The arts and scientific research shall be free of constraint. Academic freedom shall be respected.
This right is deduced primarily from the right to freedom of thought and expression. It is to be exercised having regard to Article 1 and may be subject to the limitations authorised by Article 10 of the ECHR.
Article 15 (...) (2) The freedom of scholarly research and of artistic creation is guaranteed.
Článek 15 (...) (2) Svoboda vědeckého bádání a umělecké tvorby je zaručena. (...)
Chapter 2 - Fundamental rights and freedoms; Article 16 Authors, artists and photographers shall own the rights to their works in accordance with rules laid down in law; Article 18 (...) The freedom of research is protected according to rules laid down in law.
2 kapitlet - Grundläggande fri- och rättigheter: 16 § Författare, konstnärer och fotografer äger rätt till sina verk enligt bestämmelser som meddelas i lag; 18 § (...) Forskningens frihet är skyddad enligt bestämmelser som meddelas i lag.
Artículo 20 1. Se reconocen y protegen los derechos: (…) b) A la producción y creación literaria, artística, científica y técnica. c) A la libertad de cátedra. (…) 2. El ejercicio de estos derechos no puede restringirse mediante ningún tipo de censura previa.(…) 4. Estas libertades tienen su límite en el respeto a los derechos reconocidos en este Título, en los preceptos de las leyes que lo desarrollan y, especialmente, en el derecho al honor, a la intimidad, a la propia imagen y a la protección de la juventud y de la infancia.
Article 201. The following rights are recognized and protected: (...) b) the right to literary, artistic, scientific and technical production and creation; c) the right to academic freedom; (...) 2. The exercise of these rights may not be restricted by any form of prior censorship. (...) 4. These freedoms are limited by respect for the rights recognized in this Part, by the legal provisions implementing it, and especially by the right to honour, to privacy, to the own image and to the protection of youth and childhood.
Article 59 The freedom of scientific and artistic endeavour shall be guaranteed.
59. člen Zagotovljena je svoboda znanstvenega in umetniškega ustvarjanja.
Article 43 (1) Freedom of scientific research and in art is guaranteed. The rights to the creative intellectual activity are protected by law. (2) The right of access to the cultural heritage is guaranteed under the conditions laid down by law.
Čl. 43 (1) Sloboda vedeckého bádania a umenia sa zaručuje. Práva na výsledky tvorivej duševnej činnosti chráni zákon. (2) Právo prístupu ku kultúrnemu bohatstvu sa zaručuje za podmienok ustanovených zákonom.
Articolul 32 (…) (6) Autonomia universitara este garantata. Articolul 33 (...) (3) Statul trebuie sa asigure pastrarea identitatii spirituale, sprijinirea culturii nationale, stimularea artelor, protejarea si conservarea mostenirii culturale, dezvoltarea creativitatii contemporane, promovarea valorilor culturale si artistice ale României în lume. Articolul 135 (...) (2) Statul trebuie sa asigure: (...) c) stimularea cercetarii stiintifice si tehnologice nationale, a artei si protectia dreptului de autor;(...)
Article 32 (...) (6) The autonomy of the Universities is guaranteed. Article 33 (...) (3) The State must make sure that spiritual identity is preserved, national culture is supported, arts are stimulated, cultural legacy is protected and preserved, contemporary creativity is developed, and Romania's cultural and artistic values are promoted throughout the world. Article 135 (...) (2) The State must secure: (...) c) stimulation of national scientific and technological research, arts, and protection of copyright; (...)
Artigo 73.º (Educação, cultura e ciência) 1. Todos têm direito à educação e à cultura. 2. O Estado promove a democratização da educação e as demais condições para que a educação, realizada através da escola e de outros meios formativos, contribua para a igualdade de oportunidades, a superação das desigualdades económicas, sociais e culturais, o desenvolvimento da personalidade e do espírito de tolerância, de compreensão mútua, de solidariedade e de responsabilidade, para o progresso social e para a participação democrática na vida colectiva. 3. O Estado promove a democratização da cultura, incentivando e assegurando o acesso de todos os cidadãos à fruição e criação cultural, em colaboração com os órgãos de comunicação social, as associações e fundações de fins culturais, as colectividades de cultura e recreio, as associações de defesa do património cultural, as organizações de moradores e outros agentes culturais. 4. A criação e a investigação científicas, bem como a inovação tecnológica, são incentivadas e apoiadas pelo Estado, por forma a assegurar a respectiva liberdade e autonomia, o reforço da competitividade e a articulação entre as instituições científicas e as empresas. Artigo 74.º (Ensino) 2. Na realização da política de ensino incumbe ao Estado: (d) Garantir a todos os cidadãos, segundo as suas capacidades, o acesso aos graus mais elevados do ensino, da investigação científica e da criação artística.
