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22. cikk - A kulturális, vallási és nyelvi sokféleség

22. cikk - A kulturális, vallási és nyelvi sokféleség

Az Unió tiszteletben tartja a kulturális, vallási és nyelvi sokféleséget.

    Text:

    E cikk az Európai Unióról szóló szerződés 6. cikkén, és az EK-Szerződés 151. cikkének a kultúráról szóló (1) és (4) bekezdésén alapul, amelynek helyébe az Európai Unió működéséről szóló szerződés 167. cikkének (1) és (4) bekezdése lép. A kulturális és nyelvi sokféleség tiszteletben tartását az Európai Unióról szóló szerződés 3. cikkének (3) bekezdése is előírja. E cikk az Amszterdami Szerződés záróokmányához csatolt, az egyházak és a világnézeti szervezetek jogállásáról szóló 11. nyilatkozatból is merít, amelyet az Európai Unió működéséről szóló szerződés 17. cikke vesz át.

    Source:
    Az Európai Unió Hivatalos Lapja C 303/17 - 14.12.2007

    Preamble - Explanations relating to the Charter of Fundamental Rights:
    Az alábbi magyarázatok eredetileg az Európai Unió Alapjogi Chartáját kidolgozó Konvent elnökségének irányításával kerültek megfogalmazásra. A magyarázatok naprakésszé tétele az Európai Konvent elnökségének felelőssége mellett, az elnökségnek a Charta szövegéhez (nevezetesen az 51. és 52. cikkéhez) tett kiigazításainak megfogalmazása, valamint az uniós jog további fejlődése fényében történt. Bár a magyarázatok nem bírnak jogi erővel, az értelmezés értékes eszközei, amelyek célja a Charta rendelkezéseinek megvilágítása.

43 results found

  • Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms
    URL:
    Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms
    Country:
    Czechia

    Article 25 (1) Citizens who constitute national or ethnic minorities are guaranteed all-round development, in particular the right to develop, together with other members of the minority, their own culture, the right to disseminate and receive information in their native language, and the right to associate in national associations. Detailed provisions shall be set down by law. (2) Citizens belonging to national and ethnic minority groups are also guaranteed, under the conditions set down by law: (a) the right to education in their own language, (b) the right to use their own language in their relations with officials, (c) the right to participate in the resolution of affairs that concern national and ethnic minorities.

  • Listina základních práv a svobod
    URL:
    Listina základních práv a svobod
    Country:
    Czechia

    Článek 25 (1) Občanům tvořícím národní nebo etnické menšiny se zaručuje všestranný rozvoj, zejména právo společně s jinými příslušníky menšiny rozvíjet vlastní kulturu, právo rozšiřovat a přijímat informace v jejich mateřském jazyku a sdružovat se v národnostních sdruženích. Podrobnosti stanoví zákon. (2) Občanům příslušejícím k národnostním a etnickým menšinám se za podmínek stanovených zákonem zaručuje též (a) právo na vzdělání v jejich jazyku, (b) právo užívat jejich jazyka v úředním styku, (c) právo účasti na řešení věcí týkajících se národnostních a etnických menšin.

  • Equality Act 2006
    URL:
    Equality Act 2006
    Country:
    United Kingdom

    An Act to make provision for the establishment of the Commission for Equality and Human Rights; to dissolve the Equal Opportunities Commission, the Commission for Racial Equality and the Disability Rights Commission; to make provision about discrimination on grounds of religion or belief; to enable provision to be made about discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation; to impose duties relating to sex discrimination on persons performing public functions; to amend the Disability Discrimination Act 1995; and for connected purposes.

