1. Eenieder heeft recht op lichamelijke en geestelijke integriteit.
2. In het kader van de geneeskunde en de biologie moeten met name in acht worden genomen:
a) de vrije en geïnformeerde toestemming van de betrokkene, volgens de bij de wet bepaalde regels;
b) het verbod van eugenetische praktijken, met name die welke selectie van personen tot doel hebben;
c) het verbod om het menselijk lichaam en bestanddelen daarvan als zodanig als bron van financieel voordeel aan te wenden;
d) het verbod van het reproductief kloneren van mensen.
1. In zijn arrest van 9 oktober 2001 in Zaak C-377/98 — Nederland tegen Europees Parlement en Raad, Jurispr. 2001, blz. I-7079, r.o. 70, 78-80, bevestigt het Hof van Justitie dat een grondrecht op menselijke integriteit deel uitmaakt van het recht van de Unie en, op het gebied van de geneeskunde en de biologie, de vrije en geïnformeerde toestemming van de donor en de ontvanger omvat. 2. De beginselen van artikel 3 van het Handvest staan reeds in het Verdrag inzake de rechten van de mens en de biogeneeskunde, dat in het kader van de Raad van Europa is aangenomen (ETS 164 en aanvullend protocol ETS 168). Dit Handvest wil niet afwijken van deze bepalingen en verbiedt derhalve alleen het reproductief klonen. Het Handvest staat de andere vormen van klonen niet toe, maar verbiedt deze evenmin. Het belet de wetgever dus geenszins om andere vormen van klonen te verbieden. 3. De verwijzing naar eugenetische praktijken, met name die welke selectie van personen tot doel hebben, heeft betrekking op de gevallen waarin selectieprogramma's worden opgezet en uitgevoerd, bijvoorbeeld campagnes gericht op sterilisatie, gedwongen zwangerschappen, verplichte etnische huwelijken, enz. — handelingen die volgens het op 17 juli 1998 te Rome aangenomen statuut van het Internationaal Strafhof als internationale misdrijven worden beschouwd (zie artikel 7, lid 1, onder g)).
Article 10 (1) Everyone has the right to demand that her human dignity, personal honour, and good reputation be respected, and that her name be protected.
Článek 10 (1) Každý má právo, aby byla zachována jeho lidská důstojnost, osobní čest, dobrá pověst a chráněno jeho jméno.
Section 3 Prohibitions in connection with embryos.
(1) No person shall bring about the creation of an embryo except in pursuance of a licence.
(1A) No person shall keep or use an embryo except—
(a) in pursuance of a licence, or
(b) in the case of—
(i) the keeping, without storage, of an embryo intended for human application, or
(ii) the processing, without storage, of such an embryo, in pursuance of a third party agreement.
(1B) No person shall procure or distribute an embryo intended for human application except in pursuance of a licence or a third party agreement.
(2) No person shall place in a woman—
(a) an embryo other than a permitted embryo (as defined by section 3ZA), or
(b) any gametes other than permitted eggs or permitted sperm (as so defined).
(3) A licence cannot authorise—
(a) keeping or using an embryo after the appearance of the primitive streak,
(b) placing an embryo in any animal, or
(c) keeping or using an embryo in any circumstances in which regulations prohibit its keeping or use
(4) For the purposes of subsection (3)(a) above, the primitive streak is to be taken to have appeared in an embryo not later than the end of the period of 14 days beginning with the day on which the process of creating the embryo began, not counting any time during which the embryo is stored.
Section 3ZA Permitted eggs, permitted sperm and permitted embryos
(1) This section has effect for the interpretation of section 3(2).
(2) A permitted egg is one—
(a) which has been produced by or extracted from the ovaries of a woman, and
(b) whose nuclear or mitochondrial DNA has not been altered.
(3) Permitted sperm are sperm—
(a) which have been produced by or extracted from the testes of a man, and
(b) whose nuclear or mitochondrial DNA has not been altered.
(4) An embryo is a permitted embryo if—
(a) it has been created by the fertilisation of a permitted egg by permitted sperm,
(b) no nuclear or mitochondrial DNA of any cell of the embryo has been altered, and
(c) no cell has been added to it other than by division of the embryo's own cells.
