Articolo 9 - Diritto di sposarsi e di costituire una famiglia
Il diritto di sposarsi e il diritto di costituire una famiglia sono garantiti secondo le leggi nazionali che ne disciplinano l'esercizio.
Questo articolo si basa sull'articolo 12 della CEDU, che recita: `A partire dall’età minima per contrarre matrimonio, l’uomo e la donna hanno il diritto di sposarsi e di fondare una famiglia secondo le leggi nazionali che regolano l’esercizio di tale diritto.`. La formulazione di questo diritto è stata aggiornata al fine di disciplinare i casi in cui le legislazioni nazionali riconoscono modi diversi dal matrimonio per costituire una famiglia. L'articolo non vieta né impone la concessione dello status matrimoniale a unioni tra persone dello stesso sesso. Questo diritto è pertanto simile a quello previsto dalla CEDU, ma la sua portata può essere più estesa qualora la legislazione nazionale lo preveda.
Article 32 (1) Parenthood and the family are under the protection of the law. Special protection is guaranteed to children and adolescents. (2) Pregnant women are guaranteed special care, protection in labor relations, and suitable labor conditions.
(3) Children, whether born in or out of wedlock, enjoy equal rights. (4) It is the parents’ right to care for and bring up their children; children have the right to parental upbringing and care. Parental rights may be limited and minor children may be removed from their parents’ custody against the latters’ will only by the decision of a court on
the basis of the law. (5) Parents who are raising children have the right to assistance from the state. (6) Detailed provisions shall be set by law.
Článek 32 (1) Rodičovství a rodina jsou pod ochranou zákona. Zvláštní ochrana dětí a mladistvých je zaručena. (2) Ženě v těhotenství je zaručena zvláštní péče, ochrana v pracovních vztazích a odpovídající pracovní podmínky. (3) Děti narozené v manželství i mimo ně mají stejná práva. (4) Péče o děti a jejich výchova je právem rodičů; děti mají právo na rodičovskou výchovu a péči. Práva rodičů mohou být omezena a nezletilé děti mohou být od rodičů odloučeny proti jejich vůli jen rozhodnutím soudu na základě zákona. (5) Rodiče, kteří pečují o děti, mají právo na pomoc státu. (6) Podrobnosti stanoví zákon.
See ECHR provisions of Article 12 which have been incorporated into UK law by the Human Rights Act 1998. Schedule 1 Article 12 Right to marry
Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry and to found a family, according to the national laws governing the exercise of this right.
Artículo 321. El hombre y la mujer tienen derecho a contraer matrimonio con plena igualdad jurídica. 2. La ley regulará las formas de matrimonio, la edad y capacidad para contraerlo, los derechos y deberes de los cónyuges, las causas de separación y disolución y sus efectos.
Section 32 (1) Man and woman have the right to marry with full legal equality. (2) The law shall make provision for the forms of marriage, the age and capacity for concluding it, the rights and duties of the spouses, the grounds for separation and dissolution, and their effects
Article 53 Marriage is based on the equality of spouses. Marriages shall be solemnised before an empowered state authority. Marriage and the legal relations within it and the family, as well as those within an extramarital union, shall be regulated by law. The state shall protect the family, motherhood, fatherhood, children, and young people and shall create the necessary conditions for such protection. Article 54 Parents have the right and duty to maintain, educate, and raise their children. This right and duty may be revoked or restricted only for such reasons as are provided by law in order to protect the child's interests. Children born out of wedlock have the same rights as children born within it. Article 55 Everyone shall be free to decide whether to bear children. The state shall guarantee the opportunities for exercising this freedom and shall create such conditions as will enable parents to decide to bear children. Article 56 Children shall enjoy special protection and care. Children shall enjoy human rights and fundamental freedoms consistent with their age and maturity. Children shall be guaranteed special protection from economic, social, physical, mental, or other exploitation and abuse. Such protection shall be regulated by law. Children and minors who are not cared for by their parents, who have no parents or who are without proper family care shall enjoy the special protection of the state. Their position shall be regulated by law.
53. člen Zakonska zveza temelji na enakopravnosti zakoncev. Sklene se pred pristojnim državnim organom. Zakonsko zvezo in pravna razmerja v njej, v družini in v zunajzakonski skupnosti ureja zakon. Država varuje družino, materinstvo, očetovstvo, otroke in mladino ter ustvarja za to varstvo potrebne razmere.
