Article 21 - Non-discrimination
1. Any discrimination based on any ground such as sex, race, colour, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, birth, disability, age or sexual orientation shall be prohibited.
2. Within the scope of application of the Treaties and without prejudice to any of their specific provisions, any discrimination on grounds of nationality shall be prohibited.
Paragraph 1 draws on Article 13 of the EC Treaty, now replaced by Article 19 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Article 14 of the ECHR and Article 11 of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine as regards genetic heritage. In so far as this corresponds to Article 14 of the ECHR, it applies in compliance with it.
There is no contradiction or incompatibility between paragraph 1 and Article 19 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union which has a different scope and purpose: Article 19 confers power on the Union to adopt legislative acts, including harmonisation of the Member States' laws and regulations, to combat certain forms of discrimination, listed exhaustively in that Article. Such legislation may cover action of Member State authorities (as well as relations between private individuals) in any area within the limits of the Union's powers. In contrast, the provision in Article 21(1) does not create any power to enact anti-discrimination laws in these areas of Member State or private action, nor does it lay down a sweeping ban of discrimination in such wide-ranging areas. Instead, it only addresses discriminations by the institutions and bodies of the Union themselves, when exercising powers conferred under the Treaties, and by Member States only when they are implementing Union law. Paragraph 1 therefore does not alter the extent of powers granted under Article 19 nor the interpretation given to that Article.
Paragraph 2 corresponds to the first paragraph of Article 18 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and must be applied in compliance with that Article.
Preambule : Alzo Wij in overweging genomen hebben, dat het wenselijk is om, mede in verband met artikel 1 van de Grondwet, ter bevordering van de deelneming op gelijke voet aan het maatschappelijk leven bescherming te bieden tegen discriminatie op grond van godsdienst, levensovertuiging, politieke gezindheid, ras, geslacht, nationaliteit, hetero- of homoseksuele gerichtheid of burgerlijke staat, dat het daarom wenselijk is behoudens wettelijke uitzonderingen onderscheid op deze gronden te verbieden en dat het in verband met de handhaving van dit verbod wenselijk is een Commissie gelijke behandeling in te stellen;
Artikel 1 Allen die zich in Nederland bevinden, worden in gelijke gevallen gelijk behandeld. Discriminatie wegens godsdienst, levensovertuiging, politieke gezindheid, ras, geslacht of op welke grond dan ook, is niet toegestaan.
Article 3 (1) Everyone is guaranteed the enjoyment of her fundamental rights and basic freedoms without regard to gender, race, colour of skin, language, faith and religion, political or other conviction, national or social origin, membership in a national or ethnic minority, property, birth, or other status.
Článek 3 (1) Základní práva a svobody se zaručují všem bez rozdílu pohlaví, rasy, barvy pleti, jazyka, víry a náboženství, politického či jiného smýšlení, národního nebo sociálního původu, příslušnosti k národnostní nebo etnické menšině, majetku, rodu nebo jiného postavení. (...)
An Act to make provision for the establishment of the Commission for Equality and Human Rights; to dissolve the Equal Opportunities Commission, the Commission for Racial Equality and the Disability Rights Commission; to make provision about discrimination on grounds of religion or belief; to enable provision to be made about discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation; to impose duties relating to sex discrimination on persons performing public functions; to amend the Disability Discrimination Act 1995; and for connected purposes.
Section 13 Direct discrimination
(1) A person (A) discriminates against another (B) if, because of a protected characteristic, A treats B less favourably than A treats or would treat others.
(2) If the protected characteristic is age, A does not discriminate against B if A can show A's treatment of B to be a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim.
(3) If the protected characteristic is disability, and B is not a disabled person, A does not discriminate against B only because A treats or would treat disabled persons more favourably than A treats B.
(4)If the protected characteristic is marriage and civil partnership, this section applies to a contravention of Part 5 (work) only if the treatment is because it is B who is married or a civil partner.
(5) If the protected characteristic is race, less favourable treatment includes segregating B from others.
(6) If the protected characteristic is sex—
(a) less favourable treatment of a woman includes less favourable treatment of her because she is breast-feeding;
(b) in a case where B is a man, no account is to be taken of special treatment afforded to a woman in connection with pregnancy or childbirth.
(7) Subsection (6)(a) does not apply for the purposes of Part 5 (work).
(8) This section is subject to sections 17(6) and 18(7).
Section 19 Indirect discrimination
(1)A person (A) discriminates against another (B) if A applies to B a provision, criterion or practice which is discriminatory in relation to a relevant protected characteristic of B's.
(2) For the purposes of subsection (1), a provision, criterion or practice is discriminatory in relation to a relevant protected characteristic of B's if—
(a) A applies, or would apply, it to persons with whom B does not share the characteristic,
(b) it puts, or would put, persons with whom B shares the characteristic at a particular disadvantage when compared with persons with whom B does not share it,
(c) it puts, or would put, B at that disadvantage, and
(d) A cannot show it to be a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim.