  • Equality Act 2010
    URL:
    Equality Act 2010
    Country:
    United Kingdom

    Section 13 Direct discrimination (1) A person (A) discriminates against another (B) if, because of a protected characteristic, A treats B less favourably than A treats or would treat others. (2) If the protected characteristic is age, A does not discriminate against B if A can show A's treatment of B to be a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim. (3) If the protected characteristic is disability, and B is not a disabled person, A does not discriminate against B only because A treats or would treat disabled persons more favourably than A treats B. (4)If the protected characteristic is marriage and civil partnership, this section applies to a contravention of Part 5 (work) only if the treatment is because it is B who is married or a civil partner. (5) If the protected characteristic is race, less favourable treatment includes segregating B from others. (6) If the protected characteristic is sex— (a) less favourable treatment of a woman includes less favourable treatment of her because she is breast-feeding; (b) in a case where B is a man, no account is to be taken of special treatment afforded to a woman in connection with pregnancy or childbirth. (7) Subsection (6)(a) does not apply for the purposes of Part 5 (work). (8) This section is subject to sections 17(6) and 18(7). … Section 19 Indirect discrimination (1)A person (A) discriminates against another (B) if A applies to B a provision, criterion or practice which is discriminatory in relation to a relevant protected characteristic of B's. (2) For the purposes of subsection (1), a provision, criterion or practice is discriminatory in relation to a relevant protected characteristic of B's if— (a) A applies, or would apply, it to persons with whom B does not share the characteristic, (b) it puts, or would put, persons with whom B shares the characteristic at a particular disadvantage when compared with persons with whom B does not share it, (c) it puts, or would put, B at that disadvantage, and (d) A cannot show it to be a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim. (3) The relevant protected characteristics are— age; disability; gender reassignment; marriage and civil partnership; race; religion or belief; sex; sexual orientation.

  • Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011
    URL:
    Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011
    Country:
    United Kingdom

    Section 1 Official status of the Welsh language (1) The Welsh language has official status in Wales. (2 )Without prejudice to the general principle of subsection (1), the official status of the Welsh language is given legal effect by the enactments about— (a) duties on bodies to use the Welsh language, and the rights which arise from the enforceability of those duties, which enable Welsh speakers to use the language in dealings with those bodies (such as the provision of services by those bodies); (b) the treatment of the Welsh language no less favourably than the English language; (c) the validity of the use of the Welsh language; (d) the promotion and facilitation of the use of the Welsh language; (e) the freedom of persons wishing to use the Welsh language to do so with one another; (f) the creation of the Welsh Language Commissioner; and (g) other matters relating to the Welsh language. (3) Those enactments include (but are not limited to) the enactments which— (a) require the Welsh and English languages to be treated on the basis of equality in the conduct of the proceedings of the National Assembly for Wales; (b) confer a right to speak the Welsh language in legal proceedings in Wales; (c) give equal standing to the Welsh and English texts of— (i) Measures and Acts of the National Assembly for Wales, and (ii) subordinate legislation; (d) impose a duty on the Welsh Ministers to adopt a strategy setting out how they propose to promote and facilitate the use of the Welsh language; (e) create standards of conduct that relate to the use of the Welsh language, or the treatment of the Welsh language no less favourably than the English language, in connection with— (i) delivering services, (ii) making policy, and (iii) exercising functions or conducting businesses and other undertakings; (f) create standards of conduct in promoting and facilitating the use of the Welsh language; (g) create standards of conduct for keeping records in connection with the Welsh language; (h) impose a duty to comply with those standards of conduct that are created, and create remedies for failures to comply with them; and (i) create the Welsh Language Commissioner with functions that include— (i) promoting the use of the Welsh language, (ii) facilitating the use of the Welsh language, (iii) working towards ensuring that the Welsh language is treated no less favourably than the English language, (iv) conducting inquiries into matters relating to the Commissioner’s functions, and (v) investigating interference with the freedom to use the Welsh language. (4)This Measure does not affect the status of the English language in Wales.

  • Instrument of Government
    URL:
    Instrument of Government
    Country:
    Sweden

    Chapter 1 - Basic principles of the form of government: Article 2 (…)The public institutions shall promote the opportunity for all to attain participation and equality in society (...) The public institutions shall combat discrimination of persons on grounds of gender, colour, national or ethnic origin, linguistic or religious affiliation, functional disability, sexual orientation, age or other circumstance affecting the individual. The opportunities of the Sami people and ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities to preserve and develop a cultural and social life of their own shall be promoted; Article 12 No act of law or other provision may imply the unfavourable treatment of anyone because they belong to a minority group by reason of ethnic origin, colour, or other similar circumstances or on account of their sexual orientation.

