Právo svobodné volby povolání, zakotvené v odstavci 1 článku 15, je uznáno v judikatuře Soudního dvora (viz mimo jiné rozsudek ze dne 14. května 1974 ve věci 4/73 Nold, Sb. rozh. 1974, s. 491, 12. až 14. bod; rozsudek ze dne 13. prosince 1979 ve věci 44/79 Hauer, Sb. rozh. 1979, s. 3727; rozsudek ze dne 8. října 1986 ve věci 234/85 Keller, Sb. rozh. 1986 s 2897, 8. bod).
Tento odstavec rovněž čerpá z čl. 1 odst. 2 Evropské sociální charty, podepsané dne 18. října 1961 a ratifikované všemi členskými státy, a z bodu 4 Charty základních sociálních práv pracovníků Společenství ze dne 9. prosince 1989. Výraz „pracovní podmínky“ je třeba vykládat ve smyslu článku 156 Smlouvy o fungování Evropské unie.
Odstavec 2 se zabývá třemi svobodami zaručenými články 26, 45, 49 a 56 Smlouvy o fungování Evropské unie, jmenovitě volným pohybem pracovníků, svobodou usazování a svobodou poskytovat služby.
Odstavec 3 je založen na čl. 153 odst. 1 písm. g) Smlouvy o fungování Evropské unie a na čl. 19 odst. 4 Evropské sociální charty, podepsané dne 18. října 1961 a ratifikované všemi členskými státy. Použije se proto čl. 52 odst. 2 Listiny. Otázka najímání námořníků se státní příslušností třetích států do posádek plavidel plujících pod vlajkou členského státu Unie se řídí právem Unie a vnitrostátními právními předpisy a zvyklostmi.
Article 26 (1) Everybody has the right to the free choice of her profession and the training for that profession, as well as the right to engage in enterprise and pursue other economic activity. (2) Conditions and limitations may be set by law upon the right to engage in certain professions or activities. (3) Everybody has the right to acquire the means of her livelihood by work. The State shall provide an adequate level of material security to those citizens who are unable, through no fault of their own, to exercise this right; conditions shall be provided for by law. (4) Different rules for aliens may be provided for by law.
Článek 26 (1) Každý má právo na svobodnou volbu povolání a přípravu k němu, jakož i právo podnikat a provozovat jinou hospodářskou činnost. (2) Zákon může stanovit podmínky a omezení pro výkon určitých povolání nebo činností. (3) Každý má právo získávat prostředky pro své životní potřeby prací. Občany, kteří toto právo nemohou bez své viny vykonávat, stát v přiměřeném rozsahu hmotně zajišťuje; podmínky stanoví zákon. (4) Zákon může stanovit odchylnou úpravu pro cizince.
Artículo 35 1. Todos los españoles tienen el deber de trabajar y el derecho al trabajo, a la libre elección de profesión u oficio, a la promoción a través del trabajo y a una remuneración suficiente para satisfacer sus necesidades y las de su familia, sin que en ningún caso pueda hacerse discriminación por razón de sexo. 2. La ley regulará un estatuto de los trabajadores.
Section 35 (1) All Spaniards have the duty to work and the right to work, to the free choice of profession or trade, to advancement through work, and to a sufficient remuneration for the satisfaction of their needs and those of their families. Under no circumstances may they be discriminated on account of their sex. (2) The law shall regulate a Workers' Statute.
Article 13 In accordance with treaties, aliens in Slovenia enjoy all the rights guaranteed by this Constitution and laws, except for those rights that pursuant to this Constitution or law only citizens of Slovenia enjoy.
Article 49 Freedom of work shall be guaranteed. Everyone shall choose his employment freely. Everyone shall have access under equal conditions to any position of employment. Forced labour shall be prohibited.
Article 66 The state shall create opportunities for employment and work, and shall ensure the protection of both by law.Article 79 Aliens employed in Slovenia and members of their families have special rights provided by law.
13. členTujci imajo v Sloveniji v skladu z mednarodnimi pogodbami vse pravice, zagotovljene s to ustavo in z zakoni, razen tistih, ki jih imajo po ustavi ali po zakonu samo državljani Slovenije.
49. člen Zagotovljena je svoboda dela. Vsakdo prosto izbira zaposlitev. Vsakomur je pod enakimi pogoji dopustno vsako delovno mesto. Prisilno delo je prepovedano.
