Article 21 - Non-discrimination
1. Any discrimination based on any ground such as sex, race, colour, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, birth, disability, age or sexual orientation shall be prohibited.
2. Within the scope of application of the Treaties and without prejudice to any of their specific provisions, any discrimination on grounds of nationality shall be prohibited.
Paragraph 1 draws on Article 13 of the EC Treaty, now replaced by Article 19 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Article 14 of the ECHR and Article 11 of the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine as regards genetic heritage. In so far as this corresponds to Article 14 of the ECHR, it applies in compliance with it.
There is no contradiction or incompatibility between paragraph 1 and Article 19 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union which has a different scope and purpose: Article 19 confers power on the Union to adopt legislative acts, including harmonisation of the Member States' laws and regulations, to combat certain forms of discrimination, listed exhaustively in that Article. Such legislation may cover action of Member State authorities (as well as relations between private individuals) in any area within the limits of the Union's powers. In contrast, the provision in Article 21(1) does not create any power to enact anti-discrimination laws in these areas of Member State or private action, nor does it lay down a sweeping ban of discrimination in such wide-ranging areas. Instead, it only addresses discriminations by the institutions and bodies of the Union themselves, when exercising powers conferred under the Treaties, and by Member States only when they are implementing Union law. Paragraph 1 therefore does not alter the extent of powers granted under Article 19 nor the interpretation given to that Article.
Paragraph 2 corresponds to the first paragraph of Article 18 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and must be applied in compliance with that Article.
Preambule : Alzo Wij in overweging genomen hebben, dat het wenselijk is om, mede in verband met artikel 1 van de Grondwet, ter bevordering van de deelneming op gelijke voet aan het maatschappelijk leven bescherming te bieden tegen discriminatie op grond van godsdienst, levensovertuiging, politieke gezindheid, ras, geslacht, nationaliteit, hetero- of homoseksuele gerichtheid of burgerlijke staat, dat het daarom wenselijk is behoudens wettelijke uitzonderingen onderscheid op deze gronden te verbieden en dat het in verband met de handhaving van dit verbod wenselijk is een Commissie gelijke behandeling in te stellen;
Artikel 1 Allen die zich in Nederland bevinden, worden in gelijke gevallen gelijk behandeld. Discriminatie wegens godsdienst, levensovertuiging, politieke gezindheid, ras, geslacht of op welke grond dan ook, is niet toegestaan.
Article 3 (1) Everyone is guaranteed the enjoyment of her fundamental rights and basic freedoms without regard to gender, race, colour of skin, language, faith and religion, political or other conviction, national or social origin, membership in a national or ethnic minority, property, birth, or other status.
Článek 3 (1) Základní práva a svobody se zaručují všem bez rozdílu pohlaví, rasy, barvy pleti, jazyka, víry a náboženství, politického či jiného smýšlení, národního nebo sociálního původu, příslušnosti k národnostní nebo etnické menšině, majetku, rodu nebo jiného postavení. (...)
An Act to make provision for the establishment of the Commission for Equality and Human Rights; to dissolve the Equal Opportunities Commission, the Commission for Racial Equality and the Disability Rights Commission; to make provision about discrimination on grounds of religion or belief; to enable provision to be made about discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation; to impose duties relating to sex discrimination on persons performing public functions; to amend the Disability Discrimination Act 1995; and for connected purposes.
Section 13 Direct discrimination
(1) A person (A) discriminates against another (B) if, because of a protected characteristic, A treats B less favourably than A treats or would treat others.
(2) If the protected characteristic is age, A does not discriminate against B if A can show A's treatment of B to be a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim.
(3) If the protected characteristic is disability, and B is not a disabled person, A does not discriminate against B only because A treats or would treat disabled persons more favourably than A treats B.
(4)If the protected characteristic is marriage and civil partnership, this section applies to a contravention of Part 5 (work) only if the treatment is because it is B who is married or a civil partner.
