Το υψηλό επίπεδο προστασίας του περιβάλλοντος και η βελτίωση της ποιότητάς του πρέπει να ενσωματώνονται στις πολιτικές της Ένωσης και να διασφαλίζονται σύμφωνα με την αρχή της αειφόρου ανάπτυξης.
Η αρχή που περιέχεται στο άρθρο αυτό βασίστηκε στα άρθρα 2, 6 και 174 της Συνθήκης ΕΚ, τα οποία έχουν πλέον αντικατασταθεί από το άρθρο 3, παράγραφος 3 της Συνθήκης για την Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση και τα άρθρα 11 και 191 της Συνθήκης για τη λειτουργία της Ευρωπαϊκής Ένωσης. Εμπνέεται επίσης από τις διατάξεις ορισμένων εθνικών συνταγμάτων.
Article 11 (3) Ownership entails obligations. It may not be misused to the detriment of the rights of others or in conflict with legally protected public interests. It may not be exercised so as to harm human health, nature, or the environment beyond the limits laid down by law. Article 35 (1) Everyone has the right to a favorable environment. (2) Everyone has the right to timely and complete information about the state of the environment and natural resources. (3) No one may, in exercising her rights, endanger or cause damage to the environment, natural resources, the wealth of natural species, or cultural monuments beyond the extent set by a law.
Article 7 The state shall concern itself with the prudent use of its natural resources and the protection of its natural wealth.
Article 11 (3) Ownership is binding. It may not be misused to the detriment of the rights of others or against legally protected public interests. Its exercise may not cause damage to human health, nature and the environment beyond statutory limits. Article 35 (1) Everybody has the right to live a favourable living environment. (2) Everybody is entitled to timely and complete information about the state of the living environment and natural resources. (3) In exercising his or her rights nobody may endanger or cause damage to the living environment, natural resources, the wealth of natural species, and cultural monuments beyond limits set by law.
Článek 11 (...) (3) Vlastnictví zavazuje. Nesmí být zneužito na újmu práv druhých anebo v rozporu se zákonem chráněnými obecnými zájmy. Jeho výkon nesmí poškozovat lidské zdraví, přírodu a životní prostředí nad míru stanovenou zákonem. Článek 35 (1) Každý má právo na příznivé životní prostředí. (2) Každý má právo na včasné a úplné informace o stavu životního prostředí a přírodních zdrojů. (3) Při výkonu svých práv nikdo nesmí ohrožovat ani poškozovat životní prostředí, přírodní zdroje, druhové bohatství přírody a kulturní památky nad míru stanovenou zákonem.
Článek 7 Stát dbá o šetrné využívání přírodních zdrojů a ochranu přírodního bohatství.
Section 1 The target for 2050
(1) It is the duty of the Secretary of State to ensure that the net UK carbon account for the year 2050 is at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline.
(2) “The 1990 baseline” means the aggregate amount of—
(a) net UK emissions of carbon dioxide for that year, and
(b )net UK emissions of each of the other targeted greenhouse gases for the year that is the base year for that gas.
Section 4 Carbon budgets
(1) It is the duty of the Secretary of State—
(a)to set for each succeeding period of five years beginning with the period 2008-2012 (“budgetary periods”) an amount for the net UK carbon account (the “carbon budget”), and
(b to ensure that the net UK carbon account for a budgetary period does not exceed the carbon budget.
(2)The carbon budget for a budgetary period may be set at any time after this Part comes into force, and must be set—
(a) for the periods 2008-2012, 2013-2017 and 2018-2022, before 1st June 2009;
(b) for any later period, not later than 30th June in the 12th year before the beginning of the period in question.
Section 29 UK emissions and removals of greenhouse gases
(1) In this Part—
(a) “UK emissions”, in relation to a greenhouse gas, means emissions of that gas from sources in the United Kingdom;
(b) “UK removals”, in relation to a greenhouse gas, means removals of that gas from the atmosphere due to land use, land-use change or forestry activities in the United Kingdom;
(c) the “net UK emissions” for a period, in relation to a greenhouse gas, means the amount of UK emissions of that gas for the period reduced by the amount for the period of UK removals of that gas.
(2) The amount of UK emissions and UK removals of a greenhouse gas for a period must be determined consistently with international carbon reporting practice.
Schedule 6 Part 1
Section 1 The relevant national authority may make provision by regulations about charging by sellers of goods for the supply of single use carrier bags, carrier bags.