66. člen Država ustvarja možnosti za zaposlovanje in za delo ter zagotavlja njuno zakonsko varstvo.
79. člen V Sloveniji zaposleni tujci in člani njihovih družin imajo posebne pravice, določene z zakonom.
Article 35 (1) Everyone has the right to a free choice of profession and to appropriate training, as well as the right to conduct entrepreneurial or other gainful activity. (2) Conditions and restrictions with regard to the execution of certain professions or activities may be laid down by law. (3) Citizens have the right to work. The State shall guarantee, within appropriate extent, the material welfare of those who cannot enjoy this right without their own fault. The conditions shall be laid down by law. (4) A law may provide different regulation of the rights specified in paragraphs 1 to 3 with regard to the aliens. Article 38 (1) Women, minors and persons with disabilities are entitled to an enhanced health protection at work as well as to special working conditions. (2) Minors and persons with disabilities are entitled to special protection in labour relations as well as to assistance in professional training.(3) Details concerning rights listed in paragraphs 1 and 2 shall be laid down by law.
Čl. 35(1) Každý má právo na slobodnú voľbu povolania a prípravu naň, ako aj právo podnikať a uskutočňovať inú zárobkovú činnosť. (2) Zákon môže ustanoviť podmienky a obmedzenia výkonu určitých povolaní alebo činností. (3) Občania majú právo na prácu. Štát v primeranom rozsahu hmotne zabezpečuje občanov, ktorí nie z vlastnej viny nemôžu toto právo vykonávať. Podmienky ustanoví zákon. (4) Zákon môže ustanoviť odchylnú úpravu práv uvedených v odsekoch 1 až 3 pre cudzincov. Čl. 38 (1) Ženy, mladiství a osoby zdravotne postihnuté majú právo na zvýšenú ochranu zdravia pri práci a osobitné pracovné podmienky. (2) Mladiství a osoby zdravotne postihnuté majú právo na osobitnú ochranu v pracovných vzťahoch a na pomoc pri príprave na povolanie. (3) Podrobnosti o právach podľa odsekov 1 a 2 ustanoví zákon.
Articolul 41(1) Dreptul la munca nu poate fi îngradit. Alegerea profesiei, a meseriei sau a ocupatiei, precum si a locului de munca este libera. (...)
Article 41 (1) The right to work shall not be restricted. Everyone has a free choice of his/her profession, trade or occupation, as well as work place. (...)
Artigo 47.º (Liberdade de escolha de profissão e acesso à função pública) 1. Todos têm o direito de escolher livremente a profissão ou o género de trabalho, salvas as restrições legais impostas pelo interesse colectivo ou inerentes à sua própria capacidade. Artigo 58.º (Direito ao trabalho) 1. Todos têm direito ao trabalho. 2. Para assegurar o direito ao trabalho, incumbe ao Estado promover: a) A execução de políticas de pleno emprego; b) A igualdade de oportunidades na escolha da profissão ou género de trabalho e condições para que não seja vedado ou limitado, em função do sexo, o acesso a quaisquer cargos, trabalho ou categorias profissionais; c) A formação cultural e técnica e a valorização profissional dos trabalhadores.
Article 47 (Freedom to choose a profession and of access to the public service) (1) Everyone has the right to choose a profession or type of work freely, subject to the legal restrictions that are imposed in the collective interest or the restrictions that are inherent in a person’s own capabilities. Article 58 (Right to work) (1) Everyone shall possess the right to work. (2) In order to ensure the right to work, the state shall be charged with promoting: (a) The implementation of full-employment policies; (b) Equal opportunities in the choice of profession or type of work, and the conditions needed to avoid the gender-based preclusion or limitation of access to any position, work or professional category; (c) Cultural and technical training and vocational development for workers.
Article 24 Work shall be protected by the Republic of Poland. The State shall exercise supervision over the conditions of work.Article 65.1. Everyone shall have the freedom to choose and to pursue his occupation and to choose his place of work. Exceptions shall be specified by statute.(...)
Art. 24.Praca znajduje się pod ochroną Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. Państwo sprawuje nadzór nad warunkami wykonywania pracy. Art. 65. 1. Każdemu zapewnia się wolność wyboru i wykonywania zawodu oraz wyboru miejsca pracy. Wyjątki określa ustawa. (...)