(5) If the protected characteristic is race, less favourable treatment includes segregating B from others.
(6) If the protected characteristic is sex—
(a) less favourable treatment of a woman includes less favourable treatment of her because she is breast-feeding;
(b) in a case where B is a man, no account is to be taken of special treatment afforded to a woman in connection with pregnancy or childbirth.
(7) Subsection (6)(a) does not apply for the purposes of Part 5 (work).
(8) This section is subject to sections 17(6) and 18(7).
Section 19 Indirect discrimination
(1)A person (A) discriminates against another (B) if A applies to B a provision, criterion or practice which is discriminatory in relation to a relevant protected characteristic of B's.
(2) For the purposes of subsection (1), a provision, criterion or practice is discriminatory in relation to a relevant protected characteristic of B's if—
(a) A applies, or would apply, it to persons with whom B does not share the characteristic,
(b) it puts, or would put, persons with whom B shares the characteristic at a particular disadvantage when compared with persons with whom B does not share it,
(c) it puts, or would put, B at that disadvantage, and
(d) A cannot show it to be a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim.
(3) The relevant protected characteristics are—
marriage and civil partnership;
religion or belief;
See ECHR provisions of Article 14 which have been incorporated into UK law by the Human Rights Act 1998.. Schdule 1, Article 14 Prohibition of discrimination
The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status.
Chapter 1 - Basic principles of the form of government: Article 2. Public power shall be exercised with respect for the equal worth of all and the liberty and dignity of the individual. (…) The public institutions shall promote the opportunity for all to attain participation and equality in society and for the rights of the child to be safeguarded. The public institutions shall combat discrimination of persons on grounds of gender, colour, national or ethnic origin, linguistic or religious affiliation, functional disability, sexual orientation, age or other circumstance affecting the individual. The opportunities of the Sami people and ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities to preserve and develop a cultural and social life of their own shall be promoted; Article 9 Courts of law, administrative authorities and others performing public administration functions shall pay regard in their work to the equality of all before the law and shall observe objectivity and impartiality. Chapter 2 - Fundamental rights and freedoms: Article 12 No act of law or other provision may imply the unfavourable treatment of anyone because they belong to a minority group by reason of ethnic origin, colour, or other similar circumstances or on account of their sexual orientation; Article 13 No act of law or other provision may imply the unfavourable treatment of anyone on grounds of gender, unless the provision forms part of efforts to promote equality between men and women or relates to compulsory military service or other equivalent official duties.
1 kapitlet - Statsskickets grunder: 2 § Den offentliga makten ska utövas med respekt för alla människors lika värde och för den enskilda människans frihet och värdighet. (…) Det allmänna ska verka för att alla människor ska kunna uppnå delaktighet och jämlikhet i samhället och för att barns rätt tas till vara. Det allmänna ska motverka diskriminering av människor på grund av kön, hudfärg, nationellt eller etniskt ursprung, språklig eller religiös tillhörighet, funktionshinder, sexuell läggning, ålder eller andra omständigheter som gäller den enskilde som person. Samiska folkets och etniska, språkliga och religiösa minoriteters möjligheter att behålla och utveckla ett eget kultur- och samfundsliv ska främjas; 9 § Domstolar samt förvaltningsmyndigheter och andra som fullgör offentliga förvaltningsuppgifter ska i sin verksamhet beakta allas likhet inför lagen samt iaktta saklighet och opartiskhet. 2 kapitlet - Grundläggande fri- och rättigheter: 12 § Lag eller annan föreskrift får inte innebära att någon missgynnas därför att han eller hon tillhör en minoritet med hänsyn till etniskt ursprung, hudfärg eller annat liknande förhållande eller med hänsyn till sexuell läggning; 13 § Lag eller annan föreskrift får inte innebära att någon missgynnas på grund av sitt kön, om inte föreskriften utgör ett led i strävanden att åstadkomma jämställdhet mellan män och kvinnor eller avser värnplikt eller motsvarande tjänsteplikt.
