Článek 39 se uplatňuje za podmínek stanovených ve Smlouvách v souladu s čl. 52 odst. 2 Listiny. Odstavec 1 článku 39 odpovídá právu zaručenému v čl. 20 odst. 2 Smlouvy o fungování Evropské unie (viz rovněž právní základ pro přijetí opatření pro výkon tohoto práva v článku 22 Smlouvy o fungování Evropské unie) a odstavec 2 uvedeného článku odpovídá čl. 14 odst. 3 Smlouvy o Evropské unii. Odstavec 2 článku 39 přejímá základní zásady volebního systému v demokratickém státě.
Article 21 (1) Citizens have the right to participate in the administration of public affairs either directly or through the free election of their representatives. (2) Elections must be held within terms not exceeding the regular electoral terms provided for by law. (3) The right to vote is universal and equal, and shall be exercised by secret ballot. The conditions for exercising the right to vote shall be provided for by law. (4) Citizens shall have access, on an equal basis, to any elective and other public office.
Article 18 (1) Elections to the Chamber of Deputies shall be held by secret ballot on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage and under the principles of proportional representation. (2) Elections to the Senate shall be held by secret ballot on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage and under the principles of the majority system. (3) Every citizen of the Czech Republic who has attained the age of eighteen years shall have the right to vote. Article 19 (1) Every citizen of the Czech Republic who has the right to vote and who has attained the age of twenty-one years may be elected to the Chamber of Deputies. (2) Every citizen of the Czech Republic who has the right to vote and who has attained the age of forty years may be elected to the Senate. (3) The mandate of a Deputy or a Senator shall be established on his or her election. Article 21 Nobody may be at the same time member of both chambers of the Parliament. Article 22 (1) The office of Deputy or Senator shall be incompatible with the exercise of the office of the President of the Republic, of a judge or of other offices specified by law. (2) On the day when a Deputy or Senator assumes the office of President of the Republic or on the day when he or she assumes the office of judge or another office incompatible with the office of Deputy or Senator, his or her mandate as Deputy or Senator shall cease.
Článek 21 (1) Občané mají právo podílet se na správě veřejných věcí přímo nebo svobodnou volbou svých zástupců. (2) Volby se musí konat ve lhůtách nepřesahujících pravidelná volební období stanovená zákonem. (3) Volební právo je všeobecné a rovné a vykonává se tajným hlasováním. Podmínky výkonu volebního práva stanoví zákon. (4) Občané mají za rovných podmínek přístup k voleným a jiným veřejným funkcím.
Entitlement to vote8. Persons entitled to vote(1) A person is entitled to vote as an elector at an election to the European Parliament in an electoral region if he is within any of subsections (2) to (5). (2) A person is within this subsection if on the day of the poll he would be entitled to vote as an elector at a parliamentary election in a parliamentary constituency wholly or partly comprised in the electoral region, and-(a) the address in respect of which he is registered in the relevant register of parliamentary electors is within the electoral region, or(b) his registration in the relevant register of parliamentary electors results from an overseas elector's declaration which specifies an address within the electoral region. (3) A person is within this subsection if-(a) he is a peer who on the day of the poll would be entitled to vote at a local government election in an electoral area wholly or partly comprised in the electoral region, and(b) the address in respect of which he is registered in the relevant register of local government electors is within the electoral region. (4) A person is within this subsection if he is entitled to vote in the electoral region by virtue of section 3 of the Representation of the People Act 1985 (c. 50) (peers resident outside the United Kingdom). (5) A person is within this subsection if he is entitled to vote in the electoral region by virtue of the European Parliamentary Elections (Franchise of Relevant Citizens of the Union) Regulations 2001 (S.I. 2001/1184) (citizens of the European Union other than Commonwealth and Republic of Ireland citizens). (6) Subsection (1) has effect subject to any provision of regulations made under this Act which provides for alterations made after a specified date in a register of electors to be disregarded. (7) In subsection (3) "local government election" includes a municipal election in the City of London (that is, an election to the office of mayor, alderman, common councilman or sheriff and also the election of any officer elected by the mayor, aldermen and liverymen in common hall).
Chapter 1 - Basic principles of the form of government: Article 1 All public power in Sweden proceeds from the people. Swedish democracy is founded on the free formation of opinion and on universal and equal suffrage. It is realised through a representative and parliamentary form of government and through local self-government. Public power is exercised under the law.
