- Send with Email
- Share to Google
- Share to del.icio.us
- Share to Stumbleupon
- Share to Facebook
- Share to Twitter
Discrimination and hate crime against Jews in EU Member States
The aim of the FRA survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in European Union (EU) Member States was to obtain robust and comparable data in selected EU Member States on the experiences and perceptions of Jewish people. The survey provides for the first time comparable data on the perceived extent and nature of antisemitism across a number of EU Member States, whether it is manifested as hate crime, hate speech, discrimination or in any other form that undermines Jewish people’s feelings of safety and security.
The survey results are based on data collected from self-identified Jewish people (aged 16 and over) in eight EU Member States – Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Sweden and the United Kingdom. FRA also carried out the survey in Romania – however, due to a very small number of respondents, the results on Romania are not presented together with those of the other eight EU Member States. The results for Romania have been summarised in an annex to the main survey results report.
The data collection took place through an online survey questionnaire in September and October 2012. The EU Member States covered in the survey are home to some 90 % of the EU’s estimated Jewish population.
The key results are summarised in a report ‘Discrimination and hate crime against Jews in EU Member States: experiences and perceptions of antisemitism’, published in November 2013. A factsheet – available in Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Hebrew, Hungarian, Latvian and Swedish – also highlights the key findings.
The survey collected data on the effects of antisemitism in respondents’ daily lives, their feelings of safety and any actions they may take in response to safety concerns. The questionnaire included questions about personal experiences of specific forms of harassment, vandalism and physical violence. The respondents were asked about their personal experiences of discrimination against Jews on different grounds and in various areas of everyday life – for example at work, school or when using specific services. The survey further explored the level of rights awareness regarding antidiscrimination legislation, victim support organisations and knowledge of any legislation concerning trivialisation or denial of the Holocaust in respondents’ respective Member States. The full survey questionnaire is included in the Technical report.
The research method chosen – an online questionnaire and self-identification of respondents – provided a number of advantages and strengths, as well as limitations and constraints, which need to be taken into account when reading the survey results. These issues are presented and discussed in detail in the technical report, which describes the various stages of the research process. The reproduction of the data and charts is authorised according to FRA’s terms and conditions. When using the results found in the data explorer, the FRA Survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in EU Member States 2012 must be acknowledged as the source.
Different visualisation tools
This interactive tool offers different ways to explore the data behind the survey results. There are four main visualisation options: Map, Bar chart, Country detail and Country comparison, as well as a Data table option that shows the data for the selected visualisation. There is also an “At a glance” visualisation that presents some of the key findings of the survey.
How to explore the data
The survey questions are divided into five categories, shown as tabs: Experience of antisemitism; Experience of discrimination; Physical violence, vandalism and harassment; Rights awareness; and Safety and security. The numbers on the tabs indicate how many questions are in each group. Choose a category, then a question from the drop-down list in the grey box, and the desired visualisation. You can also apply additional filters by choosing from the options in the grey box.
How to export the data
The export options can be found at the foot of each page. To export the visualisation as an image, choose one of Figure (PNG), Figure (High resolution), EPS (High resolution) or PDF (High resolution). To export the data for the selected visualisation in Microsoft Excel format, choose Data (XLS). To generate a Page URL, Embeddable HTML or a Page citation, choose the corresponding option.
This is fra.europa.eu, the official website of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). It is managed by the web team in the Agency's Communication Department, and provides a wide range of information about the FRA's work, including its research and surveys, publications, events, co-operation activities and more.
In addition to this website, the FRA also maintains two online databases of fundamental rights-related information, which are:
- Charterpedia - a compilation of international, EU and national constitutional law structured around the Charter of Fundamental Rights
- Case law database - a comprehensive compilation of leading case law on discrimination on various grounds in the EU Member States
We have also developed a version of the Charterpedia specially for mobile devices such as tablets and smartphones. To access it, go to the following URL on your mobile device:
This site uses modern web standards (HTML5 and CSS3) developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the international body responsible for web-related standards. It is viewable in all modern browsers and mobile devices, and is designed to also work in older browsers, although the full functionality may not be available. If you are using an older browser and experience any difficulties with the site, you may wish to consider upgrading your browser.
Technical requirements for the FRA data visualization tool
The FRA data visualization tool (see the visualization of the EU LGBT survey results here) is designed to work in all modern browsers such as Microsoft Internet Explorer 9+, as well as recent versions of Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Apple Safari and Opera. If you are using an old browser such Internet Explorer 8 or earlier, we recommend that you either upgrade to version 9+ or use instead the latest version of one of the other browsers listed above.
We are committed to making this site as accessible as possible for all users, including those with disabilities. For more details, please see our accessibility section.
We offer a number of RSS feeds where you can get the latest news on FRA publications, press releases, events, etc. For more details, please see the RSS section.
We try to reach as broad an audience as possible by making our content available in multiple languages. This website is currently available in English and French, and German will be added soon. In addition, many of our publications, press releases and other content are available in other languages in PDF format. The FRA is committed to further developing its language policy according to the available resources.
Privacy and data protection
The Agency is committed to safeguarding the privacy of users of this website, while aiming to provide a personalised and valuable service. For more information, see the data protection statement.
Cookies – what are they?
To make this site function properly, we sometimes place small data files on your computer, known as cookies. Cookies help the site remember your settings – language, font size and other preferences for how you want to view the site on your computer - so you don’t have to keep re-entering them whenever you come back to us.
Our cookies are not used to identify you personally. They’re just there to make the site work better for you.
How you can control cookies
You can control and/or delete cookies as you wish – for details, see AboutCookies.org.
"Do not track" option
Piwik also respects the “Do not track” option that can be set on modern browsers. If you have this option enabled, your usage of this site will not be tracked.
Please be informed that all non-official documents produced by the EUMC (EU Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, which was the predecessor organisation of the FRA), such as working documents (including "working definitions") and conference papers have been archived and are no longer available on the FRA website. The official EUMC documents such as annual reports and thematic reports are, however, still available on the website of FRA.