Article 41 (1) Marriage is a unique bond between a man and a woman. The Slovak Republic broadly protects and promotes its good. Marriage parenthood and the family are under the protection of the law. (…)
Čl. 41(1) Manželstvo je jedinečný zväzok medzi mužom a ženou. Slovenská republika manželstvo všestranne chráni a napomáha jeho dobru.(...)
Articolul 48(1) Familia se întemeiaza pe casatoria liber consimtita între soti, pe egalitatea acestora si pe dreptul si îndatorirea parintilor de a asigura cresterea, educatia si instruirea copiilor. (2) Conditiile de încheiere, de desfacere si de nulitate a casatoriei se stabilesc prin lege. Casatoria religioasa poate fi celebrata numai dupa casatoria civila. (3) Copiii din afara casatoriei sunt egali în fata legii cu cei din casatorie.
Article 48(1) The family is founded on the freely consented marriage of the spouses, their full equality, as well as the right and duty of the parents to ensure the upbringing, education and instruction of their children.(2) The terms for entering into marriage dissolution and nullity of marriage shall be established by law. Religious wedding may be celebrated only after the civil marriage. (3) Children born out of wedlock are equal before the law with those born in wedlock.
Artigo 36.º (Família, casamento e filiação) 1. Todos têm o direito de constituir família e de contrair casamento em condições de plena igualdade. 2. A lei regula os requisitos e os efeitos do casamento e da sua dissolução, por morte ou divórcio, independentemente da forma de celebração. 3. Os cônjuges têm iguais direitos e deveres quanto à capacidade civil e política e à manutenção e educação dos filhos. 4. Os filhos nascidos fora do casamento não podem, por esse motivo, ser objecto de qualquer discriminação e a lei ou as repartições oficiais não podem usar designações discriminatórias relativas à filiação. 5. Os pais têm o direito e o dever de educação e manutenção dos filhos. 6. Os filhos não podem ser separados dos pais, salvo quando estes não cumpram os seus deveres fundamentais para com eles e sempre mediante decisão judicial. 7. A adopção é regulada e protegida nos termos da lei, a qual deve estabelecer formas céleres para a respectiva tramitação.
Article 36 (Family, marriage and filiation) (1) Everyone shall possess the right to found a family and to marry on terms of full equality. (2) The law shall regulate the requirements for and the effects of marriage and its dissolution by death or divorce, regardless of the form in which it was entered into. (3) Spouses shall possess equal rights and duties in relation to their civil and political capacity and to the maintenance and education of their children. (4) Children born outside wedlock shall not be the object of any discrimination for that reason, and neither the law, nor official departments or services may employ discriminatory terms in relation to their filiation. (5) Parents shall possess the right and the duty to educate and maintain their children. (6) Children shall not be separated from their parents, save when the latter do not fulfil their fundamental duties towards them, and then always by judicial order. (7) Adoption shall be regulated and protected by law, which shall lay down swift forms of completion of the necessary requirements.
Article 18 Marriage, being a union of a man and a woman, as well as the family, motherhood and parenthood, shall be placed under the protection and care of the Republic of Poland.
Art. 18Małżeństwo jako związek kobiety i mężczyzny, rodzina, macierzyństwo i rodzicielstwo znajdują się pod ochroną i opieką Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej.
Article 11.(1) L’Etat garantit les droits naturels de la personne humaine et de la famille. Article 21. Le mariage civil devra toujours précéder la bénédiction nuptiale.
Article 11.(1) The State guarantees the natural rights of the human person and of the family. Article 21. Civil marriage must always precede the nuptial benediction.
Article 38. The family shall be the basis of society and the State. Family, motherhood, fatherhood, and childhood shall be under the protection and care of the State. Marriage shall be concluded upon the free mutual consent of man and woman. The State shall register marriages, births, and deaths. The State shall also recognise the church registration of marriages. In the family, the rights of spouses shall be equal.The right and duty of parents shall be to bring up their children to be honest people and faithful citizens, and to support them until they reach the age of majority. The duty of children shall be to respect their parents, to take care of them in their old age, and to preserve their heritage.