1 kapitlet - Statsskickets grunder: 1 § All offentlig makt i Sverige utgår från folket. Den svenska folkstyrelsen bygger på fri åsiktsbildning och på allmän och lika rösträtt. Den förverkligas genom ett representativt och parlamentariskt statsskick och genom kommunal självstyrelse. Den offentliga makten utövas under lagarna.
Artículo 23 1. Los ciudadanos tienen el derecho a participar en los asuntos públicos, directamente o por medio de representantes, libremente elegidos en elecciones periódicas por sufragio universal.
2. Asimismo, tienen derecho a acceder en condiciones de igualdad a las funciones y cargos públicos, con los requisitos que señalen las leyes.
Constitution of the Kingdom of SpainArticle 23 1.Citizens have the right to participate in public affairs, directly or through representatives freely elected in periodic elections by universal suffrage. 2. They also have the right to accede under conditions of equality to public functions and positions, in accordance with the requirements laid down by the law.
II. VOTING RIGHTArticle 10A female or male citizen (hereinafter: "a citizen") of the Republic of Slovenia who has the right to vote and to be elected a deputy of the National Assembly, shall have the right to vote and to be elected a MEP.Subject to the conditions from the previous paragraph, also a citizen of another EU Member State whose permanent residence is in the Republic of Slovenia shall have the right to vote and to be elected a MEP, provided that he/she has not been deprived of the voting right and provided that he/she is registered in the voting rights register.On the same elections to the European Parliament, a female or male voter (hereinafter: "a voter") may only vote once and may only stand as a candidate in the elections on one list of candidates.A citizen of the Republic of Slovenia who does not have a permanent residence in the Republic of Slovenia and who exercises the voting right for the elections of MEPs in another country, may not exercise the voting right for the elections of MEPs from the Republic of Slovenia.The voting rights register and the composition of electoral rolls shall be regulated by law.
Article 30 (1) Citizens have the right to participate in the administration of public affairs either directly or through the free election of their representatives. Foreigners with a permanent residence on the territory of the Slovak Republic have the right to vote and be elected in the self-administration bodies of municipalities and self-administration bodies of superior territorial units. (2) Elections must be held within deadlines not exceeding the regular electoral period as laid down by law. (3) The right to vote is universal, equal, and direct and is exercised by means of secret ballot. Conditions for exercising the right to vote shall be laid down by law. (4) Citizens have access to elected and other public posts under equal conditions. Article 31 The legal regulation of all political rights and freedoms and their interpretation and use must enable and protect a free competition of political forces in a democratic society. Article 32 Citizens have the right to put up resistance against anyone who would eliminate the democratic order of basic human rights and freedoms listed in this Constitution, if the activity of constitutional bodies and the effective use of legal means are rendered impossible.
Čl. 30 (1) Občania majú právo zúčastňovať sa na správe verejných vecí priamo alebo slobodnou voľbou svojich zástupcov. Cudzinci s trvalým pobytom na území Slovenskej republiky majú právo voliť a byť volení do orgánov samosprávy obcí a do orgánov samosprávy vyšších územných celkov.(2) Voľby sa musia konať v lehotách nepresahujúcich pravidelné volebné obdobie ustanovené zákonom. (3) Volebné právo je všeobecné, rovné a priame a vykonáva sa tajným hlasovaním. Podmienky výkonu volebného práva ustanoví zákon. (4) Občania majú za rovnakých podmienok prístup k voleným a iným verejným funkciám. Čl. 31 Zákonná úprava všetkých politických práv a slobôd a jej výklad a používanie musia umožňovať a ochraňovať slobodnú súťaž politických síl v demokratickej spoločnosti. Čl. 32 Občania majú právo postaviť sa na odpor proti každému, kto by odstraňoval demokratický poriadok základných ľudských práv a slobôd uvedených v tejto ústave, ak činnosť ústavných orgánov a účinné použitie zákonných prostriedkov sú znemožnené.
Articolul 38În conditiile aderarii României la Uniunea Europeana, cetatenii români au dreptul de a alege si de a fi alesi în Parlamentul European.
Article 38 After Romania's accession to the European Union, Romanian citizens shall have the right to elect and be elected to the European Parliament.