Requirement to charge
Section 2 The regulations may make provision requiring sellers of goods to charge for single use carrier bags carrier bags supplied—
(a)at a place where goods are sold, for the purpose of enabling goods to be taken away, or
at the place where the goods are sold, for the purpose of enabling the goods to be taken away, or
(b)for the purpose of enabling goods to be delivered.
for the purpose of enabling the goods to be delivered.
Schedule 6 Part 1
Section 4 The regulations may specify the minimum amount that a seller must charge for each single use carrier bag carrier bag, or provide for that amount to be determined in accordance with the regulations.
Chapter 1 - Basic principles of the form of government: Article 2 (…) The public institutions shall promote sustainable development leading to a good environment for present and future generations.(…)
1 kapitlet - Statsskickets grunder: 2 § (…) Det allmänna ska främja en hållbar utveckling som leder till en god miljö för nuvarande och kommande generationer. (…)
Artículo 451. Todos tienen el derecho a disfrutar de un medio ambiente adecuado para el desarrollo de la persona, así como el deber de conservarlo. 2. Los poderes públicos velarán por la utilización racional de todos los recursos naturales, con el fin de proteger y mejorar la calidad de la vida y defender y restaurar el medio ambiente, apoyándose en la indispensable solidaridad colectiva.3. Para quienes violen lo dispuesto en el apartado anterior, en los términos que la ley fije se establecerán sanciones penales o, en su caso, administrativas, así como la obligación de reparar el daño causado.
Article 451. Everyone has the right to enjoy an environment suitable for the development of the person, as well as the duty to preserve it. 2. The public authorities shall watch over a rational use of all natural resources with a view to protecting and improving the quality of life and preserving and restoring the environment, by relying on an indispensable collective solidarity. 3. For those who break the provisions contained in the foregoing paragraph, criminal or, where applicable, administrative sanctions shall be imposed, under the terms established by the law, and they shall be obliged to repair the damage caused.
Article 72 Everyone has the right in accordance with the law to a healthy living environment.The state shall promote a healthy living environment. To this end, the conditions and manner in which economic and other activities are pursued shall be established by law.The law shall establish under which conditions and to what extent a person who has damaged the living environment is obliged to provide compensation.The protection of animals from cruelty shall be regulated by law.
72. člen (zdravo življenjsko okolje)Vsakdo ima v skladu z zakonom pravico do zdravega življenjskega okolja.Država skrbi za zdravo življenjsko okolje. V ta namen zakon določa pogoje in načine za opravljanje gospodarskih in drugih dejavnosti.Zakon določa, ob katerih pogojih in v kakšnem obsegu je povzročitelj škode v življenjskem okolju dolžan poravnati škodo.Varstvo živali pred mučenjem ureja zakon.
Article 44 (1) Everyone has the right to a favourable environment. (2) Everyone is obliged to protect and enhance the environment and the cultural heritage. (3) No one may endanger, or damage the environment, natural resources, and the cultural heritage beyond the extent laid down by law. (4) The state looks after a cautious use of natural resources, the protection of agricultural and forest lands, ecological balance, and effective environmental care, as well as provides for the protection of specified species of wild plants and animals. (5) Agricultural and forest lands as non-renewable resources merit special protection of the State and of the Society. (6) The details of the rights and obligations according to paragraphs 1 to 5 shall be laid down by law. Article 45 Everyone has the right to timely and complete information about the state of the environment and about the causes and consequences of its condition.
Čl. 44 (1) Každý má právo na priaznivé životné prostredie. (2) Každý je povinný chrániť a zveľaďovať životné prostredie a kultúrne dedičstvo. (3) Nikto nesmie nad mieru ustanovenú zákonom ohrozovať ani poškodzovať životné prostredie, prírodné zdroje a kultúrne pamiatky. (4) Štát dbá o šetrné využívanie prírodných zdrojov, o ochranu poľnohospodárskej pôdy a lesnej pôdy, o ekologickú rovnováhu a o účinnú starostlivosť o životné prostredie a zabezpečuje ochranu určeným druhom voľne rastúcich rastlín a voľne žijúcich živočíchov. (5) Poľnohospodárska pôda a lesná pôda ako neobnoviteľné prírodné zdroje požívajú osobitnú ochranu zo strany štátu a spoločnosti. (6) Podrobnosti o právach a povinnostiach podľa odsekov 1 až 5 ustanoví zákon. Čl. 45 Každý má právo na včasné a úplné informácie o stave životného prostredia a o príčinách a následkoch tohto stavu.