(5)Regulations may provide that—
(a) an egg can be a permitted egg, or
(b) an embryo can be a permitted embryo, even though the egg or embryo has had applied to it in prescribed circumstances a prescribed process designed to prevent the transmission of serious mitochondrial disease.
(6)In this section—
(a) “woman” and “man” include respectively a girl and a boy (from birth), and
(b) “prescribed” means prescribed by regulations.
3A Prohibition in connection with germ cells.
(1) No person shall, for the purpose of providing fertility services for any woman, use female germ cells taken or derived from an embryo or a foetus or use embryos created by using such cells.
(2) In this section—
“female germ cells” means cells of the female germ line and includes such cells at any stage of maturity and accordingly includes eggs; and
“fertility services” means medical, surgical or obstetric services provided for the purpose of assisting women to carry children.
4 Prohibitions in connection with gametes.
(1) No person shall—
(a) store any gametes, or
(b) in the course of providing treatment services for any woman, use—
(i) any sperm, other than partner-donated sperm which has been neither processed nor stored,
(ii) the woman's eggs after processing or storage, or
(iii) the eggs of any other woman
(c) except in pursuance of a licence.
(1A) No person shall procure, test, process or distribute any gametes intended for human application except in pursuance of a licence or a third party agreement.
(2) A licence cannot authorise storing or using gametes in any circumstances in which regulations prohibit their storage or use.
(3) No person shall place sperm and eggs in a woman in any circumstances specified in regulations except in pursuance of a licence.
(4)Regulations made by virtue of subsection (3) above may provide that, in relation to licences only to place sperm and eggs in a woman in such circumstances, sections 12 to 22 of this Act shall have effect with such modifications as may be specified in the regulations.
(5) Activities regulated by this section or section 3 or 4A of this Act are referred to in this Act as “activities governed by this Act”.
4A Prohibitions in connection with genetic material not of human origin
(1) No person shall place in a woman—
(a) a human admixed embryo,
(b) any other embryo that is not a human embryo, or
(c) any gametes other than human gametes.
(2) No person shall—
(a) mix human gametes with animal gametes,
(b) bring about the creation of a human admixed embryo, or
(c) keep or use a human admixed embryo,except in pursuance of a licence.
(3) A licence cannot authorise keeping or using a human admixed embryo after the earliest of the following—
(a) the appearance of the primitive streak, or
(b) the end of the period of 14 days beginning with the day on which the process of creating the human admixed embryo began, but not counting any time during which the human admixed embryo is stored.
(4) A licence cannot authorise placing a human admixed embryo in an animal.
(5) A licence cannot authorise keeping or using a human admixed embryo in any circumstances in which regulations prohibit its keeping or use.
(6)For the purposes of this Act a human admixed embryo is—
(a) an embryo created by replacing the nucleus of an animal egg or of an animal cell, or two animal pronuclei, with—
(i) two human pronuclei,
(ii) one nucleus of a human gamete or of any other human cell, or
(iii) one human gamete or other human cell,
(b) any other embryo created by using—
(i) human gametes and animal gametes, or
(ii) one human pronucleus and one animal pronucleus,
(c) a human embryo that has been altered by the introduction of any sequence of nuclear or mitochondrial DNA of an animal into one or more cells of the embryo,
(d) a human embryo that has been altered by the introduction of one or more animal cells, or
(e) any embryo not falling within paragraphs (a) to (d) which contains both nuclear or mitochondrial DNA of a human and nuclear or mitochondrial DNA of an animal (“animal DNA”) but in which the animal DNA is not predominant.
(7)In subsection (6)—
(a) references to animal cells are to cells of an animal or of an animal embryo, and
(b) references to human cells are to cells of a human or of a human embryo.
(8) For the purposes of this section an “animal” is an animal other than man.
(9) In this section “embryo” means a live embryo, including an egg that is in the process of fertilisation or is undergoing any other process capable of resulting in an embryo.
(10) In this section—
(a) references to eggs are to live eggs, including cells of the female germ line at any stage of maturity, but (except in subsection (9)) not including eggs that are in the process of fertilisation or are undergoing any other process capable of resulting in an embryo, and
(b) references to gametes are to eggs (as so defined) or to live sperm, including cells of the male germ line at any stage of maturity.
