Článek 45 - Volný pohyb a pobyt
Právo zaručené odstavcem 1 je právem zaručeným čl. 20 odst. 2 písm. a) Smlouvy o fungování Evropské unie (viz rovněž právní základ v článku 21 a rozsudek Soudního dvora ze dne 17. září 2002 ve věci C-413/99 Baumbast, Sb. rozh. 2002, s. I-7091). V souladu s čl. 52 odst. 2 Listiny je vykonáváno za podmínek a v rámci omezení vymezených ve Smlouvách.
Odstavec 2 odkazuje na pravomoc svěřenou Unii články 77, 78 a 79 Smlouvy o fungování Evropské unie. Z toho vyplývá, že udělení tohoto práva závisí na výkonu této pravomoci orgány.
Artikel 2(...) 4.Ieder heeft het recht het land te verlaten, behoudens in de gevallen, bij de wet bepaald.
Article 14 (1) The freedom of movement and of residence is guaranteed. (2) Everyone who is legitimately staying within the territory of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic has the right freely to leave it. (3) These freedoms may be limited by law if such is unavoidable for the security of the state, the maintenance of public order, the protection of the rights and freedoms of others or, in demarcated areas, for the purpose of protecting nature. (4) Every citizen is free to enter the territory of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic. No citizen may be forced to leave her homeland. (5) An alien may be expelled only in cases specified by the law.
Článek 14 (1) Svoboda pohybu a pobytu je zaručena. (2) Každý, kdo se oprávněně zdržuje na území České a Slovenské Federativní Republiky, má právo svobodně je opustit. (3) Tyto svobody mohou být omezeny zákonem, jestliže je to nevyhnutelné pro bezpečnost státu, udržení veřejného pořádku, ochranu zdraví nebo ochranu práv a svobod druhých a na vymezených územích též z důvodu ochrany přírody. (4) Každý občan má právo na svobodný vstup na území České a Slovenské Federativní Republiky. Občan nemůže být nucen k opuštění své vlasti. (5) Cizinec může být vyhoštěn jen v případech stanovených zákonem.
Chapter 2 - Fundamental rights and freedom: Article 7 No Swedish citizen may be deported from or refused entry into the Realm. No Swedish citizen who is domiciled in the Realm or who has previously been domiciled in the Realm may be deprived of his or her citizenship. It may however be prescribed that children under the age of eighteen
shall have the same nationality as their parents or as one parent; Article 8 Everyone shall be protected in their relations with the public institutions against deprivations of personal liberty. All Swedish citizens shall also in other respects be guaranteed freedom of movement within the Realm and freedom to depart the Realm.
2 kapitlet - Grundläggande fri- och rättigheter: 7 § Ingen svensk medborgare får landsförvisas eller hindras att resa in i riket. Ingen svensk medborgare som är eller har varit bosatt i riket får fråntas sitt medborgarskap. Det får dock föreskrivas att barn under arton år i fråga om sitt medborgarskap ska följa föräldrarna eller en av dem; 8 § Var och en är gentemot det allmänna skyddad mot frihetsberövanden. Den som är svensk medborgare är även i övrigt tillförsäkrad frihet att förflytta sig inom riket och att lämna det.
Artículo 19Los españoles tienen derecho a elegir libremente su residencia y a circular por el territorio nacional. Asimismo, tienen derecho a entrar y salir libremente de España en los términos que la ley establezca. Este derecho no podrá ser limitado por motivos políticos o ideológicos.
Section 19 Spaniards have the right to freely choose their place of residence, and to freely move about within the national territory. Likewise, they have the right to freely enter and leave Spain subject to the conditions to be laid down by the law. This right may not be restricted for political or ideological reasons.
Article 32 Everyone has the right to freedom of movement, to choose his place of residence, to leave the country and to return at any time.This right may be limited by law, but only where this is necessary to ensure the course of criminal proceedings, to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, to protect public order or if the defence of the state so demands.Entry into the country by aliens, and the duration of their stay in the country, may be limited on the basis of law.
32. člen Vsakdo ima pravico, da se prosto giblje in si izbira prebivališče, da zapusti državo in se vanjo kadarkoli vrne. Ta pravica se sme omejiti z zakonom, vendar samo, če je to potrebno, da bi se zagotovil potek kazenskega postopka, da bi se preprečilo širjenje nalezljivih bolezni, se zavaroval javni red, ali če to zahtevajo interesi obrambe države. Tujcem se na podlagi zakona lahko omeji vstop v državo in čas bivanja v njej.
