18 straipsnis - Teisė į prieglobstį
Teisė į prieglobstį garantuojama pagal 1951 m. liepos 28 d. Ženevos konvenciją ir 1967 m. sausio 31 d. Protokolą dėl pabėgėlių statuso bei Europos Sąjungos sutartį ir Sutartį dėl Europos Sąjungos veikimo (toliau – Sutartys).
Šio straipsnio tekstas grindžiamas EB sutarties 63 straipsniu, dabar pakeistu Sutarties dėl Europos Sąjungos veikimo 78 straipsniu, kuriame reikalaujama, kad Sąjunga laikytųsi Ženevos konvencijos dėl pabėgėlių. Turėtų būti daroma nuoroda į prie Sutarčių pridedamus protokolus dėl Jungtinės Karalystės ir Airijos bei dėl Danijos, kad būtų nustatyta, kokia apimtimi šios valstybės narės įgyvendina Sąjungos teisę šioje srityje ir kokia apimtimi joms taikomas šis straipsnis. Šis straipsnis atitinka prie Sutarčių pridedamą Protokolą dėl prieglobsčio.
Artikel 2 (….) 2. De wet regelt de toelating en de uitzetting van vreemdelingen.
Article 43 The Czech and Slovak Federal Republic shall grant asylum to aliens who are being persecuted for the assertion of their political rights and freedoms. Asylum may be denied to a person who has acted contrary to fundamental human rights and freedoms.
Článek 43 Česká a Slovenská Federativní Republika poskytuje azyl cizincům pronásledovaným za uplatňování politických práv a svobod. Azyl může být odepřen tomu, kdo jednal v rozporu se základními lidskými právy a svobodami.
Chapter 2 - Fundamental rights and freedoms: Article 7 No Swedish citizen may be deported from or refused entry into the Realm. No Swedish citizen who is domiciled in the Realm or who has previously been domiciled in the Realm may be deprived of his or her citizenship. It may however be prescribed that children under the age of eighteen shall have the same nationality as their parents or as one parent; Article 25 For foreign nationals within the Realm, special limitations may be introduced to the following rights and freedoms: 1. Freedom of expression, freedom of information, freedom of assembly, freedom to demonstrate, freedom of association and freedom of worship (Article 1, paragraph one); 2. Protection against coercion to divulge an opinion (Article 2, sentence one); 3. Protection against physical violations also in cases other than cases under Articles 4 and 5, against body searches, house searches and other such invasions of privacy, against violations of confidential items of mail or communications and otherwise against violations involving surveillance and monitoring of the individual’s personal circumstances (Article 6); 4. Protection against deprivation of liberty (Article 8, sentence one); 5. The right to have a deprivation of liberty other than a deprivation of liberty on account of a criminal act or on suspicion of having committed such an act examined before a court of law (Article 9, paragraphs two and three); 6. Public court proceedings (Article 11, paragraph two, sentence two); 7. Authors’, artists’ and photographers’ rights to their works (Article 16); 8. the right to trade or practise a profession (Article 17); 9. The right to freedom of research (Article 18, paragraph two); and 10. Protection against violations on grounds of an opinion (Article 21, sentence three). The provisions of Article 22, paragraph one, paragraph two, sentence one and paragraph three shall apply with respect to the special limitations referred to in paragraph one.
2 kapitlet - Grundläggande fri- och rättigheter: 7 § Ingen svensk medborgare får landsförvisas eller hindras att resa in i riket. Ingen svensk medborgare som är eller har varit bosatt i riket får fråntas sitt medborgarskap. Det får dock föreskrivas att barn under arton år i fråga om sitt medborgarskap ska följa föräldrarna eller en av dem; 25 § För andra än svenska medborgare här i riket får särskilda begränsningar göras genom lag i fråga om följande fri- och rättigheter: 1. Yttrandefriheten, informationsfriheten, mötesfriheten, demonstrationsfriheten, föreningsfriheten och religionsfriheten (1 § första stycket), 2. Skyddet mot tvång att ge till känna åskådning (2 § första meningen), 3. Skyddet mot kroppsligt ingrepp även i annat fall än som avses i 4 och 5 §§, mot kroppsvisitation, husrannsakan och liknande intrång, mot intrång i förtroliga försändelser och meddelanden samt i övrigt mot intrång som innebär övervakning och kartläggning av den enskildes personliga förhållanden (6 §), 4. Skyddet mot frihetsberövande (8 § första meningen), 5. Rätten till domstolsprövning av frihetsberövande av annan anledning än brott eller misstanke om brott (9 § andra och tredje styckena), 6. Offentligheten vid domstolsförhandling (11 § andra stycket andra meningen), 7. Författares, konstnärers och fotografers rätt till sina verk (16 §), 8. Rätten att driva näring eller utöva yrke (17 §), 9. skyddet för forskningens frihet (18 § andra stycket), och 10. Skyddet mot ingrepp på grund av åskådning (21 § tredje meningen). På sådana föreskrifter om särskilda begränsningar som avses i första stycket ska 22 § första stycket, andra stycket första meningen samt tredje stycket tillämpas. Lag (2010:1408).