  • Kungörelse (1974:152) om beslutad ny regeringsform
    URL:
    Kungörelse (1974:152) om beslutad ny regeringsform
    Country:
    Sweden

    1 kapitlet - Statsskickets grunder: 2 §(…)Det allmänna ska verka för att alla människor ska kunna uppnå delaktighet och jämlikhet i samhället (...) Det allmänna ska motverka diskriminering av människor på grund av kön, hudfärg, nationellt eller etniskt ursprung, språklig eller religiös tillhörighet, funktionshinder, sexuell läggning, ålder eller andra omständigheter som gäller den enskilde som person. Samiska folkets och etniska, språkliga och religiösa minoriteters möjligheter att behålla och utveckla ett eget kultur- och samfundsliv ska främjas; 12 § Lag eller annan föreskrift får inte innebära att någon missgynnas därför att han eller hon tillhör en minoritet med hänsyn till etniskt ursprung, hudfärg eller annat liknande förhållande eller med hänsyn till sexuell läggning.

  • Constitutión Española
    URL:
    Constitutión Española
    Country:
    Spain

    Artículo 3 (1) El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado. Todos los españoles tienen el deber de conocerla y el derecho a usarla. (2) Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas de acuerdo con sus Estatutos.(3) La riqueza de las distintas modalidades lingüísticas de España es un patrimonio cultural que será objeto de especial respeto y protección.

  • Constitution of the Kingdom of Spain
    URL:
    Constitution of the Kingdom of Spain
    Country:
    Spain

    Section 3 (1) Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State. All Spaniards have the duty to know it and the right to use it. (2) The other Spanish languages shall also be official in the respective Self-governing Communities in accordance with their Statutes. (3) The richness of the different linguistic modalities of Spain is a cultural heritage which shall be specially respected and protected.

  • Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia
    URL:
    Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia
    Country:
    Slovenia

    Article 5 In its own territory, the state shall protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall protect and guarantee the rights of the autochthonous Italian and Hungarian national communities. It shall maintain concern for autochthonous Slovene national minorities in neighbouring countries and for Slovene emigrants and workers abroad and shall foster their contacts with the homeland. It shall provide for the preservation of the natural wealth and cultural heritage and create opportunities for the harmonious development of society and culture in Slovenia.Slovenes not holding Slovene citizenship may enjoy special rights and privileges in Slovenia. The nature and extent of such rights and privileges shall be regulated by law. Article 61 Everyone has the right to freely express affiliation with his nation or national community, to foster and give expression to his culture and to use his language and script. Article 62 Everyone has the right to use his language and script in a manner provided by law in the exercise of his rights and duties and in procedures before state and other bodies performing a public function. Article 64 The autochthonous Italian and Hungarian national communities and their members shall be guaranteed the right to use their national symbols freely and, in order to preserve their national identity, the right to establish organisations and develop economic, cultural, scientific and research activities, as well as activities in the field of public media and publishing. In accordance with laws, these two national communities and their members have the right to education and schooling in their own languages, as well as the right to establish and develop such education and schooling. The geographic areas in which bilingual schools are compulsory shall be established by law. These national communities and their members shall be guaranteed the right to foster relations with their nations of origin and their respective countries. The state shall provide material and moral support for the exercise of these rights. (...) Article 65 The status and special rights of the Romany community living in Slovenia shall be regulated by law.

  • Ustava Republike Slovenije
    URL:
    Ustava Republike Slovenije
    Country:
    Slovenia

