Forced return monitoring systems – State of play in EU Member States

The EU Return Directive (2008/115/EC) in Article 8 (6) introduced an important fundamental rights safeguard for third-country nationals ordered to leave the EU because they do not or no longer fulfil the conditions for entry and/or stay. According to it, Member States must provide for an effective forced-return monitoring system.


Data covers period 1/1/2014 to 31/12/2019.

Download a summary of effective forced return monitoring systems 2019 (pdf, 604.24 KB).

Based on information provided by return monitoring organisations who may not be aware if national operations are funded by Frontex or not.
National Preventive Mechanisms established under the Optional Protocol to the UN Convention Against Torture may monitor forced return operations under their mandate flowing from the convention.