Artículo 13 1. Los extranjeros gozarán en España de las libertades públicas que garantiza el presente Título en los términos que establezcan los tratados y la ley. 2*. Solamente los españoles serán titulares de los derechos reconocidos en el artículo 23, salvo lo que, atendiendo a criterios de reciprocidad, pueda establecerse por tratado o ley para el derecho de sufragio activo y pasivo en las elecciones municipales. *Redactado conforme a la reforma del artículo 13, apartado 2, de la Constitución Española, de 27 de agosto de 1992. 3. La extradición sólo se concederá en cumplimiento de un tratado o de la ley, atendiendo al principio de reciprocidad. Quedan excluidos de la extradición los delitos políticos, no considerándose como tales los actos de terrorismo. 4. La ley establecerá los términos en que los ciudadanos de otros paises y los apátridas podrán gozar del derecho de asilo en España.
Section 13 (1) Aliens in Spain shall enjoy the public freedoms guaranteed by the present Part, under the terms to be laid down by treaties and the law. (2) Only Spaniards shall have the rights recognized in section 23, except in cases which may be established by treaty or by law concerning the right to vote and the right to be elected in municipal elections, and subject to the principle of reciprocity. (This text includes the first constitutional reform adopted on 27/08/1992; it just added the words "and the right to be elected" to the paragraph). (3) Extradition shall be granted only in compliance with a treaty or with the law, on reciprocal basis. No extradition can be granted for political crimes; but acts of terrorism shall not be regarded as such. (4) The law shall lay down the terms under which citizens from other countries and stateless persons may enjoy the right to asylum in Spain.
Article 48 Within the limits of the law, the right of asylum shall be recognised for foreign nationals and stateless persons who are subject to persecution for their commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms.
48. člen V mejah zakona je priznana pravica pribežališča tujim državljanom in osebam brez državljanstva, ki so preganjane zaradi zavzemanja za človekove pravice in temeljne svoboščine.
Article 53 The Slovak Republic grants asylum to foreign nationals persecuted for upholding political rights and freedoms. Asylum may be denied to those who acted in violation of basic human rights and freedoms. Details shall be laid down by law.
Čl. 53 Slovenská republika poskytuje azyl cudzincom prenasledovaným za uplatňovanie politických práv a slobôd. Azyl možno odoprieť tomu, kto konal v rozpore so základnými ľudskými právami a slobodami. Podrobnosti ustanoví zákon.
Articolul 18(1) Cetatenii straini si apatrizii care locuiesc în România se bucura de protectia generala a persoanelor si a averilor, garantata de Constitutie si de alte legi. (2) Dreptul de azil se acorda si se retrage în conditiile legii, cu respectarea tratatelor si a conventiilor internationale la care România este parte.
Article 18(1) Aliens and stateless persons living in Romania shall enjoy general protection of persons and assets, as guaranteed by the Constitution and other laws. (2) The right of asylum shall be granted and withdrawn under the provisions of the law, in compliance with the international treaties and conventions Romania is a party to.
