Publications View all


Legal entry channels to the EU for persons in need of international protection: a toolbox

Every year, tens of thousands of people risk their lives trying to enter the European Union (EU) in an irregular way, and many die in the attempt. Increasing the availability of legal avenues to reach the EU would contribute to make the right to asylum set forth in Article 18 of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights a reality for vulnerable refugees and other persons in need of protection who are staying in a third country, often facing risks to their safety. It would also help to fight smuggling in human beings. This FRA focus seeks to contribute towards the elaboration of such legal entry options so that these can constitute a viable alternative to risky irregular entry.

Embedding fundamental rights in the security agenda

The recent events in Paris have challenged our sense of safety. They come at a time when the European Union is in the course of discussing its priorities in the area of internal security for the next five years. This paper examines the ways in which a fundamental rights perspective can benefit the current debate, so that a fundamental rights-anchored approach can support the creation of legitimate, effective and sustainable law enforcement and counter-radicalisation measures.

Reactions to the Paris attacks in the EU: fundamental rights considerations

The events that took place in France and Belgium in January 2015 had tremendous impact across the European Union (EU) and beyond. In the immediate aftermath of the events in Paris, FRA collected responses across Europe, focusing on Jewish and Muslim community organisations, political leaders, civil society and the media. The current paper provides an overview of this material and should be regarded as a snapshot of a rapidly changing situation.

Victims of crime in the EU: the extent and nature of support for victims

The rights of victims of crime to access justice and to be protected against repeat victimisation may remain illusory in practice if the victim fails to receive professional advice and support. This research by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) examines support service provision for such victims across the 28 EU Member States, in line with the 2012 EU Victims’ Directive. It focuses not on abstract fundamental rights standards but on the final practical results.

Being Trans in the EU - Comparative analysis of the EU LGBT survey data

Trans persons, or those whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from the sex assigned them at birth, face frequent discrimination, harassment and violence across the European Union (EU) today. This reality triggers fears that persuade many to hide or disguise their true selves. This report examines issues of equal treatment and discrimination on two grounds, namely sexual orientation and gender identity. It analyses data on the experiences of 6,579 trans respondents from the EU Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) survey, the largest body of empirical evidence of its kind to date.


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Opinions View all


FRA opinion on the confiscation of proceeds of crime

In relation to the European Commission proposal for a Directive on the freezing and confiscation of proceeds of crime in the European Union, the European Parliament requested advice from FRA on the extent to which confiscation of proceeds of crime could go without breaching fundamental rights.