Article 73 (Education, culture and science) (1) Everyone has the right to education and culture. (2) The state shall promote the democratisation of education and the other conditions needed for an education conducted at school and via other means of training to contribute to equal opportunities, the overcoming of economic, social and cultural inequalities, the development of the personality and the spirit of tolerance, mutual understanding, solidarity and responsibility, to social progress and to democratic participation in collective life. (3) In cooperation with the media, cultural associations and foundations, cultural and recreational groups, cultural heritage associations, residents’ organisations and other cultural agents, the state shall promote the democratisation of culture by encouraging and ensuring access by all citizens to cultural enjoyment and creation. (4) The state shall encourage and support scientific research and creation and technological innovation, in such a way as to ensure their freedom and autonomy, strengthen competitivity and ensure articulation between scientific institutions and enterprises. Article 74 (Education) (2) In implementing the education policy, the state is charged with: (d) In accordance with his capabilities, guaranteeing every citizen access to the highest levels of education, scientific research and artistic creation.
Article 70(...) 5. The autonomy of the institutions of higher education shall be ensured in accordance with principles specified by statute. Article 73The freedom of artistic creation and scientific research as well as dissemination of the fruits thereof, the freedom to teach and to enjoy the products of culture, shall be ensured to everyone.
Art. 70. (...) 5. Zapewnia się autonomię szkół wyższych na zasadach określonych w ustawie. Art. 73. Każdemu zapewnia się wolność twórczości artystycznej, badań naukowych oraz ogłaszania ich wyników, wolność nauczania, a także wolność korzystania z dóbr kultury.
Article 8The State shall promote the development of culture and scientific and technical research.
Article 42. Culture, science and research, and teaching shall be free. The State shall support culture and science, and shall take care of the protection of Lithuanian historical, artistic, and other cultural monuments, as well as other culturally valuable objects. The law shall protect and defend the spiritual and material interests of an author that are related to scientific, technical, cultural, and artistic work.
42 straipsnis. Kultūra, mokslas ir tyrinėjimai bei dėstymas yra laisvi. Valstybė remia kultūrą ir mokslą, rūpinasi Lietuvos istorijos, meno ir kitų kultūros paminklų bei vertybių apsauga. Dvasinius ir materialinius autoriaus interesus, susijusius su mokslo, technikos, kultūros ir meno kūryba, saugo ir gina įstatymas.
113. The State shall recognise the freedom of scientific research, artistic and other creative activity, and shall protect copyright and patent rights.
‘(7) Migration for the purposes set out in this Directive should promote the generation and acquisition of knowledge and skills. It constitutes a form of mutual enrichment for the migrants concerned, their country of origin and the Member State concerned, while strengthening cultural links and enhancing cultural diversity.‘
Conditions for recognition
‘1. If access to or pursuit of a regulated profession in a host Member State is contingent upon possession of specific professional qualifications, the competent authority of that Member State shall permit applicants to access and pursue that profession, under the same conditions as apply to its nationals, if they possess an attestation of competence or evidence of formal qualifications referred to in Article 11, required by another Member State in order to gain access to and pursue that profession on its territory. [...]‘
‘(3) Article 167 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) requires the Union to take cultural diversity into account in its action and to contribute to the flowering of the cultures of the Member States, while respecting their national and regional diversity and at the same time bringing the common cultural heritage to the fore. Collective management organisations play, and should continue to play, an important role as promoters of the diversity of cultural expression, both by enabling the smallest and less popular repertoires to access the market and by providing social, cultural and educational services for the benefit of their rightholders and the public.‘
‘(5) The effective exercise of the freedom of movement of workers is, however, still a major challenge and many Union workers are very often unaware of their rights to free movement. Because of, inter alia, their potentially more vulnerable position, Union workers may still suffer from unjustified restrictions or obstacles to the exercise of their right to free movement, such as non-recognition of qualifications, discrimination on grounds of nationality and exploitation when they move to another Member State. There is, therefore, a gap between the law and its application in practice that needs to be addressed.‘