(11) If it appears to the Secretary of State necessary or desirable to do so in the light of developments in science or medicine, regulations may—
(a) amend (but not repeal) paragraphs (a) to (e) of subsection (6);
(b) provide that in this section “embryo”, “eggs” or “gametes” includes things specified in the regulations which would not otherwise fall within the definition.
(12) Regulations made by virtue of subsection (11)(a) may make any amendment of subsection (7) that appears to the Secretary of State to be appropriate in consequence of any amendment of subsection (6).
Chapter 2 - Fundamental Rights and Freedoms: Article 6 Everyone shall be protected in their relations with the public institutions against any physical violation also in cases other than cases under Articles 4 and 5. Everyone shall likewise be protected against body searches, house searches and other such invasions of privacy, against examination of mail or other confidential correspondence, and against eavesdropping and the recording of telephone conversations or other confidential communications.
In addition to what is laid down in paragraph one, everyone shall be protected in their relations with the public institutions against significant invasions of their personal privacy, if these occur without their consent and involve the surveillance or systematic monitoring of the individual’s personal circumstances.
2 kapitlet - Grundläggande fri- och rättigheter: 6 § Var och en är gentemot det allmänna skyddad mot påtvingat kroppsligt ingrepp även i andra fall än som avses i 4 och 5 §§. Var och en är dessutom skyddad mot kroppsvisitation, husrannsakan och liknande intrång samt mot undersökning av brev eller annan förtrolig försändelse och mot hemlig avlyssning eller upptagning av telefonsamtal eller annat förtroligt meddelande. Utöver vad som föreskrivs i första stycket är var och en gentemot det allmänna skyddad mot betydande intrång i den personliga integriteten, om det sker utan samtycke och innebär övervakning eller kartläggning av den enskildes personliga förhållanden.
Artículo 15 Todos tienen derecho a la vida y a la integridad física y moral, sin que, en ningún caso, puedan ser sometidos a tortura ni a penas o tratos inhumanos o degradantes. Queda abolida la pena de muerte, salvo lo que puedan disponer las leyes penales militares para tiempos de guerra.
Article 15 Everyone has the right to life and to physical and moral integrity, and under no circumstances may be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading punishment or treatment. Death penalty is hereby abolished, except as provided for by military criminal law in times of war.
Article 18 No one may be subjected to torture, inhuman or degrading punishment or treatment. The conducting of medical or other scientific experiments on any person without his free consent is prohibited.
Article 35 The inviolability of the physical and mental integrity of every person, his privacy and personality rights shall be guaranteed.
18. člen Nihče ne sme biti podvržen mučenju, nečloveškemu ali ponižujočem kaznovanju ali ravnanju. Na človeku je prepovedano delati medicinske ali druge znanstvene poskuse brez njegove svobodne privolitve.
35. člen Zagotovljena je nedotakljivost človekove telesne in duševne celovitosti, njegove zasebnosti ter osebnostnih pravic.
Article 16( 1) The right of every individual to integrity and privacy shall be guaranteed. This right may be restricted only in cases specifically provided by a law.
Čl. 16 (1) Nedotknuteľnosť osoby a jej súkromia je zaručená. Obmedzená môže byť len v prípadoch ustanovených zákonom.
Articolul 22(1) Dreptul la viata, precum si dreptul la integritate fizica si psihica ale persoanei sunt garantate. (...)
Article 22(1) The right to life, as well as the right to physical and mental integrity of person are guaranteed. (...)
Artigo 25.º (Direito à integridade pessoal) 1. A integridade moral e física das pessoas é inviolável. 2. Ninguém pode ser submetido a tortura, nem a tratos ou penas cruéis, degradantes ou desumanos. Artigo 26.º (Outros direitos pessoais) 3. A lei garantirá a dignidade pessoal e a identidade genética do ser humano, nomeadamente na criação, desenvolvimento e utilização das tecnologias e na experimentação científica.
Article 25 (Right to personal integrity) (1) Every person’s moral and physical integrity is inviolable. (2) No one may be subjected to torture or to cruel, degrading or inhuman treatment or punishment. Article 26 (Other personal rights) (3) The law shall guarantee the personal dignity and genetic identity of the human person, particularly in the creation, development and use of technologies and in scientific experimentation.
Article 39 No one shall be subjected to scientific experimentation, including medical experimentation, without his voluntary consent. Article 41.1 Personal inviolability and security shall be ensured to everyone. Any deprivation or limitation of liberty may be imposed only in accordance with principles and under procedures specified by statute. (...)