Articolul 35(1) Statul recunoaste dreptul oricarei persoane la un mediu înconjurator sanatos si echilibrat ecologic. (2) Statul asigura cadrul legislativ pentru exercitarea acestui drept. (3) Persoanele fizice si juridice au îndatorirea de a proteja si a ameliora mediul înconjurator.Articolul 135(2) Statul trebuie sa asigure: d) exploatarea resurselor naturale, în concordanta cu interesul national; e) refacerea si ocrotirea mediului înconjurator, precum si mentinerea echilibrului ecologic;f) crearea conditiilor necesare pentru cresterea calitatii vietii;
Article 35(1) The State shall acknowledge the right of every person to a healthy, well preserved and balanced environment. (2) The State shall provide the legislative framework for the exercise of such right. (3) Natural and legal entities shall be bound to protect and improve the environment.Article 135(2) The State must secure:d) exploitation of natural resources, in conformity with national interests;e) environmental protection and recovery, as well as preservation of the ecological balance; f) creation of all necessary conditions so as to increase the quality of life;
Artigo 9.º (Tarefas fundamentais do Estado) São tarefas fundamentais do Estado: e) Proteger e valorizar o património cultural do povo português, defender a natureza e o ambiente, preservar os recursos naturais e assegurar um correcto ordenamento do território. Artigo 66.º (ambiente e qualidade de vida) 1. Todos têm direito a um ambiente de vida humano, sadio e ecologicamente equilibrado e o dever de o defender. 2. Para assegurar o direito ao ambiente, no quadro de um desenvolvimento sustentável, incumbe ao Estado, por meio de organismos próprios e com o envolvimento e a participação dos cidadãos: a) Prevenir e controlar a poluição e os seus efeitos e as formas prejudiciais de erosão; b) Ordenar e promover o ordenamento do território, tendo em vista uma correcta localização das actividades, um equilibrado desenvolvimento sócio-económico e a valorização da paisagem; c) Criar e desenvolver reservas e parques naturais e de recreio, bem como classificar e proteger paisagens e sítios, de modo a garantir a conservação da natureza e a preservação de valores culturais de interesse histórico ou artístico; d) Promover o aproveitamento racional dos recursos naturais, salvaguardando a sua capacidade de renovação e a estabilidade ecológica, com respeito pelo princípio da solidariedade entre gerações; e) Promover, em colaboração com as autarquias locais, a qualidade ambiental das povoações e da vida urbana, designadamente no plano arquitectónico e da protecção das zonas históricas; f) Promover a integração de objectivos ambientais nas várias políticas de âmbito sectorial; g) Promover a educação ambiental e o respeito pelos valores do ambiente; h) Assegurar que a política fiscal compatibilize desenvolvimento com protecção do ambiente e qualidade de vida. Artigo 52.º (Direito de petição e direito de ação popular) 3. É conferido a todos, pessoalmente ou através de associações de defesa dos interesses em causa, o direito de acção popular nos casos e termos previstos na lei, incluindo o direito de requerer para o lesado ou lesados a correspondente indemnização, nomeadamente para: a) Promover a prevenção, a cessação ou a perseguição judicial das infracções contra a saúde pública, os direitos dos consumidores, a qualidade de vida, a preservação do ambiente e do património cultural.
Article 9 (Fundamental tasks of the State) The basic responsibilities of the State are: (e) To protect and enhance the cultural heritage of the Portuguese people, to protect nature and the environment. Article 66 (Environment and quality of life) (1) Everyone shall possess the right to a healthy and ecologically balanced human living environment and the duty to defend it. (2) In order to ensure enjoyment of the right to the environment within an overall framework of sustainable development, acting via appropriate bodies and with the involvement and participation of citizens, the state shall be charged with: (a) Preventing and controlling pollution and its effects and the harmful forms of erosion; (b) Conducting and promoting town and country planning with a view to a correct location of activities, balanced social and economic development and the enhancement of the landscape; (c) Creating and developing natural and recreational reserves and parks and classifying and protecting landscapes and places, in such a way as to guarantee the conservation of nature and the preservation of cultural values and assets that are of historic or artistic interest; (d) Promoting the rational use of natural resources, while safeguarding their ability to renew themselves and maintain ecological stability, with respect for the principle of inter-generational solidarity; (e) Acting in cooperation with local authorities, promoting the environmental quality of rural settlements and urban life, particularly on the architectural level and as regards the protection of historic zones; (f) Promoting the integration of environmental objectives into the various policies of a sectoral nature; (g) Promoting environmental education and respect for environmental values; (h) Ensuring that fiscal policy renders development compatible with the protection of the environment and the quality of life. Article 52 (Right of petition and right of actio popularis) (3) Everyone, personally or through associations that purport to defend the interests in issue, enjoys the right of actio popularis in the cases and under the conditions provided by law, including the right to advocate, on behalf of the aggrieved party or parties, the following: (a) to promote the prevention, the suppression and the prosecution of offences against public health, consumer rights, the quality of life, the preservation of the environment and the cultural heritage.
