Discrimination and hate crime against Jews in EU Member States
The aim of the FRA survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in European Union (EU) Member States was to obtain robust and comparable data in selected EU Member States on the experiences and perceptions of Jewish people. The survey provides for the first time comparable data on the perceived extent and nature of antisemitism across a number of EU Member States, whether it is manifested as hate crime, hate speech, discrimination or in any other form that undermines Jewish people’s feelings of safety and security.
The survey results are based on data collected from self-identified Jewish people (aged 16 and over) in eight EU Member States – Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Sweden and the United Kingdom. FRA also carried out the survey in Romania – however, due to a very small number of respondents, the results on Romania are not presented together with those of the other eight EU Member States. The results for Romania have been summarised in an annex to the main survey results report.
The data collection took place through an online survey questionnaire in September and October 2012. The EU Member States covered in the survey are home to some 90 % of the EU’s estimated Jewish population.
The key results are summarised in a report ‘Discrimination and hate crime against Jews in EU Member States: experiences and perceptions of antisemitism’, published in November 2013. A factsheet – available in Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Hebrew, Hungarian, Latvian and Swedish – also highlights the key findings.
The survey collected data on the effects of antisemitism in respondents’ daily lives, their feelings of safety and any actions they may take in response to safety concerns. The questionnaire included questions about personal experiences of specific forms of harassment, vandalism and physical violence. The respondents were asked about their personal experiences of discrimination against Jews on different grounds and in various areas of everyday life – for example at work, school or when using specific services. The survey further explored the level of rights awareness regarding antidiscrimination legislation, victim support organisations and knowledge of any legislation concerning trivialisation or denial of the Holocaust in respondents’ respective Member States. The full survey questionnaire is included in the Technical report.
The research method chosen – an online questionnaire and self-identification of respondents – provided a number of advantages and strengths, as well as limitations and constraints, which need to be taken into account when reading the survey results. These issues are presented and discussed in detail in the technical report, which describes the various stages of the research process. The reproduction of the data and charts is authorised according to FRA’s terms and conditions. When using the results found in the data explorer, the FRA Survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in EU Member States 2012 must be acknowledged as the source.
Different visualisation tools
This interactive tool offers different ways to explore the data behind the survey results. There are four main visualisation options: Map, Bar chart, Country detail and Country comparison, as well as a Data table option that shows the data for the selected visualisation. There is also an “At a glance” visualisation that presents some of the key findings of the survey.
How to explore the data
The survey questions are divided into five categories, shown as tabs: Experience of antisemitism; Experience of discrimination; Physical violence, vandalism and harassment; Rights awareness; and Safety and security. The numbers on the tabs indicate how many questions are in each group. Choose a category, then a question from the drop-down list in the grey box, and the desired visualisation. You can also apply additional filters by choosing from the options in the grey box.
How to export the data
The export options can be found at the foot of each page. To export the visualisation as an image, choose one of Figure (PNG), Figure (High resolution), EPS (High resolution) or PDF (High resolution). To export the data for the selected visualisation in Microsoft Excel format, choose Data (XLS). To generate a Page URL, Embeddable HTML or a Page citation, choose the corresponding option.
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