Artículo 14 Los españoles son iguales ante la ley, sin que pueda prevalecer discriminación alguna por razón de nacimiento, raza, sexo, religión, opinión o cualquier otra condición o circunstancia personal o social.
Section 14 Spaniards are equal before the law and may not in any way be discriminated against on account of birth, race, sex, religion, opinion or any other personal or social condition or circumstance.
Article 14 In Slovenia everyone shall be guaranteed equal human rights and fundamental freedoms irrespective of national origin, race, sex, language, religion, political or other conviction, material standing, birth, education, social status, disability or any other personal circumstance. All are equal before the law.
14. člen V Sloveniji so vsakomur zagotovljene enake človekove pravice in temeljne svoboščine, ne glede na narodnost, raso spol, jezik, vero, politično ali drugo prepričanje, gmotno stanje, rojstvo, izobrazbo, družbeni položaj, invalidnost ali katerokoli drugo osebno okoliščino.
§ 1 Scope This Act provides for the application of the principle of equal treatment and lays down the means of legal protection in a case of violation of this principle. § 2 Basic provisions (1) Adherence to the principle of equal treatment shall lay in the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sex, religion or belief, race, nationality or ethnic origin, disability, age, sexual orientation, marital or family status, colour, language, political affiliation or other conviction, national or social origin, property, lineage or any other status. (2) While adhering to the principle of equal treatment, observance shall also be paid to good morals for the purpose of broadening of protection against discrimination. (3) Adherence to the principle of equal treatment shall also rest in adoption of measures for the protection against discrimination.
Article 12 (...) (2) Basic rights and freedoms on the territory of the Slovak Republic are guaranteed to everyone regardless of sex, race, color of skin, language, faith and religion, political, or other thoughts, national or social origin, belonging to a national minority or an ethnic group, property, gender, or any other status. No one may be harmed, preferred, or discriminated against on these grounds. (...)
Čl. 12 (...) (2) Základné práva a slobody sa zaručujú na území Slovenskej republiky všetkým bez ohľadu na pohlavie, rasu, farbu pleti, jazyk, vieru a náboženstvo, politické, či iné zmýšľanie, národný alebo sociálny pôvod, príslušnosť k národnosti alebo etnickej skupine, majetok, rod alebo iné postavenie. Nikoho nemožno z týchto dôvodov poškodzovať, zvýhodňovať alebo znevýhodňovať. (...)
Articolul 4 (...) (2) România este patria comuna si indivizibila a tuturor cetatenilor sai, fara deosebire de rasa, de nationalitate, de origine etnica, de limba, de religie, de sex, de opinie, de apartenenta politica, de avere sau de origine sociala.
Article 4 (...) (2) Romania is the common and indivisible homeland of all its citizens, without any discrimination on account of race, nationality, ethnic origin, language, religion, sex, opinion, political adherence, property or social origin.
Artigo 13.º (Princípio da igualdade) 1. Todos os cidadãos têm a mesma dignidade social e são iguais perante a lei. 2. Ninguém pode ser privilegiado, beneficiado, prejudicado, privado de qualquer direito ou isento de qualquer dever em razão de ascendência, sexo, raça, língua, território de origem, religião, convicções políticas ou ideológicas, instrução, situação económica, condição social ou orientação sexual.
Article 13 (Principle of equality) (1) All citizens possess the same social dignity and are equal before the law. (2) No one may be privileged, favoured, prejudiced, deprived of any right or exempted from any duty for reasons of ancestry, sex, race, language, territory of origin, religion, political or ideological beliefs, education, economic situation, social circumstances or sexual orientation.
1. Without prejudice to the obligation of Member States to respect and protect human dignity, Member States shall ensure by appropriate means that audiovisual media services provided by media service providers under their jurisdiction do not contain any:
(a) incitement to violence or hatred directed against a group of persons or a member of a group based on any of the grounds referred to in Article 21 of the Charter;
(b) public provocation to commit a terrorist offence as set out in Article 5 of Directive (EU) 2017/541.
