eu-charter

EU:n perusoikeuskirja

16 artikla - Elinkeinovapaus

16 artikla - Elinkeinovapaus

Elinkeinovapaus tunnustetaan unionin oikeuden sekä kansallisten lainsäädäntöjen ja käytäntöjen mukaisesti.

  • Text:

    Artikla perustuu yhteisöjen tuomioistuimen oikeuskäytäntöön. Tuomioistuin on tunnustanut vapauden harjoittaa taloudellista tai kaupallista toimintaa (ks. tuomio 14.5.1974, asiassa 4/73, Nold, Kok. 1974, s. 491, n:o 14 ja tuomio 27.9.1979, asiassa 230–78, SpA Eridania ja muut, Kok. 1979, s. 2749, n:o 20 ja 31) sekä sopimusvapauden (ks. mm. tuomio `Sukkerfabriken Nykøbing`, asiassa 151/78, Kok. 1979, s. 1, n:o 19; tuomio 5.10.1999, Espanja vs. komissio, C–240/97, Kok. [1999], s. I–6571, perusteluissa n:o 99). Lisäksi artikla perustuu Euroopan unionin toiminnasta tehdyn sopimuksen 119 artiklan 1 ja 3 kohtaan, jossa tunnustetaan vapaan kilpailun periaate. Tätä oikeutta käytetään luonnollisesti unionin oikeutta ja kansallisia lainsäädäntöjä noudattaen. Sitä voivat koskea perusoikeuskirjan 52 artiklan 1 kohdassa määritetyt rajoitukset.

    Source:
    Euroopan unionin virallinen lehti C 303/17 - 14.12.2007
    Preamble - Explanations relating to the Charter of Fundamental Rights:
    Nämä selitykset on alun perin laatinut Euroopan unionin perusoikeuskirjan valmistelukunnan puheenjohtajisto. Eurooppa-valmistelukunnan puheenjohtajisto on saattanut ne ajan tasalle tämän valmistelukunnan perusoikeuskirjaan tekemien tekstimuutosten (erityisesti 51 ja 52 artikla) ja unionin oikeuden myöhemmän kehittymisen perusteella. Vaikka niillä ei sellaisenaan ole oikeudellista merkitystä, ne ovat arvokas tulkinnan väline, jonka tarkoituksena on selventää perusoikeuskirjan määräyksiä.
  • Harley-Davidson Europe Ltd and Neovia Logistics Services International v European Commission
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    Court of Justice of the European Union
    Deciding body:
    General Court (Eighth Chamber, Extended Composition)
    Type:
    Decision
    Policy area:
    Customs
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:EU:T:2023:101
  • J.K. v TP S.A.
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    Court of Justice of the European Union
    Deciding body:
    Court (Second Chamber)
    Type:
    Decision
    Policy area:
    Employment and social policy
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:EU:C:2023:9
  • DILIA, theatrical, literary, audiovisual agency against the defendant Uloz.to cloud a.s.
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    National Court/Tribunal
    Deciding body:
    Supreme Court
    Type:
    Decision
    Policy area:
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:CZ:NS:2022:23.CDO.1840.2021.3
  • Private person vs. operator of the internet search engine “Google.de”
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    National Court/Tribunal
    Deciding body:
    Federal Court of Justice
    Type:
    Decision
    Policy area:
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:DE:BGH:2022:030522UVIZR832.20.0
  • Hungary v European Parliament and Council of the European Union
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    Court of Justice of the European Union
    Deciding body:
    Court (Full Court)
    Type:
    Decision
    Policy area:
    Institutional affairs
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:EU:C:2022:97
  • Republic of Poland v European Parliament and Council of the European Union
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    Court of Justice of the European Union
    Deciding body:
    Court (Full Court)
    Type:
    Decision
    Policy area:
    Internal market
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:EU:C:2022:98
  • Bank Melli Iran v Telekom Deutschland GmbH
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    Court of Justice of the European Union
    Deciding body:
    Court (Grand Chamber)
    Type:
    Decision
    Policy area:
    External trade
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:EU:C:2021:1035
  • Consorzio Italian Management and Catania Multiservizi SpA v Rete Ferroviaria Italiana SpA
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    Court of Justice of the European Union
    Deciding body:
    Court (Grand Chamber)
    Type:
    Decision
    Policy area:
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:EU:C:2021:799
  • Irish Ferries Ltd v National Transport Authority
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    Court of Justice of the European Union
    Deciding body:
    Court (Fourth Chamber)
    Type:
    Decision
    Policy area:
    Transport
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:EU:C:2021:664
  • IX v WABE eV and MH Müller Handels GmbH v MJ
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    Court of Justice of the European Union
    Deciding body:
    Court (Grand Chamber)
    Type:
    Decision
    Policy area:
    Employment and social policy
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:EU:C:2021:594

45 results found

  • Grondwet voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
    Maa:
    Netherlands

    Artikel 19 1. Bevordering van voldoende werkgelegenheid is voorwerp van zorg der overheid.2. De wet stelt regels omtrent de rechtspositie van hen die arbeid verrichten en omtrent hun bescherming daarbij, alsmede omtrent medezeggenschap.3. Het recht van iedere Nederlander op vrije keuze van arbeid wordt erkend, behoudens de beperkingen bij of krachtens de wet gesteld.

  • Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms
    Maa:
    Czechia

    Article 26 (1) Everybody has the right to the free choice of her profession and the training for that profession, as well as the right to engage in enterprise and pursue other economic activity. (2) Conditions and limitations may be set by law upon the right to engage in certain professions or activities.

  • Czech Labour Code No.262/2006 Coll.
    Maa:
    Czechia
  • Listina základních práv a svobod
    Maa:
    Czechia

    Článek 26 (1) Každý má právo na svobodnou volbu povolání a přípravu k němu, jakož i právo podnikat a provozovat jinou hospodářskou činnost. (2) Zákon může stanovit podmínky a omezení pro výkon určitých povolání nebo činností. 

  • Zákon č. 262/2006 Sb., zákoník práce
    Maa:
    Czechia
  • Constitutión Española
    Maa:
    Spain

    Artículo 38 Se reconoce la libertad de empresa en el marco de la economía de mercado. Los poderes públicos garantizan y protegen su ejercicio y la defensa de la productividad, de acuerdo con las exigencias de la economía general y, en su caso, de la planificación.

  • Constitution of the Kingdom of Spain
    Maa:
    Spain

    Section 38 Free enterprise is recognized within the framework of a market economy. The public authorities guarantee and protect its exercise and the safeguarding of productivity in accordance with the demands of the general economy and, as the case may be, of economic planning.

  • Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia
    Maa:
    Slovenia

    Article 74 Free economic initiative shall be guaranteed.The conditions for establishing commercial organisations shall be established by law. Commercial activities may not be pursued in a manner contrary to the public interest.Unfair competition practices and practices which restrict competition in a manner contrary to the law are prohibited.

  • Ustava Republike Slovenije
    Maa:
    Slovenia

    74. člen Gospodarska pobuda je svobodna. Zakon določa pogoje za ustanavljanje gospodarskih organizacij. Gospodarska dejavnost se ne sme izvajati v nasprotju z javno koristjo. Prepovedana so dejanja nelojalne konkurence in dejanja, ki v nasprotju z zakonom omejujejo konkurenco.

  • Constitution of the Slovak Republic
    Maa:
    Slovakia

    Article 35 (1) Everyone has the right to a free choice of profession and to appropriate training, as well as the right to conduct entrepreneurial or other gainful activity. (2) Conditions and restrictions with regard to the execution of certain professions or activities may be laid down by law. (...)

  • Ústava Slovenskej republiky
    Maa:
    Slovakia

    Čl. 35 (1) Každý má právo na slobodnú voľbu povolania a prípravu naň, ako aj právo podnikať a uskutočňovať inú zárobkovú činnosť. (2) Zákon môže ustanoviť podmienky a obmedzenia výkonu určitých povolaní alebo činností. (…).

  • Constituția României
    Maa:
    Romania

    Articolul 41(1) Dreptul la munca nu poate fi îngradit. Alegerea profesiei, a meseriei sau a ocupatiei, precum si a locului de munca este libera. Articolul 45Accesul liber al persoanei la o activitate economica, libera initiativa si exercitarea acestora în conditiile legii sunt garantate.

  • Constitution of Romania
    Maa:
    Romania

    Article 41(1) The right to work shall not be restricted. Everyone has a free choice of his/her profession, trade or occupation, as well as work place. Article 45Free access of persons to an economic activity, free enterprise, and their exercise under the law shall be guaranteed.

  • Constituição da República Portuguesa
    Maa:
    Portugal

    Artigo 61.º (Iniciativa privada, cooperativa e autogestionária) 1. A iniciativa económica privada exerce-se livremente nos quadros definidos pela Constituição e pela lei e tendo em conta o interesse geral. 2. A todos é reconhecido o direito à livre constituição de cooperativas, desde que observados os princípios cooperativos. 3. As cooperativas desenvolvem livremente as suas actividades no quadro da lei e podem agrupar-se em uniões, federações e confederações e em outras formas de organização legalmente previstas. 4 A lei estabelece as especificidades organizativas das cooperativas com participação pública. 5. É reconhecido o direito de autogestão, nos termos da lei.

  • Constitution of the Portuguese Republic
    Maa:
    Portugal

    Article 61 (Private enterprise, cooperatives and work management) (1) Private economic enterprise shall be undertaken freely within the overall frameworks laid down by this Constitution and the law and with regard for the general interest. (2) Everyone shall possess the right to freely form cooperatives, subject to compliance with cooperative principles. (3) Cooperatives shall pursue their activities freely within the overall framework laid down by law and may group themselves together in unions, federations and confederations and other forms of organisation provided for by law. (4) The law shall lay down the specific organisational requirements for cooperatives in which the state or any public body possesses an interest. (5) There shall be the right to worker management, as laid down by law.

  • Constitution of the Republic of Poland
    Maa:
    Poland

    Article 65.1. Everyone shall have the freedom to choose and to pursue his occupation and to choose his place of work. Exceptions shall be specified by statute. (...)

  • Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej
    Maa:
    Poland

    Art. 65. 1. Każdemu zapewnia się wolność wyboru i wykonywania zawodu oraz wyboru miejsca pracy. Wyjątki określa ustawa. (...)

  • Constitution of Malta
    Maa:
    Malta

    Article 18The State shall encourage private economic enterprise. Article 19The State shall provide for the protection and development of artisan trades.

  • Constitution du Grand Duche de Luxembourg
    Maa:
    Luxembourg

    Article 11.(6) La liberté du commerce et de l’industrie, l’exercice de la profession libérale et du travail agricole sont garantis, sauf les restrictions à établir par la loi. (...)

  • Constitution of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
    Maa:
    Luxembourg

    Article 11.(6) The freedom of commerce and industry, the exercise of liberal professions and of agricultural labor are guaranteed, save for the restrictions established by the law. (...)

4 results found

  • Directive 2014/59/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 May 2014 establishing a framework for the recovery and resolution of credit institutions and investment firms

    (24) Where an institution does not present an adequate recovery plan, competent authorities should be empowered to require that institution to take measures necessary to redress the material deficiencies of the plan. That requirement may affect the freedom to conduct a business as guaranteed by Article 16 of the Charter. The limitation of that fundamental right is however necessary to meet the objectives of financial stability. More specifically, such a limitation is necessary in order to strengthen the business of institutions and avoid institutions growing excessively or taking excessive risks without being able to tackle setbacks and losses and to restore their capital base. The limitation is proportionate because it permits preventative action to the extent that it is necessary to address the deficiencies and therefore complies with Article 52 of the Charter.

    [...]

    (49) The limitations on the rights of shareholders and creditors should be in accordance with Article 52 of the Charter. The resolution tools should therefore be applied only to those institutions that are failing or likely to fail, and only when it is necessary to pursue the objective of financial stability in the general interest. In particular, resolution tools should be applied where the institution cannot be wound up under normal insolvency proceedings without destabilising the financial system and the measures are necessary in order to ensure the rapid transfer and continuation of systemically important functions and where there is no reasonable prospect for any alternative private solution, including any increase of capital by the existing shareholders or by any third party sufficient to restore the full viability of the institution. In addition, when applying resolutions tools and exercising resolution powers, the principle of proportionality and the particularities of the legal form of an institution should be taken into account.

    [...]

    (88) In accordance with Article 47 of the Charter, the parties concerned have a right to due process and to an effective remedy against the measures affecting them. Therefore, the decisions taken by the resolution authorities should be subject to a right of appeal.

  • Directive (EU) 2022/2381 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 November 2022 on improving the gender balance among directors of listed companies and related measures

    Article 1

    Purpose

    This Directive aims to achieve a more balanced representation of women and men among the directors of listed companies by establishing effective measures that aim to accelerate progress towards gender balance, while allowing listed companies sufficient time to make the necessary arrangements for that purpose.

  • 2011/7/EU Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 February 2011 (EU-DIRECTIVES)

    on combating late payment in commercial transactions Text with EEA relevance The aim of this Directive is stated to be ‘to combat late payment in commercial transactions, in order to ensure the proper functioning of the internal market, thereby fostering the competitiveness of undertakings and in particular of SMEs.’ In its recitals it mentions that in ‘the context of enhanced efforts to prevent the abuse of freedom of contract to the detriment of creditors, organisations officially recognised as representing undertakings and organisations with a legitimate interest in representing undertakings should be able to take action before national courts or administrative bodies in order to prevent the continued use of contract terms or practices which are grossly unfair to the creditor.’ (recital 29)

  • Directive 2014/67/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 May 2014 on the enforcement of Directive 96/71/EC concerning the posting of workers in the framework of the provision of services and amending Regulation (EU) No 1024/2012 on admi...

    Preamble:
    ‘(2) The freedom to provide services includes the right of undertakings to provide services in another Member State, to which they may post their own workers temporarily in order to provide those services there. It is necessary for the purpose of the posting of workers to distinguish this freedom from the free movement of workers, which gives every citizen the right to move freely to another Member State to work and reside there for that purpose and protects them against discrimination as regards employment, remuneration and other conditions of work and employment in comparison to nationals of that Member State.‘

1 results found

  • Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General comment No. 24 (2017) on State obligations under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in the context of business activities

    ‘4. In certain jurisdictions, individuals enjoy direct recourse against business entities for violations of economic, social and cultural rights, whether in order to impose on such private entities (negative) duties to refrain from certain courses of conduct or to impose (positive) duties to adopt certain measures or to contribute to the fulfilment of such rights.16 There are also a large number of domestic laws designed to protect specific economic, social and cultural rights, that apply directly to business entities, such as in the areas of non-discrimination, health-care provision, education, the environment, employment relations and consumer safety.
    5. In addition, under international standards, business entities are expected to respect Covenant rights regardless of whether domestic laws exist or are fully enforced in practice.17 The present general comment therefore also seeks to assist the corporate sector in discharging their human rights obligations and assuming their responsibilities, thus mitigating any reputational risks that may be associated with violations of Covenant rights within their sphere of influence.‘