Artigo 15.º (Estrangeiros, apátridas, cidadãos europeus) 4. A lei pode atribuir a estrangeiros residentes no território nacional, em condições de reciprocidade, capacidade eleitoral activa e passiva para a eleição dos titulares de órgãos de autarquias locais. 5. A lei pode ainda atribuir, em condições de reciprocidade, aos cidadãos dos Estados-membros da União Europeia residentes em Portugal o direito de elegerem e serem eleitos Deputados ao Parlamento Europeu. Artigo 49.º (Direito de sufrágio) 1. Têm direito de sufrágio todos os cidadãos maiores de dezoito anos, ressalvadas as incapacidades previstas na lei geral. 2. O exercício do direito de sufrágio é pessoal e constitui um dever cívico. Artigo 50.º (Direito de acesso a cargos públicos) 1. Todos os cidadãos têm o direito de acesso, em condições de igualdade e liberdade, aos cargos públicos. 2. Ninguém pode ser prejudicado na sua colocação, no seu emprego, na sua carreira profissional ou nos benefícios sociais a que tenha direito, em virtude do exercício de direitos políticos ou do desempenho de cargos públicos. 3. No acesso a cargos electivos a lei só pode estabelecer as inelegibilidades necessárias para garantir a liberdade de escolha dos eleitores e a isenção e independência do exercício dos respectivos cargos. Artigo 109.º (Participação política dos cidadãos) A participação directa e activa de homens e mulheres na vida política constitui condição e instrumento fundamental de consolidação do sistema democrático, devendo a lei promover a igualdade no exercício dos direitos cívicos e políticos e a não discriminação em função do sexo no acesso a cargos políticos. Artigo 113.º (Princípios gerais de direito eleitoral) 1. O sufrágio directo, secreto e periódico constitui a regra geral de designação dos titulares dos órgãos electivos da soberania, das regiões autónomas e do poder local.
Article 15 (Foreigners, stateless persons, European citizens) (4) Under reciprocal terms, the law may accord foreigners who reside in Portugal the eligibility to vote for and stand for election as officeholders of local authority organs. (5) Under reciprocal terms, the law may also accord citizens of European Union Member States who reside in Portugal the eligibility to vote for and stand for election as Members of the European Parliament. Article 49 (Right to vote) (1) Every citizen who has attained the age of eighteen years has the right to vote, subject to the incapacities provided for in the general law. (2) The right to vote shall be exercised personally and constitutes a civic duty. Article 50 (Right of access to public office) (1) Every citizen has the right of access to public office under equal and free conditions. (2) No one may be prejudiced in his appointments, job or professional career or the social benefits to which he is entitled, due to the exercise of political rights or of public office. (3) In governing the right of access to elected office, the law may only lay down the ineligibilities needed to guarantee both the electors’ freedom of choice, and independence and absence of bias in the exercise of the offices in question. Article 109 (Citizens’ participation in politics) The direct and active participation in political life by men and women is a condition for and a fundamental instrument in the consolidation of the democratic system, and the law must promote both equality in the exercise of civic and political rights and the absence of gender-based discrimination in access to political office. Article 113 (General principles of electoral law) (1) Direct, secret and periodic suffrage is the general rule for the appointment of the officeholders of the elected entities that exercise sovereignty, elected organs of autonomous regions and elected local government organs.
Article 62.1. If, no later than on the day of vote, he has attained 18 years of age, a Polish citizen shall have the right to participate in a referendum and the right to vote for the President of the Republic of Poland as well as representatives to the Sejm and Senate and organs of local self-government.Article 96.1. The Sejm shall be composed of 460 Deputies.2. Elections to the Sejm shall be universal, equal, direct and proportional and shall be conducted by secret ballot. Article 97.1. The Senate shall be composed of 100 Senators.2. Elections to the Senate shall be universal, direct and shall be conducted by secret ballot.Article 99.1. Every citizen having the right to vote, who, no later than on the day of the elections, has attained the age of 21 years, shall be eligible to be elected to the Sejm.(...)
Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej Art. 62.1. Obywatel polski ma prawo udziału w referendum oraz prawo wybierania Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej, posłów, senatorów i przedstawicieli do organów samorządu terytorialnego, jeżeli najpóźniej w dniu głosowania kończy 18 lat. Art. 96.1. Sejm składa się z 460 posłów. 2. Wybory do Sejmu są powszechne, równe, bezpośrednie i proporcjonalne oraz odbywają się w głosowaniu tajnym. Art. 97.1 Senat składa się ze 100 senatorów. 2. Wybory do Senatu są powszechne, bezpośrednie i odbywają się w głosowaniu tajnym. Art. 99.1 Wybrany do Sejmu może być obywatel polski mający prawo wybierania, który najpóźniej w dniu wyborów kończy 21 lat.
Article 10 Every person whose name appears in the Electoral Registerlast published before the date fixed for the election and everyperson whose name appears in the European Union ElectoralRegister and who in either case has not, following the publicationof the said Electoral Register or the said European Union ElectoralRegister, been convicted of any offence connected with the electionof members to the House of Representatives or with the election ofmembers of Local Councils or with the election of members of theEuropean Parliament shall be entitled to vote in elections ofmembers of the European Parliament.
Article 18.Subject to the provisions of article 19, a person shall bequalified to stand for election as a member of the EuropeanParliament if such person is registered as a voter in the ElectoralRegister or in the European Union Electoral Register:Provided that public officers or any class or classes thereofmay be restricted from standing for election as members of theEuropean Parliament by the Public Service Management Code orsuch other regulations, rules or norms applicable from time to timeto the Public Service.
Article 9. (…) la loi peut conférer l’exercice de droits politiques à des non-Luxembourgeois. Article 51.(4) L’élection est directe. Article 51.(5) Les députés sont élus sur la base du suffrage universel pur et simple, au scrutin de liste, suivant les règles de la représentation
proportionnelle, conformément au principe du plus petit quotient électoral et suivant les règles à déterminer par la loi. Article 52. Pour être électeur, il faut:
1° être Luxembourgeois ou Luxembourgeoise;
2° jouir des droits civils et politiques;
3° être âgé de dix-huit ans accomplis.
Il faut en outre réunir à ces trois qualités celles déterminées par la loi. Aucune condition de cens ne pourra être exigée.
Pour être éligible, il faut:
1° être Luxembourgeois ou Luxembourgeoise;
2° jouir des droits civils et politiques;
3° être âgé de dix-huit ans accomplis;
4° être domicilié dans le Grand-Duché. Aucune autre condition d’éligibilité ne pourra être requise.
Article 9. (…) the law can confer the exercise of political rights on non-Luxembourgers. Article 51.(4) The election is direct. Article 51.(5) The Deputies are elected on the basis of universal suffrage pure and simple, on [a party] list ballot, following the rules of proportional representation, conforming to the principle of the smallest electoral quotient and following the rules to be determined by the law. Article 52. To be an elector, it is necessary:
1. to be a Luxembourger [masculine] or Luxembourger [feminine];
2. to enjoy civil and political rights;
3. to have completed 18 years of age;
To these three qualities shall be added those determined by the law. No tax
condition may be required. To be eligible, it is necessary: 1. to be a Luxembourger [masculine] or Luxembourger [feminine];
2. to enjoy civil and political rights;
3. to have completed 18 years of age; 4. to be domiciled in the Grand Duchy.
No other condition of eligibility may be imposed.
amending the Act concerning the election of the representatives of the European. Parliament by direct universal suffrage, annexed to Decision 76/787/ECSC, EEC, Euratom
laying down detailed arrangements for the exercise of the right to vote and stand as a candidate in elections to the European Parliament for citizens of the Union residing in a Member State of which they are not nationals
‘(33) For reasons of transparency, and in order to strengthen the scrutiny and the democratic accountability of European political parties and European political foundations, information considered to be of substantial public interest, relating in particular to their statutes, membership, financial statements, donors and donations, contributions and grants received from the general budget of the European Union, as well as information relating to decisions taken by the Authority and the Authorising Officer of the European Parliament on registration, funding and sanctions, should be published. Establishing a regulatory framework to ensure that this information is publicly available is the most effective means of promoting a level playing field and fair competition between political forces, and of upholding open, transparent and democratic legislative and electoral processes, thereby strengthening the trust of citizens and voters in European representative democracy and, more broadly, preventing corruption and abuses of power.‘