    5. člen Država na svojem ozemlju varuje človekove pravice in temeljne svoboščine. Varuje in zagotavlja pravice avtohtone italijanske in madžarske narodne skupnosti. Skrbi za avtohtone slovenske narodne manjšine v sosednjih državah, za slovenske izseljence in zdomce, ter pospešuje njihove stike z domovino. Skrbi za ohranjanje naravnega bogastva in kulturne dediščine ter ustvarja možnosti za skladen civilizacijski in kulturni razvoj Slovenije. Slovenci brez slovenskega državljanstva lahko uživajo v Sloveniji posebne pravice in ugodnosti. Vrsto in obseg teh pravic in ugodnosti določa zakon. 61. člen (izražanje narodne pripadnosti) Vsakdo ima pravico, da svobodno izraža pripadnost k svojemu narodu ali narodni skupnosti, da goji in izraža svojo kulturo in uporablja svoj jezik in pisavo. 62. člen (pravica do uporabe svojega jezika in pisave) Vsakdo ima pravico, da pri uresničevanju svojih pravic in dolžnosti ter v postopkih pred državnimi in drugimi organi, ki opravljajo javno službo, uporablja svoj jezik in pisavo na način, ki ga določi zakon. 64. člen (posebne pravice avtohtone italijanske in madžarske narodne skupnosti v Sloveniji) Avtohtoni italijanski in madžarski narodni skupnosti ter njunim pripadnikom je zagotovljena pravica, da svobodno uporabljajo svoje narodne simbole in da za ohranjanje svoje narodne identitete ustanavljajo organizacije, razvijajo gospodarske, kulturne in znanstvenoraziskovalne dejavnosti ter dejavnosti na področju javnega obveščanja in založništva. V skladu z zakonom imata ti narodni skupnosti in njuni pripadniki pravico do vzgoje in izobraževanja v svojem jeziku ter do oblikovanja in razvijanja te vzgoje in izobraževanja. Zakon določa območja, na katerih je dvojezično šolstvo obvezno. Narodnima skupnostima in njunim pripadnikom je zagotovljena pravica, da gojijo odnose s svojima matičnima narodoma in njunima državama. Država gmotno in moralno podpira uveljavljanje teh pravic. Na območjih, kjer ti skupnosti živita, ustanovijo njuni pripadniki za uresničevanje svojih pravic svoje samoupravne skupnosti. Na njihov predlog lahko država pooblasti samoupravne narodne skupnosti za opravljanje določenih nalog iz državne pristojnosti ter zagotavlja sredstva za njihovo uresničevanje. Narodni skupnosti sta neposredno zastopani v predstavniških organih lokalne samouprave in v državnem zboru. Zakon ureja položaj in način uresničevanja pravic italijanske oziroma madžarske narodne skupnosti na območjih, kjer živita, obveznosti samoupravnih lokalnih skupnosti za uresničevanje teh pravic, ter tiste pravice, ki jih pripadniki teh narodnih skupnosti uresničujejo tudi zunaj teh območij. Pravice obeh narodnih skupnosti ter njunih pripadnikov so zagotovljene ne glede na število pripadnikov teh skupnosti. Zakoni, drugi predpisi in splošni akti, ki zadevajo uresničevanje v ustavi določenih pravic in položaja zgolj narodnih skupnosti, ne morejo biti sprejeti brez soglasja predstavnikov narodnih skupnosti. 65. člen (položaj in posebne pravice romske skupnosti v Sloveniji) Položaj in posebne pravice romske skupnosti, ki živi v Sloveniji, ureja zakon.

  • Constitution of the Slovak Republic
    URL:
    Constitution of the Slovak Republic
    Country:
    Slovakia

     Article 6 (1) The State language of the Slovak Republic is the Slovak language. (2) The use of languages other than the State language in official communications shall be laid down by law. Article 12 (…) (3) Everyone has the right to freely decide on his national belonging. Any influence on this decision and any form of pressure aimed at suppressing of anyone’s national belonging are forbidden. (...) Article 33 Membership in any national minority, or ethnic group, must not be to anyone's detriment. Article 34 (1) Citizens belonging to national minorities or ethnic groups in the Slovak Republic shall be guaranteed their comprehensive development, particularly the rights to promote their culture together with other members of the minority or group, to disseminate and receive information in their mother tongues, to associate in national minority associations, to establish and maintain educational and cultural institutions. Details shall be laid down by law. (2) In addition to the right to master the state language, citizens belonging to national minorities, or ethnic groups, also have, under conditions defined by law, a guaranteed a) right to education in their own language, b) right to use their language in official communications, c) right to participate in the decision-making in affairs concerning national minorities and ethnic groups. (3) The exercise of the rights of citizens belonging to national minorities and ethnic groups that are guaranteed in this Constitution cannot jeopardize the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Slovak Republic, and to discriminate against other inhabitants.

