AI policy initiatives (2016-2020)

As part of the background research for the Agency’s project on ‘Artificial intelligence (AI), Big Data and Fundamental Rights’, FRA has collected information on AI-related policy initiatives in EU Member States and beyond in the period 2016-2020. The collection currently includes about 350 initiatives.

A ‘policy initiative’ was defined broadly to include a range of initiatives that could potentially contribute to policy making and standard setting in the area of AI. This could be, amongst others, actual (draft) legislation, soft-law, guidelines and recommendations on the use of AI, or reports that include conclusions with policy relevance.

The collection focuses on initiatives at the national level, and also includes examples of initiatives at the EU and international level. It should be noted that the list is not exhaustive and does not claim to comprehensively cover all initiatives across all EU Member States. Rather, it provides an overview of several different initiatives that tackle issues related to AI policy development. FRA is not responsible for the content of external sources.

You can access the AI policy initiatives here.

For many of the initiatives identified, a national governmental or parliamentary body was involved. In other cases, the initiatives come from data protection authorities, other state institutions, academia, NGOs, an EU body or international organisations. The AI focus of the different initiatives varies.

The collection is intended as a resource for those working in the area of AI. It was last updated on 1 December 2020.

Comments concerning the list of AI policy initiatives, or references to other initiatives not included in the list, can be sent to