(73) This Regulation respects fundamental rights and observes the principles recognised in the Charter, in particular Articles 7, 9, 17, 21 and 47 concerning, respectively, respect for private and family life, the right to marry and to found a family according to national laws, property rights, the principle of non-discrimination and the right to an effective remedy and to a fair trial. This Regulation should be applied by the courts and other competent authorities of the Member States in compliance with those rights and principles.
1. For the purposes of this resolution, a 'marriage of convenience` means a marriage concluded between a national of a Member State or a third-country national legally resident in a Member State and a third-country national, with the sole aim of circumventing the rules on entry and residence of third-country nationals and obtaining for the third-country national a residence permit or authority to reside in a Member State.
2. Factors which may provide grounds for believing that a marriage is one of convenience are in particular:
- the fact that matrimonial cohabitation is not maintained,
- the lack of an appropriate contribution to the responsibilities arising from the marriage,
- the spouses have never met before their marriage,
- the spouses are inconsistent about their respective personal details (name, address, nationality and job), about the circumstances of their first meeting, or about other important personal information concerning them,
- the spouses do not speak a language understood by both,
- a sum of money has been handed over in order for the marriage to be contracted (with the exception of money given in the form of a dowry in the case of nationals of countries where the provision of a dowry is common practice),
- the past history of one or both of the spouses contains evidence of previous marriages of convenience or residence anomalies.
In this context, such information may result from:
- statements by those concerned or by third parties,
- information from written documentation, or
- information obtained from inquiries carried out.
3. Where there are factors which support suspicions for believing that a marriage is one of convenience, Member States shall issue a residence permit or an authority to reside to the third-country national on the basis of the marriage only after the authorities competent under national law have checked that the marriage is not one of convenience, and that the other conditions relating to entry and residence have been fulfilled. Such checking may involve a separate interview with each of the two spouses.
4. Should the authorities competent under national law find the marriage to be one of convenience, the residence permit or authority to reside granted on the basis of the third-country national's marriage shall as a general rule be withdrawn, revoked or not renewed.
5. The third-country national shall have an opportunity to contest or to have reviewed, as provided for by national law, either before a court or before a competent administrative authority, a decision to refuse, withdraw, revoke or not renew a residence permit or authority to reside.
6. Member States shall have regard to this resolution in any proposals to amend their national legislation. They shall furthermore endeavour to bring their national legislation into line with this resolution by 1 January 1999. The Council shall review the implementation of this resolution once a year, starting from 1 January 1999.
Article 12 – Right to marry
Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry and to found a family, according to the national laws governing the exercise of this right
‘8. [...] The right to equal recognition before the law implies that legal capacity is a universal attribute inherent in all persons by virtue of their humanity and must be upheld for persons with disabilities on an equal basis with others. Legal capacity is indispensable for the exercise of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. It acquires a special significance for persons with disabilities when they have to make fundamental decisions regarding their health, education and work. The denial of legal capacity to persons with disabilities has, in many cases, led to their being deprived of many fundamental rights, including the right to vote, the right to marry and found a family, reproductive rights, parental rights, the right to give consent for intimate relationships and medical treatment, and the right to liberty.‘
‘29. [...] (f) Support in decision-making must not be used as justification for limiting other fundamental rights of persons with disabilities, especially the right to vote, the right to marry, or establish a civil partnership, and found a family, reproductive rights, parental rights, the right to give consent for intimate relationships and medical treatment, and the right to liberty;‘
‘Paragraph 13. Urges all States to enact, uphold and strictly enforce laws and policies aimed at preventing and ending child, early and forced marriage and protecting those at risk and to ensure that marriage is entered into only with the informed, free and full consent of the intending spouses, to enact and strictly enforce laws concerning the minimum legal age of consent and the minimum age for marriage, to raise the minimum age for marriage, engage all relevant stakeholders, including girls, where necessary, [...]‘
‘3. Further calls upon States to strengthen their efforts to ensure the timely registration of births and marriages, especially for individuals living in rural and remote areas, including by identifying and removing all physical, administrative, procedural and any other barriers that impede access to registration and by providing, where lacking, mechanisms for the registration of customary and religious marriages;‘
‘4. Calls upon States to enact, build awareness of, enforce and uphold laws concerning a minimum age of marriage and to progressively amend laws with lower ages of marriage and/or ages of majority;‘