Article 23 (1) Freedom of movement and right of abode are guaranteed. (2) Everyone who is rightfully staying on the territory of the Slovak Republic has the right to freely leave this territory. (3) Freedoms under paragraphs 1 and 2 may be restricted by law, if it is necessary for the security of the state, to maintain public order, protect the health and the rights and freedoms of others, and, in designated areas, also in the interest of environmental protection. (4) Every citizen has the right to freely enter the territory of the Slovak Republic. A citizen may not be forced to leave the homeland and may not be deported. (5) A foreign national may be deported only in cases laid down by law.
Čl. 23 (1) Sloboda pohybu a pobytu sa zaručuje. (2) Každý, kto sa oprávnene zdržiava na území Slovenskej republiky, má právo toto územie slobodne opustiť. (3) Slobody podľa odsekov 1 a 2 môžu byť obmedzené zákonom, ak je to nevyhnutné pre bezpečnosť štátu, udržanie verejného poriadku, ochranu zdravia alebo ochranu práv a slobôd iných a na vymedzených územiach aj v záujme ochrany prírody. (4) Každý občan má právo na slobodný vstup na územie Slovenskej republiky. Občana nemožno nútiť, aby opustil vlasť, a nemožno ho vyhostiť. (5) Cudzinca možno vyhostiť iba v prípadoch ustanovených zákonom.
Article 25(1) The right of free movement within the national territory and abroad is guaranteed. The law shall lay down the conditions for the exercise of this right. (2) Every citizen is guaranteed the right to establish his domicile or residence anywhere in the country, to emigrate, and to return to his country.
Articolul 25(1) Dreptul la libera circulatie, în tara si în strainatate, este garantat. Legea stabileste conditiile exercitarii acestui drept. (2) Fiecarui cetatean îi este asigurat dreptul de a-si stabili domiciliul sau resedinta în orice localitate din tara, de a emigra, precum si de a reveni în tara.
Artigo 44.º (Direito de deslocação e de emigração) 1. A todos os cidadãos é garantido o direito de se deslocarem e fixarem livremente em qualquer parte do território nacional. 2. A todos é garantido o direito de emigrar ou de sair do território nacional e o direito de regressar. Article 44 (Right to travel and to emigrate) (1) The right of all citizens to travel and settle freely anywhere in the national territory is guaranteed. (2) The right to emigrate or leave the national territory and the right to return to it is guaranteed to everyone.
Article 44 (Right to travel and to emigrate) (1) The right of all citizens to travel and settle freely anywhere in the national territory is guaranteed. (2) The right to emigrate or leave the national territory and the right to return to it is guaranteed to everyone.
Article 52.1. Freedom of movement as well as the choice of place of residence and sojourn within the territory of the Republic of Poland shall be ensured to everyone.2. Everyone may freely leave the territory of the Republic of Poland.3. The freedoms specified in paras. 1 and 2 above may be subject to limitations specified by statute.4. A Polish citizen may not be expelled from the country nor forbidden to return to it.5. Anyone whose Polish origin has been confirmed in accordance with statute may settle permanently in Poland.
Art. 52.1. Każdemu zapewnia się wolność poruszania się po terytorium Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej oraz wyboru miejsca zamieszkania i pobytu.2. Każdy może swobodnie opuścić terytorium Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej.3. Wolności, o których mowa w ust. 1 i 2, mogą podlegać ograniczeniom określonym w ustawie. 4. Obywatela polskiego nie można wydalić z kraju ani zakazać mu powrotu do kraju.5. Osoba, której pochodzenie polskie zostało stwierdzone zgodnie z ustawą, może osiedlić się na terytorium Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na stałe.
Article 44(1) No citizen of Malta shall be deprived of his freedom of movement, and for the purpose of this article the said freedom means the right to move freely throughout Malta, the right to reside in any part of Malta, the right to leave and the right to enter Malta. (2) Any restriction on a citizen’s freedom of movement that is involved in his lawful detention shall not be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this article.
Article 32. Citizens may move and choose their place of residence in Lithuania freely and may leave Lithuania freely. These rights may not be restricted otherwise than by law when this is necessary for the protection of the security of the State or the health of people, or for the administration of justice. Citizens may not be prohibited from returning to Lithuania. Everyone who is Lithuanian may settle in Lithuania.