Article 7 The State recognises the right of all citizens to work and shall promote such conditions as will make this right effective.Article 12(1) The State shall protect work. (2) It shall provide for the professional or vocational training and advancement of workers.
Article 11.(4) La loi garantit le droit au travail et l’Etat veille à assurer à chaque citoyen l’exercice de ce droit. Article 11.(6) La liberté du commerce et de l’industrie, l’exercice de la profession libérale et du travail agricole sont garantis, sauf les restrictions à établir par la loi. (...)
Article 11.(4) The law guarantees the right to work and the State sees to [the] assurance to each citizen [of] the exercise of this right. The law guarantees the syndical freedom and organizes the right to strike. Article 11.(6) The freedom of commerce and industry, the exercise of liberal professions and of agricultural labor are guaranteed, save for the restrictions established by the law. (...)
Article 48. Everyone may freely choose a job or business, and shall have the right to have proper, safe, and healthy conditions at work, as well as to receive fair pay for work and social security in the event of unemployment. The work of foreigners in the Republic of Lithuania shall be regulated by law. Forced labour shall be prohibited. Military service or alternative service performed instead of military service, as well as work performed by citizens in time of war, natural disaster, epidemics, or other extreme cases, shall not be considered forced labour. In cases where persons convicted by a court perform work regulated by law, such work shall not be considered forced labour, either.
48 straipsnis. Kiekvienas žmogus gali laisvai pasirinkti darbą bei verslą ir turi teisę turėti tinkamas, saugias ir sveikas darbo sąlygas, gauti teisingą apmokėjimą už darbą ir socialinę apsaugą nedarbo atveju. Užsieniečių darbą Lietuvos Respublikoje reguliuoja įstatymas. Priverčiamasis darbas draudžiamas. Priverčiamuoju darbu nelaikoma tarnyba kariuomenėje ar ją pakeičianti alternatyvioji tarnyba, taip pat piliečių darbas karo, stichinės nelaimės, epidemijos ar kitais ypatingais atvejais. Priverčiamuoju darbu nelaikomas ir įstatymo reguliuojamas teismo nuteistųjų darbas.
106. Everyone has the right to freely choose their employment and workplace according to their abilities and qualifications. Forced labour is prohibited. Participation in the relief of disasters and their effects, and work pursuant to a court order shall not be deemed forced labour. 116. The rights of persons set out in Articles ninety-six, ninety-seven, ninety-eight, one hundred, one hundred and two, one hundred and three, one hundred and six, and one hundred and eight of the Constitution may be subject to restrictions in circumstances provided for by law in order to protect the rights of other people, the democratic structure of the State, and public safety, welfare and morals. On the basis of the conditions set forth in this Article, restrictions may also be imposed on the expression of religious beliefs.
Article 23 - Teaching by researchers
‘Researchers may, in addition to research activities, teach in accordance with national law. Member States may set a maximum number of hours or of days for the activity of teaching.‘
Article 24 - Economic activities by students
‘1. Outside their study time and subject to the rules and conditions applicable to the relevant activity in the Member State concerned, students shall be entitled to be employed and may be entitled to exercise self-employed economic activity, subject to the limitations provided for in paragraph 3.
2. Where necessary, Member States shall grant students and/or employers prior authorisation in accordance with national law.
3. Each Member State shall determine the maximum number of hours per week or days or months per year allowed for such an activity, which shall not be less than 15 hours per week, or the equivalent in days or months per year. The situation of the labour market in the Member State concerned may be taken into account.‘
Article 25 - Stay for the purpose of job-searching or entrepreneurship for researchers and students
‘1. The completion of research or studies, researchers and students shall have the possibility to stay on the territory of the Member State that issued an authorisation under Article 17, on the basis of the residence permit referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article, for a period of at least nine months in order to seek employment or set up a business. [...]‘
Article 23 - Right to equal treatment
‘1. Seasonal workers shall be entitled to equal treatment with nationals of the host Member State at least with regard to:
(a) terms of employment, including the minimum working age, and working conditions, including pay and dismissal, working hours, leave and holidays, as well as health and safety requirements at the workplace;
(b) the right to strike and take industrial action, in accordance with the host Member State’s national law and practice, and freedom of association and affiliation and membership of an organisation representing workers or of any organisation whose members are engaged in a specific occupation, including the rights and benefits conferred by such organisations, including the right to negotiate and conclude collective agreements, without prejudice to the national provisions on public policy and public security;
(c) back payments to be made by the employers, concerning any outstanding remuneration to the third-country national;
(d) branches of social security, as defined in Article 3 of Regulation (EC) No 883/2004;
(e) access to goods and services and the supply of goods and services made available to the public, except housing, without prejudice to the freedom of contract in accordance with Union and national law;
(f) advice services on seasonal work afforded by employment offices;
(g) education and vocational training;
(h) recognition of diplomas, certificates and other professional qualifications in accordance with the relevant national procedures;
(i) tax benefits, in so far as the seasonal worker is deemed to be resident for tax purposes in the Member State concerned.