Artigo 33.º (Expulsão, extradição e direito de asilo) 1. Não é admitida a expulsão de cidadãos portugueses do território nacional. 2. A expulsão de quem tenha entrado ou permaneça regularmente no território nacional, de quem tenha obtido autorização de residência, ou de quem tenha apresentado pedido de asilo não recusado só pode ser determinada por autoridade judicial, assegurando a lei formas expeditas de decisão. 3. A extradição de cidadãos portugueses do território nacional só é admitida, em condições de reciprocidade estabelecidas em convenção internacional, nos casos de terrorismo e de criminalidade internacional organizada, e desde que a ordem jurídica do Estado requisitante consagre garantias de um processo justo e equitativo. 4. Só é admitida a extradição por crimes a que corresponda, segundo o direito do Estado requisitante, pena ou medida de segurança privativa ou restritiva da liberdade com carácter perpétuo ou de duração indefinida, se, nesse domínio, o Estado requisitante for parte de convenção internacional a que Portugal esteja vinculado e oferecer garantias de que tal pena ou medida de segurança não será aplicada ou executada. 5. O disposto nos números anteriores não prejudica a aplicação das normas de cooperação judiciária penal estabelecidas no âmbito da União Europeia. 6. Não é admitida a extradição, nem a entrega a qualquer título, por motivos políticos ou por crimes a que corresponda, segundo o direito do Estado requisitante, pena de morte ou outra de que resulte lesão irreversível da integridade física. 7. A extradição só pode ser determinada por autoridade judicial. 8. É garantido o direito de asilo aos estrangeiros e aos apátridas perseguidos ou gravemente ameaçados de perseguição, em consequência da sua actividade em favor da democracia, da libertação social e nacional, da paz entre os povos, da liberdade e dos direitos da pessoa humana. 9. A lei define o estatuto do refugiado político.
Article 33 (Deportation, extradition and right of asylum) (1) The deportation of Portuguese citizens from Portuguese territory is not permitted. (2) Deportation of anyone who properly entered or is properly remaining in Portuguese territory, has been granted a residence permit or has submitted a request for asylum that has not been refused may only be ordered by a judicial authority. The law shall assure expedite forms of decision in such cases. (3) The extradition of Portuguese citizens from Portuguese territory is only permissible where an international convention has established reciprocal extradition arrangements, in cases of terrorism or international organised crime, and on condition that the applicant state’s legal system enshrines guarantees of just and fair proceedings. (4) Extradition for crimes that are punishable under the applicant state’s law by a sentence or security measure which deprives or restricts freedom in perpetuity or for an undefined duration, is only permissible if the applicant state is a party to an international convention in this domain to which Portugal is bound, and offers guarantees that such a sentence or security measure will not be applied or executed. (5) The provisions of the previous paragraphs do not prejudice the application of the norms governing judicial cooperation in the criminal field that are laid down within the scope of the European Union. (6) The extradition or handing over of a person under any circumstances for political reasons, or for crimes which are punishable under the applicant state’s law by death or by any other sentence that results in irreversible damage to physical integrity, is not permitted. (7) Extradition may only be ordered by a judicial authority. (8) The right of asylum is guaranteed to foreigners and stateless persons who are the object, or are under grave threat, of persecution as a result of their activities in favour of democracy, social and national liberation, peace among peoples, freedom or the rights of the human person. (9) The law shall define the status of political refugee.
Article 56.1. Foreigners shall have a right of asylum in the Republic of Poland in accordance with principles specified by statute.2. Foreigners who, in the Republic of Poland, seek protection from oppression, may be granted the status of a refugee in accordance with international agreements to which the Republic of Poland is a party.
Art. 56.1. Cudzoziemcy mogą korzystać z prawa azylu w Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej na zasadach określonych w ustawie.2. Cudzoziemcowi, który w Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej poszukuje ochrony przed prześladowaniem, może być przyznany status uchodźcy zgodnie z wiążącymi Rzeczpospolitą Polską umowami międzynarodowymi.
Article 8(1) A person may apply to the Commissioner, in the prescribed form, and shall be granted refugee protection, where it is established that he faces a well-founded fear of persecution on his country of origin or habitual residence int erms of the Convention.
Article 111.Tout étranger qui se trouve sur le territoire du Grand-Duché, jouit de la protection accordée aux personnes et aux biens, sauf les exceptions établies par la loi.
Article 111. Every foreigner in the territory of the Grand Duchy enjoys the protection granted to
persons and to property, save the exceptions established by the law.
(50) This Regulation respects the fundamental rights and observes the principles recognised in particular by the Charter. In particular, this Regulation seeks to ensure full respect for the protection of personal data and for the right to seek international protection, and to promote the application of Articles 8 and 18 of the Charter. This Regulation should therefore be applied accordingly.
