensuring that early childhood education and care services are accessible, affordable and inclusive. Consideration could be given to:
(a) supporting child development in a consistent way starting as early as possible by using early childhood education and care services;
(b) analysing the supply and demand from families in order to better adapt the offer of early childhood education and care services to their needs, respecting parental choice;
(c) analysing and addressing the barriers that families might encounter when accessing and using early childhood education and care services, such as costs, poverty-related barriers, geographical location, inflexible opening hours, barriers related to inadequate provisions for children with special needs, cultural and linguistic barriers, discrimination as well as a lack of information;
(d) establishing contact and cooperation with families and especially those in a vulnerable or disadvantaged situation, in order to inform them about the possibilities and benefits of early childhood education and care participation and, where relevant, about available support, and build trust in the services and encourage participation from an early age;
(e) ensuring that all families who want to make use of early childhood education and care services have access to affordable high-quality early childhood education and care, ideally by working at the appropriate governance level towards a right to an early childhood education and care place of high quality;
(f) providing inclusive early childhood education and care services for all children, including children with diverse backgrounds and special educational needs, including disabilities, avoiding segregation and incentivising their participation, regardless of the labour market status of their parents or carers;
(g) supporting all children to learn the language of education while also taking into account and respecting their first language;
(h) strengthening preventive actions, early identification of difficulties and adequate provisions for children with special needs and their families, involving all relevant actors, e.g. educational, social or health services as well as parents.
(35) Children who are suspects or accused persons in criminal proceedings should have the right to an individual assessment to identify their specific needs in terms of protection, education, training and social integration, to determine if and to what extent they would need special measures during the criminal proceedings, the extent of their criminal responsibility and the appropriateness of a particular penalty or educative measure.
(35) This Directive respects the fundamental rights and observes the principles recognised in particular by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. In particular, this Directive seeks to ensure full respect for human dignity and to promote the application of Articles 1, 4, 6, 7, 18, 21, 24 and 47 of the Charter and has to be implemented accordingly.
‘Access to education
1.3. Take effective measures to ensure equal treatment and full access for Roma boys and girls to quality and mainstream education and to ensure that all Roma pupils complete at least compulsory education (6). This goal could be attained by means of measures such as measures:
(a) eliminating any school segregation;
(b) putting an end to any inappropriate placement of Roma pupils in special needs schools;
(c) reducing early school leaving (7) throughout all levels of education, including at secondary level and vocational training;
(d) increasing the access to, and quality of, early childhood education and care, including targeted support, as necessary;
(e) considering the needs of individual pupils and addressing those accordingly, in close cooperation with their families;
(f) using inclusive and tailor-made teaching and learning methods, including learning support for struggling learners and measures to fight illiteracy, and promoting the availability and use of extracurricular activities;
(g) encouraging greater parental involvement and improving teacher training, where relevant;
(h) encouraging Roma participation in and completion of secondary and tertiary education;
(i) widening access to second-chance education and adult learning, and providing support for the transition between educational levels and support for the acquisition of skills that are adapted to the needs of the labour market.‘
‘6. While the precise and appropriate application of the terms will depend upon the conditions prevailing in a particular State party, education in all its forms and at all levels shall exhibit the following interrelated and essential features:
(a) Availability - functioning educational institutions and programmes have to be available in sufficient quantity within the jurisdiction of the State party. What they require to function depends upon numerous factors, including the developmental context within which they operate; for example, all institutions and programmes are likely to require buildings or other protection from the elements, sanitation facilities for both sexes, safe drinking water, trained teachers receiving domestically competitive salaries, teaching materials, and so on; while some will also require facilities such as a library, computer facilities and information technology;
(b) Accessibility - educational institutions and programmes have to be accessible to everyone, without discrimination, within the jurisdiction of the State party. Accessibility has three overlapping dimensions:
(i) Non-discrimination - education must be accessible to all, especially the most vulnerable groups, in law and fact, without discrimination on any of the prohibited grounds (see paras. 31-37 on non-discrimination);
(ii) Physical accessibility - education has to be within safe physical reach, either by attendance at some reasonably convenient geographic location (e.g. a neighbourhood school) or via modern technology (e.g. access to a "distance learning" programme);
(iii) Economic accessibility - education has to be affordable to all. This dimension of accessibility is subject to the differential wording of article 13 (2) in relation to primary, secondary and higher education: whereas primary education shall be available "free to all", States parties are required to progressively introduce free secondary and higher education;
(c) Acceptability - the form and substance of education, including curricula and teaching methods, have to be acceptable (e.g. relevant, culturally appropriate and of good quality) to students and, in appropriate cases, parents; this is subject to the educational objectives required by article 13 (1) and such minimum educational standards as may be approved by the State (see art. 13 (3) and (4));
(d) Adaptability - education has to be flexible so it can adapt to the needs of changing societies and communities and respond to the needs of students within their diverse social and cultural settings. [...]‘
‘21. The increased role and impact of private actors in traditionally public sectors, such as the health or education sector, pose new challenges for States parties in complying with their obligations under the Covenant. Privatization is not per se prohibited by the Covenant, even in areas such as the provision of water or electricity, education or health care where the role of the public sector has traditionally been strong. Private providers should, however, be subject to strict regulations that impose on them so-called “public service obligations”: in the provision of water or electricity, this may include requirements concerning universality of coverage and continuity of service, pricing policies, quality requirements, and user participation. Similarly, private health-care providers should be prohibited from denying access to affordable and adequate services, treatments or information. For instance, where health practitioners are allowed to invoke conscientious objection to refuse to provide certain sexual and reproductive health services, including abortion, they should refer the women or girls seeking such services to another practitioner within reasonable geographical reach who is willing to provide such services.‘
‘22. The Committee is particularly concerned that goods and services that are necessary for the enjoyment of basic economic, social and cultural rights may become less affordable as a result of such goods and services being provided by the private sector, or that quality may be sacrificed for the sake of increasing profits. The provision by private actors of goods and services essential for the enjoyment of Covenant rights should not lead the enjoyment of Covenant rights to be made conditional on the ability to pay, which would create new forms of socioeconomic segregation. The privatization of education illustrates such a risk, where private educational institutions lead to high-quality education being made a privilege affordable only to the wealthiest segments of society, or where such institutions are insufficiently regulated, providing a form of education that does not meet minimum educational standards while giving a convenient excuse for States parties not to discharge their own duties towards the fulfilment of the right to education. Nor should privatization result in excluding certain groups that historically have been marginalized, such as persons with disabilities. States thus retain at all times the obligation to regulate private actors to ensure that the services they provide are accessible to all, are adequate, are regularly assessed in order to meet the changing needs of the public and are adapted to those needs. Since privatization of the delivery of goods or services essential to the enjoyment of Covenant rights may result in a lack of accountability, measures should be adopted to ensure the right of individuals to participate in assessing the adequacy of the provision of such goods and services.‘