2. The measures taken for the purposes of this Article shall be necessary and proportionate and shall respect the rights and observe principles set out in the Charter.’;
(b) the general public from programmes, user-generated videos and audiovisual commercial communications containing incitement to violence or hatred directed against a group of persons or a member of a group based on any of the grounds referred to in Article 21 of the Charter;
(64) This Regulation respects the fundamental rights and observes the principles recognised in particular by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (the ‘Charter’). In particular, this Regulation seeks to ensure full respect for the right to equality between women and men and the right to non-discrimination based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation, and to promote the application of Articles 21 and 23 of the Charter. In line with Article 13 of the Charter, it should also be ensured that academic freedom is respected by the countries receiving funds under the Programme.
(25) ‘people with fewer opportunities’ means people who, for economic, social, cultural, geographical or health reasons, due to their migrant background, or for reasons such as disability or educational difficulties or for any other reason, including a reason that could give rise to discrimination under Article 21 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, face obstacles that prevent them from having effective access to opportunities under the Programme;
(11) Article 169(1) and Article 169(2), point (a), TFEU provide that the Union is to contribute to the attainment of a high level of consumer protection through measures adopted pursuant to Article 114 TFEU. Article 38 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (‘the Charter’) provides that Union policies are to ensure a high level of consumer protection.
(31) Consumers who are legally resident in the Union should not be discriminated against on the ground of their nationality or place of residence, or on any ground as referred to in Article 21 of the Charter when requesting, concluding or holding a credit agreement within the Union. This is without prejudice to the possibility of offering different conditions of access to a credit where those different conditions are duly justified by objective criteria. Moreover, this should not be understood as creating an obligation for creditors or credit intermediaries to provide services in areas in which they do not conduct business.
Member States shall ensure that the conditions to be fulfilled for being granted a credit do not discriminate against consumers legally resident in the Union on ground of their nationality or place of residence or on any ground as referred to in Article 21 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, when those consumers request, conclude or hold a credit agreement within the Union.
Subject matter and scope
1. This Regulation lays down uniform rules to address the misuse of hosting services for the dissemination to the public of terrorist content online, in particular on:
(a) reasonable and proportionate duties of care to be applied by hosting service providers in order to address the dissemination to the public of terrorist content through their services and ensure, where necessary, the expeditious removal of or disabling of access to such content;
(b) the measures to be put in place by Member States, in accordance with Union law and subject to suitable safeguards to protect fundamental rights, in particular the freedom of expression and information in an open and democratic society, in order to:
(i) identify and ensure the expeditious removal of terrorist content by hosting service providers; and
(ii) facilitate cooperation among the competent authorities of Member States, hosting service providers and, where appropriate, Europol.
2. This Regulation applies to hosting service providers offering services in the Union, irrespective of their place of main establishment, insofar as they disseminate information to the public.
3. Material disseminated to the public for educational, journalistic, artistic or research purposes or for the purposes of preventing or countering terrorism, including material which represents an expression of polemic or controversial views in the course of public debate, shall not be considered to be terrorist content. An assessment shall determine the true purpose of that dissemination and whether material is disseminated to the public for those purposes.
4. This Regulation shall not have the effect of modifying the obligation to respect the rights, freedoms and principles referred to in Article 6 TEU and shall apply without prejudice to fundamental principles relating to freedom of expression and information, including freedom and pluralism of the media.
5. This Regulation shall be without prejudice to Directives 2000/31/EC and 2010/13/EU. For audiovisual media services as defined in point (a) of Article 1(1) of Directive 2010/13/EU, Directive 2010/13/EU shall prevail.
(73) This Regulation respects fundamental rights and observes the principles recognised in the Charter, in particular Articles 7, 9, 17, 21 and 47 concerning, respectively, respect for private and family life, the right to marry and to found a family according to national laws, property rights, the principle of non-discrimination and the right to an effective remedy and to a fair trial. This Regulation should be applied by the courts and other competent authorities of the Member States in compliance with those rights and principles.