‘(2) The free movement of workers is also a key element in the development of a genuine Union labour market, allowing workers to move to areas where there are labour shortages or more employment opportunities, helping more people find posts which are better suited to their skills and overcoming bottlenecks in the labour market.
(3) The free movement of workers gives every citizen of the Union, irrespective of his or her place of residence, the right to move freely to another Member State in order to work there and/or to reside there for work purposes. It protects them against discrimination on grounds of nationality as regards access to employment, conditions of employment and work, in particular with regard to remuneration, dismissal, and tax and social advantages, by ensuring their equal treatment, under national law, practice and collective agreements, in comparison to nationals of that Member State. Such rights should be enjoyed without discrimination by all Union citizens exercising their right to free movement, including permanent, seasonal and frontier workers. The free movement of workers needs to be distinguished from the freedom to provide services, which includes the right of undertakings to provide services in another Member State, for which they may post their own workers to another Member State temporarily in order for them to carry out the work necessary to provide services in that Member State.‘
Article 3 - Defence of rights
‘1. Member States shall ensure that after possible recourse to other competent authorities including, where they deem it to be appropriate, conciliation procedures, judicial procedures, for the enforcement of obligations under Article 45 TFEU and under Articles 1 to 10 of Regulation (EU) No 492/2011, are available to all Union workers and members of their family who consider that they have suffered or are suffering from unjustified restrictions and obstacles to their right to free movement or who consider themselves wronged by a failure to apply the principle of equal treatment to them, even after the relationship in which the restriction and obstacle or discrimination is alleged to have occurred has ended.‘
‘(2) The TFEU provides that the Union is to develop a common immigration policy aimed at ensuring, at all stages, the efficient management of migration flows and fair treatment of third-country nationals residing legally in Member States. To that end, the European Parliament and the Council are to adopt measures on the conditions of entry and residence, and standards on the issue by Member States of long-term visas and residence permits, as well as the definition of the rights of third-country nationals residing legally in a Member State, including the conditions governing freedom of movement and of residence in other Member States.‘
‘(26) While the specific mobility scheme established by this Directive should lay down autonomous rules regarding entry and stay for the purpose of work as an intra-corporate transferee in Member States other than the one that issued the intra-corporate transferee permit, all the other rules governing the movement of persons across borders as laid down in the relevant provisions of the Schengen acquis continue to apply.‘
‘(26) The exercise of the right of freedom of movement for workers would be facilitated by setting up the means to support clearance in order to make the labour market fully accessible to both workers and employers. A common IT platform should therefore be further developed at Union level and run by the Commission. Securing that right means empowering workers to gain access to employment opportunities throughout the Union.‘
‘(29) In order to promote freedom of movement for workers, all job vacancies made publicly available through PES and other EURES Members or, where relevant, EURES Partners, should be published on the EURES portal. However, in specific circumstances and with the objective of ensuring that the EURES portal contains only information relevant for mobility within the Union, Member States should be allowed to provide employers with the possibility not to have a job vacancy published on the EURES portal following an objective assessment by the employer of the requirements relating to the job in question, namely specific skills and competences required in order to adequately perform the job duties, on the basis of which the employer justifies not publishing the vacancy for those reasons alone.‘
‘(42) Support services for workers are connected to the exercise of their fundamental freedom of movement as workers under Union law and should be free of charge. However, support services for employers may be subject to a fee, in accordance with national law and practice.‘
‘(9) It is necessary to consolidate the social dimensions of the internal market. Given the need to enhance confidence in the internal market, including the free movement of services, through ensuring respect for workers' rights, it is necessary to ensure that the respective rights of workers and entrepreneurs to freedom of movement are accorded equal status throughout the Union.‘
‘(17) In accordance with Articles 45 and 46 TFEU, Regulation (EU) No 492/2011 lays down provisions intended to achieve freedom of movement for workers on a non-discriminatory basis by ensuring the close cooperation of the central employment services of Member States with one another and with the Commission. EURES, which is the European network of employment services, should promote the better functioning of the labour markets by facilitating the voluntary transnational cross-border geographical mobility of workers, providing greater transparency on the labour market, ensuring the clearance of vacancies and applications for employment and supporting activities in the areas of placement, recruitment, advice and guidance services at national and cross-border level, thereby contributing to the objectives of Europe 2020. Member States should be encouraged to integrate EURES services, making them available in a "one-stop shop", where appropriate.‘