  • Ústava Slovenskej republiky
    URL:
    Ústava Slovenskej republiky
    Country:
    Slovakia

    Čl. 6 (1) Na území Slovenskej republiky je štátnym jazykom slovenský jazyk. (2) Používanie iných jazykov než štátneho jazyka v úradnom styku ustanoví zákon.Čl. 12 (...) (3) Každý má právo slobodne rozhodovať o svojej národnosti. Zakazuje sa akékoľvek ovplyvňovanie tohto rozhodovania a všetky spôsoby nátlaku smerujúce k odnárodňovaniu.(...) Čl. 33 Príslušnosť ku ktorejkoľvek národnostnej menšine alebo etnickej skupine nesmie byť nikomu na ujmu. Čl. 34 (1) Občanom tvoriacim v Slovenskej republike národnostné menšiny alebo etnické skupiny sa zaručuje všestranný rozvoj, najmä právo spoločne s inými príslušníkmi menšiny alebo skupiny rozvíjať vlastnú kultúru, právo rozširovať a prijímať informácie v ich materinskom jazyku, združovať sa v národnostných združeniach, zakladať a udržiavať vzdelávacie a kultúrne inštitúcie. Podrobnosti ustanoví zákon. (2) Občanom patriacim k národnostným menšinám alebo etnickým skupinám sa za podmienok ustanovených zákonom zaručuje okrem práva na osvojenie si štátneho jazyka aja) právo na vzdelanie v ich jazyku,b) právo používať ich jazyk v úradnom styku,c) právo zúčastňovať sa na riešení vecí týkajúcich sa národnostných menšín a etnických skupín. (3) Výkon práv občanov patriacich k národnostným menšinám a etnickým skupinám zaručených v tejto ústave nesmie viesť k ohrozeniu zvrchovanosti a územnej celistvosti Slovenskej republiky a k diskriminácii jej ostatného obyvateľstva.

  • Constituția României
    URL:
    Constituția României
    Country:
    Romania

    Articolul 6(1) Statul recunoaste si garanteaza persoanelor apartinând minoritatilor nationale dreptul la pastrarea, la dezvoltarea si la exprimarea identitatii lor etnice, culturale, lingvistice si religioase. (2) Masurile de protectie luate de stat pentru pastrarea, dezvoltarea si exprimarea identitatii persoanelor apartinând minoritatilor nationale trebuie sa fie conforme cu principiile de egalitate si de nediscriminare în raport cu ceilalti cetateni români. Articolul 13În România, limba oficiala este limba româna.Articolul 33(1) Accesul la cultura este garantat, în conditiile legii. (2) Libertatea persoanei de a-si dezvolta spiritualitatea si de a accede la valorile culturii nationale si universale nu poate fi îngradita. (3) Statul trebuie sa asigure pastrarea identitatii spirituale, sprijinirea culturii nationale, stimularea artelor, protejarea si conservarea mostenirii culturale, dezvoltarea creativitatii contemporane, promovarea valorilor culturale si artistice ale României în lume.

  • Constitution of Romania
    URL:
    Constitution of Romania
    Country:
    Romania

    Article 6(1) The State recognizes and guarantees the right of persons belonging to national minorities to the preservation, development and expression of their ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity. (2) The protection measures taken by the Romanian State for the preservation, development and expression of identity of the persons belonging to national minorities shall conform to the principles of equality and non-discrimination in relation to the other Romanian citizens. Article 13In Romania, the official language is Romanian.Article 33(1) The access to culture is guaranteed under the law. (2) A person's freedom to develop his/her spirituality and to get access to the values of national and universal culture shall not be limited. (3) The State must make sure that spiritual identity is preserved, national culture is supported, arts are stimulated, cultural legacy is protected and preserved, contemporary creativity is developed, and Romania's cultural and artistic values are promoted throughout the world.