Article 5The Republic of Poland shall safeguard the independence and integrity of its territory and ensure the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens, the security of the citizens, safeguard the national heritage and shall ensure the protection of the natural environment pursuant to the principles of sustainable development.Article 68(...) 4. Public authorities shall combat epidemic illnesses and prevent the negative health consequences of degradation of the environment.Article 741. Public authorities shall pursue policies ensuring the ecological security of current and future generations.2. Protection of the environment shall be the duty of public authorities.3. Everyone shall have the right to be informed of the quality of the environment and its protection.4. Public authorities shall support the activities of citizens to protect and improve the quality of the environment.Article 86Everyone shall care for the quality of the environment and shall be held responsible for causing its degradation. The principles of such responsibility shall be specified by statute.
Article 5 The Republic of Poland shall safeguard the independence and integrity of its territory and ensure the freedoms and rights of persons and citizens, the security of the citizens, safeguard the national heritage and shall ensure the protection of the natural environment pursuant to the principles of sustainable development.Article 68(...) 4. Public authorities shall combat epidemic illnesses and prevent the negative health consequences of degradation of the environment.Article 74.1. Public authorities shall pursue policies ensuring the ecological security of current and future generations.2. Protection of the environment shall be the duty of public authorities.3. Everyone shall have the right to be informed of the quality of the environment and its protection.4. Public authorities shall support the activities of citizens to protect and improve the quality of the environment.Article 86Everyone shall care for the quality of the environment and shall be held responsible for causing its degradation. The principles of such responsibility shall be specified by statute.
‘(3) The Europe 2020 strategy focuses on creating the conditions for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. To that end, a number of headline targets have been set, including targets for climate change and energy sustainability: (i) a 20 % reduction in Union greenhouse gas emissions when compared to 1990 levels; (ii) raising the share of Union energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20 %; and (iii) a 20 % improvement in the EU’s energy-efficiency compared to 1990 levels. The first two of these nationally binding targets were implemented by ‘The climate and energy package’.‘
‘(5) The headline targets mentioned in recital (3) are particularly important for these Guidelines. In order to support achieving those targets, the Europe 2020 strategy put forward the ‘Resource efficient Europe’ as one of the seven flagship initiatives (4). That flagship initiative aims to create a framework for policies to support the shift towards a resource-efficient and low-carbon economy which helps to:
(a) boost economic performance while reducing use of resources;
(b) identify and create new opportunities for economic growth and greater innovation and boost the Union’s competitiveness;
(c) ensure security of supply of essential resources;
(d) fight against climate change and limit the environmental impacts of the use resources.‘
‘1. The 7th Environment Action Programme shall have the following priority objectives:
(a) to protect, conserve and enhance the Union’s natural capital;
(b) to turn the Union into a resource-efficient, green and competitive low-carbon economy;
(c) to safeguard the Union’s citizens from environment-related pressures and risks to health and well-being;
(d) to maximise the benefits of Union environment legislation by improving implementation;
(e) to improve the knowledge and evidence base for Union environment policy;
(f) to secure investment for environment and climate policy and address environmental externalities;
(g) to improve environmental integration and policy coherence;
(h) to enhance the sustainability of the Union’s cities;
(i) to increase the Union’s effectiveness in addressing international environmental and climate-related challenges. [...]‘
Article 1 - Subject and scope
‘1. This Directive establishes minimum requirements for preventing major accidents in offshore oil and gas operations and limiting the consequences of such accidents. [...]‘
Article 1 Subject matter and purpose
‘The purpose of this Regulation is to prevent, reduce, minimise and, to the extent practicable, eliminate accidents, injuries and other adverse effects on human health and the environment caused by ship recycling. The purpose of this Regulation is to enhance safety, the protection of human health and of the Union marine environment throughout a ship′s life-cycle, in particular to ensure that hazardous waste from such ship recycling is subject to environmentally sound management.