Seasonal workers moving to a third country, or the survivors of such seasonal workers residing in a third-country deriving rights from the seasonal worker, shall receive statutory pensions based on the seasonal worker’s previous employment and acquired in accordance with the legislation set out in Article 3 of Regulation (EC) No 883/2004, under the same conditions and at the same rates as the nationals of the Member States concerned when they move to a third country.
2. Member States may restrict equal treatment:
(i) under point (d) of the first subparagraph of paragraph 1 by excluding family benefits and unemployment benefits, without prejudice to Regulation (EU) No 1231/2010;
(ii) under point (g) of the first subparagraph of paragraph 1 by limiting its application to education and vocational training which is directly linked to the specific employment activity and by excluding study and maintenance grants and loans or other grants and loans;
(iii) under point (i) of the first subparagraph of paragraph 1 with respect to tax benefits by limiting its application to cases where the registered or usual place of residence of the family members of the seasonal worker for whom he/she claims benefits, lies in the territory of the Member State concerned.
3. The right to equal treatment provided for in paragraph 1 shall be without prejudice to the right of the Member State to withdraw or to refuse to extend or renew the authorisation for the purpose of seasonal work in accordance with Articles 9 and 15.‘
‘(3) The free movement of workers gives every citizen of the Union, irrespective of his or her place of residence, the right to move freely to another Member State in order to work there and/or to reside there for work purposes. It protects them against discrimination on grounds of nationality as regards access to employment, conditions of employment and work, in particular with regard to remuneration, dismissal, and tax and social advantages, by ensuring their equal treatment, under national law, practice and collective agreements, in comparison to nationals of that Member State. Such rights should be enjoyed without discrimination by all Union citizens exercising their right to free movement, including permanent, seasonal and frontier workers. The free movement of workers needs to be distinguished from the freedom to provide services, which includes the right of undertakings to provide services in another Member State, for which they may post their own workers to another Member State temporarily in order for them to carry out the work necessary to provide services in that Member State.‘
‘(17) Protection against discrimination based on the grounds of nationality would itself be strengthened by the existence of effective bodies with appropriate expertise in each Member State with competence to promote equal treatment, to analyse the problems faced by Union workers and members of their family, to study possible solutions and to provide specific assistance to them. The competence of those bodies should include, inter alia, the provision to Union workers and members of their family of independent legal and/or other assistance, such as the provision of legal advice on the application to them of the relevant Union and national rules on free movement of workers, of information about complaint procedures, and of help to protect the rights of workers and members of their family. It may also include assistance in legal proceedings.‘
‘(25) This Directive aims to facilitate mobility of intra-corporate transferees within the Union (‘intra-EU mobility’) and to reduce the administrative burden associated with work assignments in several Member States. For this purpose, this Directive sets up a specific intra-EU mobility scheme whereby the holder of a valid intra-corporate transferee permit issued by a Member State is allowed to enter, to stay and to work in one or more Member States in accordance with the provisions governing short-term and long-term mobility under this Directive. [...]‘
‘7. In taking measures on employment and decent work in response to crisis situations arising from conflicts and disasters, and with a view to prevention, Members should take into account the following:
(a) the promotion of full, productive, freely chosen employment and decent work which are vital to promoting peace, preventing crises, enabling recovery and building resilience;
(b) the need to respect, promote and realize the fundamental principles and rights at work, other human rights and other relevant international labour standards, and to take into account other international instruments and documents, as appropriate and applicable; [...].‘