  • Constituição da República Portuguesa
    URL:
    Constituição da República Portuguesa
    Country:
    Portugal

    Artigo 11.º (Símbolos nacionais e língua oficial) 3. A língua oficial é o Português. Artigo 41.º (Liberdade de consciência, de religião e de culto) 1. A liberdade de consciência, de religião e de culto é inviolável. 2. Ninguém pode ser perseguido, privado de direitos ou isento de obrigações ou deveres cívicos por causa das suas convicções ou prática religiosa. 3. Ninguém pode ser perguntado por qualquer autoridade acerca das suas convicções ou prática religiosa, salvo para recolha de dados estatísticos não individualmente identificáveis, nem ser prejudicado por se recusar a responder. 4. As igrejas e outras comunidades religiosas estão separadas do Estado e são livres na sua organização e no exercício das suas funções e do culto. 5. É garantida a liberdade de ensino de qualquer religião praticado no âmbito da respectiva confissão, bem como a utilização de meios de comunicação social próprios para o prosseguimento das suas actividades. 6. É garantido o direito à objecção de consciência, nos termos da lei. Artigo 42.º (Liberdade de criação cultural) 1. É livre a criação intelectual, artística e científica. 2. Esta liberdade compreende o direito à invenção, produção e divulgação da obra científica, literária ou artística, incluindo a protecção legal dos direitos de autor. Artigo 43.º (Liberdade de aprender e ensinar) 1. É garantida a liberdade de aprender e ensinar. 2. O Estado não pode programar a educação e a cultura segundo quaisquer directrizes filosóficas, estéticas, políticas, ideológicas ou religiosas. 3. O ensino público não será confessional. 4. É garantido o direito de criação de escolas particulares e cooperativas. Artigo 73.º (Educação, cultura e ciência) 1. Todos têm direito à educação e à cultura. 2. O Estado promove a democratização da educação e as demais condições para que a educação, realizada através da escola e de outros meios formativos, contribua para a igualdade de oportunidades, a superação das desigualdades económicas, sociais e culturais, o desenvolvimento da personalidade e do espírito de tolerância, de compreensão mútua, de solidariedade e de responsabilidade, para o progresso social e para a participação democrática na vida colectiva. 3. O Estado promove a democratização da cultura, incentivando e assegurando o acesso de todos os cidadãos à fruição e criação cultural, em colaboração com os órgãos de comunicação social, as associações e fundações de fins culturais, as colectividades de cultura e recreio, as associações de defesa do património cultural, as organizações de moradores e outros agentes culturais. 4. A criação e a investigação científicas, bem como a inovação tecnológica, são incentivadas e apoiadas pelo Estado, por forma a assegurar a respectiva liberdade e autonomia, o reforço da competitividade e a articulação entre as instituições científicas e as empresas. Artigo 78.º (Fruição e criação cultural) 1. Todos têm direito à fruição e criação cultural, bem como o dever de preservar, defender e valorizar o património cultural. 2. Incumbe ao Estado, em colaboração com todos os agentes culturais: a) Incentivar e assegurar o acesso de todos os cidadãos aos meios e instrumentos de acção cultural, bem como corrigir as assimetrias existentes no país em tal domínio; b) Apoiar as iniciativas que estimulem a criação individual e colectiva, nas suas múltiplas formas e expressões, e uma maior circulação das obras e dos bens culturais de qualidade; c) Promover a salvaguarda e a valorização do património cultural, tornando-o elemento vivificador da identidade cultural comum; d) Desenvolver as relações culturais com todos os povos, especialmente os de língua portuguesa, e assegurar a defesa e a promoção da cultura portuguesa no estrangeiro; e) Articular a política cultural e as demais políticas sectoriais.

  • Constitution of the Portuguese Republic
    URL:
    Constitution of the Portuguese Republic
    Country:
    Portugal