This Directive aims to achieve a more balanced representation of women and men among the directors of listed companies by establishing effective measures that aim to accelerate progress towards gender balance, while allowing listed companies sufficient time to make the necessary arrangements for that purpose.
Equality, rights and gender equality strand
Within the general objective set out in Article 2(1) and within the specific objective set out in point (b) of Article 2(2), the Programme shall focus on:
(1) promoting equality and preventing and combating inequalities and discrimination based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation, and respecting the principle of non-discrimination on the grounds provided for in Article 21 of the Charter;
1. Providers of very large online platforms and of very large online search engines shall diligently identify, analyse and assess any systemic risks in the Union stemming from the design or functioning of their service and its related systems, including algorithmic systems, or from the use made of their services.
They shall carry out the risk assessments by the date of application referred to in Article 33(6), second subparagraph, and at least once every year thereafter, and in any event prior to deploying functionalities that are likely to have a critical impact on the risks identified pursuant to this Article. This risk assessment shall be specific to their services and proportionate to the systemic risks, taking into consideration their severity and probability, and shall include the following systemic risks:
(b) any actual or foreseeable negative effects for the exercise of fundamental rights, in particular the fundamental rights to human dignity enshrined in Article 1 of the Charter, to respect for private and family life enshrined in Article 7 of the Charter, to the protection of personal data enshrined in Article 8 of the Charter, to freedom of expression and information, including the freedom and pluralism of the media, enshrined in Article 11 of the Charter, to non-discrimination enshrined in Article 21 of the Charter, to respect for the rights of the child enshrined in Article 24 of the Charter and to a high-level of consumer protection enshrined in Article 38 of the Charter;
The purpose of this Directive is to lay down a general framework for combating discrimination on the grounds of religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation as regards employment and occupation, with a view to putting into effect in the Member States the principle of equal treatment.
This Regulation establishes the Justice Programme (the ‘Programme’) for the duration of the multiannual financial framework 2021-2027, as laid down in Regulation (EU, Euratom) 2020/2093.
It lays down the objectives of the Programme, the budget for the period 2021–2027, the forms of Union funding and the rules for providing such funding.
‘24. Article 5 of the Convention enshrines the obligation of States parties to prohibit and eliminate racial discrimination and to guarantee the right of everyone, without distinction as to race, colour, or national or ethnic origin, to equality before the law, notably in the enjoyment of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, including the rights to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, freedom of opinion and expression, and freedom of peaceful assembly and association.‘
‘25. The Committee considers that the expression of ideas and opinions made in the context of academic debates, political engagement or similar activity, and without incitement to hatred, contempt, violence or discrimination, should be regarded as legitimate exercises of the right to freedom of expression, even when such ideas are controversial.‘
‘26. In addition to its inclusion in article 5, freedom of opinion and expression is recognized as a fundamental right in a broad range of international instruments, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which affirm that everyone has the right to hold opinions and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds through any media and regardless of frontiers. The right to freedom of expression is not unlimited but carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but only if they are provided by law and are necessary for protection of the rights or reputations of others and for the protection of national security or of public order, or of public health or morals. Freedom of expression should not aim at the destruction of the rights and freedoms of others, including the right to equality and non-discrimination.‘
‘6. Emphasizes that the prohibition of discrimination against women on grounds of sex, pregnancy, maternity, parenthood or care work should be enforced for all women in all areas of work, including in the informal sector;
7. Requests States to take measures to overcome the barriers to women’s economic opportunities resulting from maternity and the disproportionate burden of unpaid care work in order to permit choice by women and men as to how they allocate work and family duties and in order to enable the complementarity of work and family between women and men;
8. Urges States to take measures to reduce informal work for women, with a focus on female participation in economic life and by increasing women’s economic opportunities, particularly in formal employment, in order to promote gender equality; [...]‘