(3) The relevant protected characteristics are—
marriage and civil partnership;
religion or belief;
See ECHR provisions of Article 14 which have been incorporated into UK law by the Human Rights Act 1998.. Schdule 1, Article 14 Prohibition of discrimination
The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status.
Chapter 1 - Basic principles of the form of government: Article 2. Public power shall be exercised with respect for the equal worth of all and the liberty and dignity of the individual. (…) The public institutions shall promote the opportunity for all to attain participation and equality in society and for the rights of the child to be safeguarded. The public institutions shall combat discrimination of persons on grounds of gender, colour, national or ethnic origin, linguistic or religious affiliation, functional disability, sexual orientation, age or other circumstance affecting the individual. The opportunities of the Sami people and ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities to preserve and develop a cultural and social life of their own shall be promoted; Article 9 Courts of law, administrative authorities and others performing public administration functions shall pay regard in their work to the equality of all before the law and shall observe objectivity and impartiality. Chapter 2 - Fundamental rights and freedoms: Article 12 No act of law or other provision may imply the unfavourable treatment of anyone because they belong to a minority group by reason of ethnic origin, colour, or other similar circumstances or on account of their sexual orientation; Article 13 No act of law or other provision may imply the unfavourable treatment of anyone on grounds of gender, unless the provision forms part of efforts to promote equality between men and women or relates to compulsory military service or other equivalent official duties.
1 kapitlet - Statsskickets grunder: 2 § Den offentliga makten ska utövas med respekt för alla människors lika värde och för den enskilda människans frihet och värdighet. (…) Det allmänna ska verka för att alla människor ska kunna uppnå delaktighet och jämlikhet i samhället och för att barns rätt tas till vara. Det allmänna ska motverka diskriminering av människor på grund av kön, hudfärg, nationellt eller etniskt ursprung, språklig eller religiös tillhörighet, funktionshinder, sexuell läggning, ålder eller andra omständigheter som gäller den enskilde som person. Samiska folkets och etniska, språkliga och religiösa minoriteters möjligheter att behålla och utveckla ett eget kultur- och samfundsliv ska främjas; 9 § Domstolar samt förvaltningsmyndigheter och andra som fullgör offentliga förvaltningsuppgifter ska i sin verksamhet beakta allas likhet inför lagen samt iaktta saklighet och opartiskhet. 2 kapitlet - Grundläggande fri- och rättigheter: 12 § Lag eller annan föreskrift får inte innebära att någon missgynnas därför att han eller hon tillhör en minoritet med hänsyn till etniskt ursprung, hudfärg eller annat liknande förhållande eller med hänsyn till sexuell läggning; 13 § Lag eller annan föreskrift får inte innebära att någon missgynnas på grund av sitt kön, om inte föreskriften utgör ett led i strävanden att åstadkomma jämställdhet mellan män och kvinnor eller avser värnplikt eller motsvarande tjänsteplikt.
Artículo 14 Los españoles son iguales ante la ley, sin que pueda prevalecer discriminación alguna por razón de nacimiento, raza, sexo, religión, opinión o cualquier otra condición o circunstancia personal o social.
Section 14 Spaniards are equal before the law and may not in any way be discriminated against on account of birth, race, sex, religion, opinion or any other personal or social condition or circumstance.
Article 14 In Slovenia everyone shall be guaranteed equal human rights and fundamental freedoms irrespective of national origin, race, sex, language, religion, political or other conviction, material standing, birth, education, social status, disability or any other personal circumstance. All are equal before the law.
14. člen V Sloveniji so vsakomur zagotovljene enake človekove pravice in temeljne svoboščine, ne glede na narodnost, raso spol, jezik, vero, politično ali drugo prepričanje, gmotno stanje, rojstvo, izobrazbo, družbeni položaj, invalidnost ali katerokoli drugo osebno okoliščino.
§ 1 Scope This Act provides for the application of the principle of equal treatment and lays down the means of legal protection in a case of violation of this principle. § 2 Basic provisions (1) Adherence to the principle of equal treatment shall lay in the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sex, religion or belief, race, nationality or ethnic origin, disability, age, sexual orientation, marital or family status, colour, language, political affiliation or other conviction, national or social origin, property, lineage or any other status. (2) While adhering to the principle of equal treatment, observance shall also be paid to good morals for the purpose of broadening of protection against discrimination. (3) Adherence to the principle of equal treatment shall also rest in adoption of measures for the protection against discrimination.
Article 12 (...) (2) Basic rights and freedoms on the territory of the Slovak Republic are guaranteed to everyone regardless of sex, race, color of skin, language, faith and religion, political, or other thoughts, national or social origin, belonging to a national minority or an ethnic group, property, gender, or any other status. No one may be harmed, preferred, or discriminated against on these grounds. (...)
Čl. 12 (...) (2) Základné práva a slobody sa zaručujú na území Slovenskej republiky všetkým bez ohľadu na pohlavie, rasu, farbu pleti, jazyk, vieru a náboženstvo, politické, či iné zmýšľanie, národný alebo sociálny pôvod, príslušnosť k národnosti alebo etnickej skupine, majetok, rod alebo iné postavenie. Nikoho nemožno z týchto dôvodov poškodzovať, zvýhodňovať alebo znevýhodňovať. (...)