Given the level of protection of fundamental rights and freedoms by the Member States of the European Union, Member States shall be regarded as constituting safe countries of origin in respect of each other for all legal and practical purposes in relation to asylum matters. Accordingly, any application for asylum made by a national of a Member State may be taken into consideration or declared admissible for processing by another Member State only in the following cases:
(a) if the Member State of which the applicant is a national proceeds after the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam, availing itself of the provisions of Article 15 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, to take measures derogating in its territory from its obligations under that Convention;
(b) if the procedure referred to Article 7(1) of the Treaty on European Union has been initiated and until the Council, or, where appropriate, the European Council, takes a decision in respect thereof with regard to the Member State of which the applicant is a national;
(c) if the Council has adopted a decision in accordance with Article 7(1) of the Treaty on European Union in respect of the Member State of which the applicant is a national or if the European Council has adopted a decision in accordance with Article 7(2) of that Treaty in respect of the Member State of which the applicant is a national;
(d) if a Member State should so decide unilaterally in respect of the application of a national of another Member State; in that case the Council shall be immediately informed; the application shall be dealt with on the basis of the presumption that it is manifestly unfounded without affecting in any way, whatever the cases may be, the decision-making power of the Member State.
Article 78 (ex Articles 63, points 1 and 2, and 64(2) TEC)
1. The Union shall develop a common policy on asylum, subsidiary protection and temporary protection with a view to offering appropriate status to any third-country national requiring international protection and ensuring compliance with the principle of non-refoulement. This policy must be in accordance with the Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 and the Protocol of 31 January 1967 relating to the status of refugees, and other relevant treaties.
2. For the purposes of paragraph 1, the European Parliament and the Council, acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, shall adopt measures for a common European asylum system comprising:
(a) a uniform status of asylum for nationals of third countries, valid throughout the Union;
(b) a uniform status of subsidiary protection for nationals of third countries who, without obtaining European asylum, are in need of international protection;
(c) a common system of temporary protection for displaced persons in the event of a massive inflow;
(d) common procedures for the granting and withdrawing of uniform asylum or subsidiary protection status;
(e) criteria and mechanisms for determining which Member State is responsible for considering an application for asylum or subsidiary protection;
(f) standards concerning the conditions for the reception of applicants for asylum or subsidiary protection;
(g) partnership and cooperation with third countries for the purpose of managing inflows of people applying for asylum or subsidiary or temporary protection.
3. In the event of one or more Member States being confronted by an emergency situation characterised by a sudden inflow of nationals of third countries, the Council, on a proposal from the Commission, may adopt provisional measures for the benefit of the Member State(s) concerned. It shall act after consulting the European Parliament.
This Regulation establishes a European Border and Coast Guard to ensure European integrated border management at the external borders with a view to managing those borders efficiently in full compliance with fundamental rights and to increasing the efficiency of the Union return policy. This Regulation addresses migratory challenges and potential future challenges and threats at the external borders. It ensures a high level of internal security within the Union in full respect of fundamental rights, while safeguarding the free movement of persons within the Union. It contributes to the detection, prevention and combating of cross-border crime at the external borders.
For the purposes of this Directive the following definitions shall apply:
(a) ‘international protection’ means refugee status and subsidiary protection status as defined in points (e) and (g);
(d) ‘refugee’ means a third-country national who, owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership of a particular social group, is outside the country of nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of that country, or a stateless person, who, being outside of the country of former habitual residence for the same reasons as mentioned above, is unable or, owing to such fear, unwilling to return to it, and to whom Article 12 does not apply; [...]
(e) ‘refugee status’ means the recognition by a Member State of a third-country national or a stateless person as a refugee;
(f) ‘person eligible for subsidiary protection’ means a third-country national or a stateless person who does not qualify as a refugee but in respect of whom substantial grounds have been shown for believing that the person concerned, if returned to his or her country of origin, or in the case of a stateless person, to his or her country of former habitual residence, would face a real risk of suffering serious harm as defined in Article 15, and to whom Article 17(1) and (2) does not apply, and is unable, or, owing to such risk, unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of that country;
(g) ‘subsidiary protection status’ means the recognition by a Member State of a third-country national or a stateless person as a person eligible for subsidiary protection; [...]‘
Granting of refugee status
Member States shall grant refugee status to a third-country national or a stateless person who qualifies as a refugee in accordance with Chapters II and III.‘
Granting of subsidiary protection status
Member States shall grant subsidiary protection status to a third-country national or a stateless person eligible for subsidiary protection in accordance with Chapters II and V.‘
‘(12) The main objective of this Directive is to further develop the standards for procedures in Member States for granting and withdrawing international protection with a view to establishing a common asylum procedure in the Union.