This Regulation also lays down rules to ensure the proper management of hazardous materials on ships.
This Regulation also aims to facilitate the ratification of the Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships, 2009 (‘the Hong Kong Convention’).‘
Article 3 - General objectives and performance indicators
‘1. The LIFE Programme shall in particular have the following general objectives:
(a) to contribute to the shift towards a resource-efficient, low-carbon and climate- resilient economy, to the protection and improvement of the quality of the environment and to halting and reversing biodiversity loss, including the support of the Natura 2000 network and tackling the degradation of ecosystems;
(b) to improve the development, implementation and enforcement of Union environmental and climate policy and legislation, and to act as a catalyst for, and promote, the integration and mainstreaming of environmental and climate objectives into other Union policies and public and private sector practice, including by increasing the public and private sector's capacity;
(c) to support better environmental and climate governance at all levels, including better involvement of civil society, NGOs and local actors;
(d) to support the implementation of the 7th Environment Action Programme.
In pursuing those objectives, the LIFE Programme shall contribute to sustainable development and to the achievement of the objectives and targets of the Europe 2020 Strategy and of relevant Union environment and climate strategies and plans. [...]‘
CHAPTER 3 - Payment for agricultural practices beneficial for the climate and the environment
‘Article 43 - General rules
1. Farmers entitled to a payment under the basic payment scheme or the single area payment scheme shall observe, on all their eligible hectares within the meaning of Article 32(2) to (5), the agricultural practices beneficial for the climate and the environment referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article or the equivalent practices referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article.
2. The agricultural practices beneficial for the climate and the environment shall be the following:
(a) crop diversification;
(b) maintaining existing permanent grassland; and
(c) having ecological focus area on the agricultural area.
3. The equivalent practices shall be those which include similar practices that yield an equivalent or higher level of benefit for the climate and the environment compared to one or several of the practices referred to in paragraph 2. Those equivalent practices and the practice or practices referred to in paragraph 2 to which they are equivalent are listed in Annex IX and shall be covered by any of the following: [...]‘
Article 6 - Union priorities
‘The EMFF shall contribute to the Europe 2020 strategy and to the implementation of CFP. It shall pursue the following Union priorities for the sustainable development of fisheries and aquaculture and related activities, which reflect the relevant thematic objectives referred to in Regulation (EU) No 1303/2013:
(1) Promoting environmentally sustainable, resource–efficient, innovative, competitive and knowledge–based fisheries by pursuing the following specific objectives:
(a) the reduction of the impact of fisheries on the marine environment, including the avoidance and reduction, as far as possible, of unwanted catches;
(b) the protection and restoration of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystems;
(c) the ensuring of a balance between fishing capacity and available fishing opportunities;
(d) the enhancement of the competitiveness and viability of fisheries enterprises, including of small–scale coastal fleet, and the improvement of safety and working conditions;
(e) the provision of support to strengthen technological development and innovation, including increasing energy efficiency, and knowledge transfer;
(f) the development of professional training, new professional skills and lifelong learning.
(2) Fostering environmentally sustainable, resource-efficient, innovative, competitive and knowledge-based aquaculture by pursuing the following specific objectives:
(a) the provision of support to strengthen technological development, innovation and knowledge transfer;
(b) the enhancement of the competitiveness and viability of aquaculture enterprises, including the improvement of safety and working conditions, in particular of SMEs;
(c) the protection and restoration of aquatic biodiversity and the enhancement of ecosystems related to aquaculture and the promotion of resource-efficient aquaculture;
(d) the promotion of aquaculture having a high level of environmental protection, and the promotion of animal health and welfare and of public health and safety;
(e) the development of professional training, new professional skills and lifelong learning.
‘1. Parties recognize that some Parties choose to pursue voluntary cooperation in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions to allow for higher ambition in their mitigation and adaptation actions and to promote sustainable development and environmental integrity.
2. Parties shall, where engaging on a voluntary basis in cooperative approaches that involve the use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes towards nationally determined contributions, promote sustainable development and ensure environmental integrity and transparency, including in governance, and shall apply robust accounting to ensure, inter alia, the avoidance of double counting, consistent with guidance adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement. [...]‘
‘We are determined to end poverty and hunger, in all their forms and dimensions, and to ensure that all human beings can fulfil their potential in dignity and equality and in a healthy environment.‘