Articolul 4 (...) (2) România este patria comuna si indivizibila a tuturor cetatenilor sai, fara deosebire de rasa, de nationalitate, de origine etnica, de limba, de religie, de sex, de opinie, de apartenenta politica, de avere sau de origine sociala.
Article 4 (...) (2) Romania is the common and indivisible homeland of all its citizens, without any discrimination on account of race, nationality, ethnic origin, language, religion, sex, opinion, political adherence, property or social origin.
Artigo 13.º (Princípio da igualdade) 1. Todos os cidadãos têm a mesma dignidade social e são iguais perante a lei. 2. Ninguém pode ser privilegiado, beneficiado, prejudicado, privado de qualquer direito ou isento de qualquer dever em razão de ascendência, sexo, raça, língua, território de origem, religião, convicções políticas ou ideológicas, instrução, situação económica, condição social ou orientação sexual.
Article 13 (Principle of equality) (1) All citizens possess the same social dignity and are equal before the law. (2) No one may be privileged, favoured, prejudiced, deprived of any right or exempted from any duty for reasons of ancestry, sex, race, language, territory of origin, religion, political or ideological beliefs, education, economic situation, social circumstances or sexual orientation.
Article 10 Processing of special categories of personal data
‘Processing of personal data revealing racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, or trade union membership, and the processing of genetic data, biometric data for the purpose of uniquely identifying a natural person, data concerning health or data concerning a natural person's sex life or sexual orientation shall be allowed only where strictly necessary, subject to appropriate safeguards for the rights and freedoms of the data subject, and only:
(a) where authorised by Union or Member State law;
(b) to protect the vital interests of the data subject or of another natural person; or
(c) where such processing relates to data which are manifestly made public by the data subject.‘
Article 4 - Bodies to promote equal treatment and to support Union workers and members of their family
‘1. Each Member State shall designate one or more structures or bodies (‘bodies’) for the promotion, analysis, monitoring and support of equal treatment of Union workers and members of their family without discrimination on grounds of nationality, unjustified restrictions or obstacles to their right to free movement and shall make the necessary arrangements for the proper functioning of such bodies. Those bodies may form part of existing bodies at national level which have similar objectives. [...]‘
‘(7) Equality between women and men is one of the Union's founding values. Unequal treatment between women and men violates fundamental rights. Moreover, the promotion of equality between women and men also contributes to achieving the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy. The objective of promoting equality between women and men should be implemented in a mutually reinforcing manner with other Union or Member States activities that have the same objective, in particular with those referred to in the European Pact for gender equality for the period 2011 to 2020.
(8) Discrimination on the ground of sex includes, in line with the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union, discrimination arising from gender reassignment. In the implementation of the Programme, regard should also be had to developments in Union law and in the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union with regard to further gender related aspects, including gender identity.
(9) The right to be treated with dignity in the workplace and society in general is an expression of the founding values of the Union and coordinated action is necessary to permit targeted activities in relation to the employment market. Therefore, actions in the area of gender equality and non-discrimination should include promoting equality between women and men and combating discrimination in the workplace and the employment market.‘
‘24. Article 5 of the Convention enshrines the obligation of States parties to prohibit and eliminate racial discrimination and to guarantee the right of everyone, without distinction as to race, colour, or national or ethnic origin, to equality before the law, notably in the enjoyment of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, including the rights to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, freedom of opinion and expression, and freedom of peaceful assembly and association.‘
‘25. The Committee considers that the expression of ideas and opinions made in the context of academic debates, political engagement or similar activity, and without incitement to hatred, contempt, violence or discrimination, should be regarded as legitimate exercises of the right to freedom of expression, even when such ideas are controversial.‘
‘26. In addition to its inclusion in article 5, freedom of opinion and expression is recognized as a fundamental right in a broad range of international instruments, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which affirm that everyone has the right to hold opinions and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds through any media and regardless of frontiers. The right to freedom of expression is not unlimited but carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but only if they are provided by law and are necessary for protection of the rights or reputations of others and for the protection of national security or of public order, or of public health or morals. Freedom of expression should not aim at the destruction of the rights and freedoms of others, including the right to equality and non-discrimination.‘
‘6. Emphasizes that the prohibition of discrimination against women on grounds of sex, pregnancy, maternity, parenthood or care work should be enforced for all women in all areas of work, including in the informal sector;
7. Requests States to take measures to overcome the barriers to women’s economic opportunities resulting from maternity and the disproportionate burden of unpaid care work in order to permit choice by women and men as to how they allocate work and family duties and in order to enable the complementarity of work and family between women and men;
8. Urges States to take measures to reduce informal work for women, with a focus on female participation in economic life and by increasing women’s economic opportunities, particularly in formal employment, in order to promote gender equality; [...]‘