    Article 11 (National symbols and official language) (3) The official language is Portuguese. Article 41 (Freedom of conscience, of religion and of form of worship) (1) The freedom of conscience, of religion and of form of worship is inviolable. (2) No one may be persecuted, deprived of rights or exempted from civic obligations or duties because of his convictions or religious observance. (3) No authority may question anyone in relation to his convictions or religious observance, save in order to gather statistical data that cannot be individually identified, nor may anyone be prejudiced in any way for refusing to answer. (4) Churches and other religious communities are separate from the state and are free to organise themselves and to exercise their functions and form of worship. (5) The freedom to teach any religion within the ambit of the religious belief in question and to use the religion’s own media for the pursuit of its activities is guaranteed. (6) The right to be a conscientious objector, as laid down by law, is guaranteed. Article 42 (Freedom of cultural creation) (1) There shall be freedom of intellectual, artistic and scientific creation. (2) This freedom comprises the right to invent, produce and divulge scientific, literary and artistic work and includes the protection of copyright by law. Article 43 (Freedom to learn and to teach) (1) The freedom to learn and to teach is guaranteed. (2) The state may not programme education and culture in accordance with any philosophical, aesthetic, political, ideological or religious directives. (3) Public education shall not be linked to a religious belief. (4) The right to create private and cooperative schools is guaranteed. Article 73 (Education, culture and science) (1) Everyone has the right to education and culture. (2) The state shall promote the democratisation of education and the other conditions needed for an education conducted at school and via other means of training to contribute to equal opportunities, the overcoming of economic, social and cultural inequalities, the development of the personality and the spirit of tolerance, mutual understanding, solidarity and responsibility, to social progress and to democratic participation in collective life. (3) In cooperation with the media, cultural associations and foundations, cultural and recreational groups, cultural heritage associations, residents’ organisations and other cultural agents, the state shall promote the democratisation of culture by encouraging and ensuring access by all citizens to cultural enjoyment and creation. (4) The state shall encourage and support scientific research and creation and technological innovation, in such a way as to ensure their freedom and autonomy, strengthen competitivity and ensure articulation between scientific institutions and enterprises. Article 78 (Cultural enjoyment and creation) (1) Everyone has the right to cultural enjoyment and creation, together with the duty to preserve, defend and enhance the cultural heritage. (2) In cooperation with all cultural agents, the state is charged with: (a) Encouraging and ensuring access by all citizens to the means and instruments required for cultural activities, and correcting the country’s existing asymmetries in this respect; (b) Supporting initiatives that stimulate individual and collective creation in its multiple forms and expressions, and more travel by high quality cultural works and items; (c) Promoting the safeguarding and enhancement of the cultural heritage and making it an element that inspires and gives life to a common cultural identity; (d) Developing cultural relations with all peoples, especially those that speak Portuguese, and ensuring the defence and promotion of Portuguese culture abroad; (e) Articulating the cultural policy with the other sectoral policies.

  • Constitution of the Republic of Poland
    URL:
    Constitution of the Republic of Poland
    Country:
    Poland

    Article 27 Polish shall be the official language in the Republic of Poland. This provision shall not infringe upon national minority rights resulting from ratified international agreements.Article 35.1. The Republic of Poland shall ensure Polish citizens belonging to national or ethnic minorities the freedom to maintain and develop their own language, to maintain customs and traditions, and to develop their own culture.2. National and ethnic minorities shall have the right to establish educational and cultural institutions, institutions designed to protect religious identity, as well as to participate in the resolution of matters connected with their cultural identity.

  • Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej
    URL:
    Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej
    Country:
    Poland

    Art. 27 W Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej językiem urzędowym jest język polski. Przepis ten nie narusza praw mniejszości narodowych wynikających z ratyfikowanych umów międzynarodowych.Art. 35.1. Rzeczpospolita Polska zapewnia obywatelom polskim należącym do mniejszości narodowych i etnicznych wolność zachowania i rozwoju własnego języka, zachowania obyczajów i tradycji oraz rozwoju własnej kultury.2. Mniejszości narodowe i etniczne mają prawo do tworzenia własnych instytucji edukacyjnych, kulturalnych i instytucji służących ochronie tożsamości religijnej oraz do uczestnictwa w rozstrzyganiu spraw dotyczących ich tożsamości kulturowej.

  • Constitution of Malta
    URL:
    Constitution of Malta
    Country:
    Malta

    Article 5(1) The National language of Malta is the Maltese Language.(2) The Maltese and the English languages and such other language as may be prescribed by Parliament (by a law passed by not less than two-thirds of all the members of the House of Representatives) shall be the official languages of Malta and the Administration may for all official purposes use any of such languages: Provided that any person may address the Administration in any of the official languages and the reply of the Administration thereto shall be in such language.(3) The language of the Courts shall be the Maltese language: Provided that Parliament may make such provision for the use of the English language in such cases and under such conditions as it may prescribe.(4) The House of Representatives may, in regulating its own procedure, determine the language or languages that shall be used in Parliamentary proceedings and records. 8. The State shall promote the development of culture and scientific and technical research.

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