Art. 39 Nikt nie może być poddany eksperymentom naukowym, w tym medycznym, bez dobrowolnie wyrażonej zgody.Art. 41.1 Każdemu zapewnia się nietykalność osobistą i wolność osobistą. Pozbawienie lub ograniczenie wolności może nastąpić tylko na zasadach i w trybie określonych w ustawie. (...)
Article 21. (…) No one may be subjected to scientific or medical experimentation without his knowledge and free consent.
21 straipsnis. (...) Su žmogumi, be jo žinios ir laisvo sutikimo, negali būti atliekami moksliniai ar medicinos bandymai.
Article 28 General rules
1. A clinical trial may be conducted only where all of the following conditions are met:
(a) the anticipated benefits to the subjects or to public health justify the foreseeable risks and inconveniences and compliance with this condition is constantly monitored;
(b) the subjects, or where a subject is not able to give informed consent, his or her legally designated representative, have been informed in accordance with Article 29(2) to (6);
(c) the subjects, or where a subject is not able to give informed consent, his or her legally designated representative, have given informed consent in accordance with Article 29(1), (7) and (8);
(d) the rights of the subjects to physical and mental integrity, to privacy and to the protection of the data concerning them in accordance with Directive 95/46/EC are safeguarded;
Article 1 – Purpose and object
Parties to this Convention shall protect the dignity and identity of all human beings and guarantee everyone, without discrimination, respect for their integrity and other rights and fundamental freedoms with regard to the application of biology and medicine.
Each Party shall take in its internal law the necessary measures to give effect to the provisions of this Convention.
Article 7 Crimes against humanity
1. For the purpose of this Statute, "crime against humanity" means any of the following acts when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack:
(d) Deportation or forcible transfer of population;
(e) Imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law;
(g) Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity;
(h) Persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender as defined in paragraph 3, or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law, in connection with any act referred to in this paragraph or any crime within the jurisdiction of the Court;
(i) Enforced disappearance of persons;
(j) The crime of apartheid;
(k) Other inhumane acts of a similar character intentionally causing great suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health.
2. For the purpose of paragraph 1:
(a) "Attack directed against any civilian population" means a course of conduct involving the multiple commission of acts referred to in paragraph 1 against any civilian population, pursuant to or in furtherance of a State or organizational policy to commit such attack;
(b) "Extermination" includes the intentional infliction of conditions of life, inter alia the deprivation of access to food and medicine, calculated to bring about the destruction of part of a population;
(c) "Enslavement" means the exercise of any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over a person and includes the exercise of such power in the course of trafficking in persons, in particular women and children;
(d) "Deportation or forcible transfer of population" means forced displacement of the persons concerned by expulsion or other coercive acts from the area in which they are lawfully present, without grounds permitted under international law;
(e) "Torture" means the intentional infliction of severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, upon a person in the custody or under the control of the accused; except that torture shall not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to, lawful sanctions;
(f) "Forced pregnancy" means the unlawful confinement of a woman forcibly made pregnant, with the intent of affecting the ethnic composition of any population or carrying out other grave violations of international law. This definition shall not in any way be interpreted as affecting national laws relating to pregnancy;
(g) "Persecution" means the intentional and severe deprivation of fundamental rights contrary to international law by reason of the identity of the group or collectivity;
(h) "The crime of apartheid" means inhumane acts of a character similar to those referred to in paragraph 1, committed in the context of an institutionalized regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups and committed with the intention of maintaining that regime;
(i) "Enforced disappearance of persons" means the arrest, detention or abduction of persons by, or with the authorization, support or acquiescence of, a State or a political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge that deprivation of freedom or to give information on the fate or whereabouts of those persons, with the intention of removing them from the protection of the law for a prolonged period of time.
3. For the purpose of this Statute, it is understood that the term "gender" refers to the two sexes, male and female, within the context of society. The term "gender" does not indicate any meaning different from the above.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. In particular, no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific experimentation.
Article 1 – Object and purpose
Parties to this Protocol shall protect the dignity and identity of all human beings and guarantee everyone, without discrimination, respect for their integrity and other rights and fundamental freedoms with regard to the tests to which this Protocol applies in accordance with Article 2.