‘(15) With respect to the treatment of persons falling within the scope of this Directive, Member States are bound by obligations under instruments of international law to which they are party.
‘(16) It is essential that decisions on all applications for international protection be taken on the basis of the facts and, in the first instance, by authorities whose personnel has the appropriate knowledge or has received the necessary training in the field of international protection.
‘(17) In order to ensure that applications for international protection are examined and decisions thereon are taken objectively and impartially, it is necessary that professionals acting in the framework of the procedures provided for in this Directive perform their activities with due respect for the applicable deontological principles.
‘(18) It is in the interests of both Member States and applicants for international protection that a decision is made as soon as possible on applications for international protection, without prejudice to an adequate and complete examination being carried out.‘
Article 1 - Purpose
The purpose of this Directive is to establish common procedures for granting and withdrawing international protection pursuant to Directive 2011/95/EU.
Article 2 - Definitions
For the purposes of this Directive:
‘(a) ‘Geneva Convention’ means the Convention of 28 July 1951 Relating to the Status of Refugees, as amended by the New York Protocol of 31 January 1967;
(b) ‘application for international protection’ or ‘application’ means a request made by a third- country national or a stateless person for protection from a Member State, who can be understood to seek refugee status or subsidiary protection status, and who does not explicitly request another kind of protection outside the scope of Directive 2011/95/EU, that can be applied for separately; [...]
(i) ‘international protection’ means refugee status and subsidiary protection status as defined in points (j) and (k);
(j) ‘refugee status’ means the recognition by a Member State of a third-country national or a stateless person as a refugee;
(k) ‘subsidiary protection status’ means the recognition by a Member State of a third-country national or a stateless person as a person eligible for subsidiary protection; [...].‘
Article 10 - Requirements for the examination of applications
‘1. Member States shall ensure that applications for international protection are neither rejected nor excluded from examination on the sole ground that they have not been made as soon as possible.
2. When examining applications for international protection, the determining authority shall first determine whether the applicants qualify as refugees and, if not, determine whether the applicants are eligible for subsidiary protection.
3. Member States shall ensure that decisions by the determining authority on applications for international protection are taken after an appropriate examination. To that end, Member States shall ensure that:
(a) applications are examined and decisions are taken individually, objectively and impartially;
(b) precise and up-to-date information is obtained from various sources, such as EASO and UNHCR and relevant international human rights organisations, as to the general situation prevailing in the countries of origin of applicants and, where necessary, in countries through which they have transited, and that such information is made available to the personnel responsible for examining applications and taking decisions;
(c) the personnel examining applications and taking decisions know the relevant standards applicable in the field of asylum and refugee law;
(d) the personnel examining applications and taking decisions have the possibility to seek advice, whenever necessary, from experts on particular issues, such as medical, cultural, religious, child-related or gender issues.
4. The authorities referred to in Chapter V shall, through the determining authority or the applicant or otherwise, have access to the general information referred to in paragraph 3(b), necessary for the fulfilment of their task.
5. Member States shall provide for rules concerning the translation of documents relevant for the examination of applications.‘
Article 3- Access to the procedure for examining an application for international protection
‘1. Member States shall examine any application for international protection by a third-country national or a stateless person who applies on the territory of any one of them, including at the border or in the transit zones. The application shall be examined by a single Member State, which shall be the one which the criteria set out in Chapter III indicate is responsible.
2. Where no Member State responsible can be designated on the basis of the criteria listed in this Regulation, the first Member State in which the application for international protection was lodged shall be responsible for examining it.
Where it is impossible to transfer an applicant to the Member State primarily designated as responsible because there are substantial grounds for believing that there are systemic flaws in the asylum procedure and in the reception conditions for applicants in that Member State, resulting in a risk of inhuman or degrading treatment within the meaning of Article 4 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, the determining Member State shall continue to examine the criteria set out in Chapter III in order to establish whether another Member State can be designated as responsible.
Where the transfer cannot be made pursuant to this paragraph to any Member State designated on the basis of the criteria set out in Chapter III or to the first Member State with which the application was lodged, the determining Member State shall become the Member State responsible.
3. Any Member State shall retain the right to send an applicant to a safe third country, subject to the rules and safeguards laid down in Directive 2013/32/EU.‘
1. Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
2. This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.