De Europese Unie erkent en eerbiedigt overeenkomstig de Verdragen de toegang tot diensten van algemeen economisch belang die in de nationale wetgevingen en praktijken is geregeld, teneinde de sociale en territoriale samenhang van de Unie te bevorderen.
Dit artikel is geheel in overeenstemming met artikel 14 van het Verdrag betreffende de werking van de Europese Unie en schept geen nieuw recht. Het stelt alleen het beginsel dat de Unie de toegang tot diensten van algemeen economisch belang zoals deze is geregeld in de nationale voorschriften, moet eerbiedigen wanneer deze voorschriften verenigbaar zijn met het recht van de Unie.
Article 26 (1) Everybody has the right to the free choice of her profession and the training for that profession, as well as the right to engage in enterprise and pursue other economic activity. Article 27 (1) Everyone has the right to associate freely with others for the protection of her economic and social interests.
Článek 26 (1) Každý má právo na svobodnou volbu povolání a přípravu k němu, jakož i právo podnikat a provozovat jinou hospodářskou činnost. Článek 27 (1) Každý má právo svobodně se sdružovat s jinými na ochranu svých hospodářských a sociálních zájmů.
Articolul 45 Accesul liber al persoanei la o activitate economica, libera initiativa si exercitarea acestora în conditiile legii sunt garantate.Articolul 135(1) Economia României este economie de piata, bazata pe libera initiativa si concurenta.(2) Statul trebuie sa asigure: a) libertatea comertului, protectia concurentei loiale, crearea cadrului favorabil pentru valorificarea tuturor factorilor de productie; b) protejarea intereselor nationale în activitatea economica, financiara si valutara; c) stimularea cercetarii stiintifice si tehnologice nationale, a artei si protectia dreptului de autor;d) exploatarea resurselor naturale, în concordanta cu interesul national; e) refacerea si ocrotirea mediului înconjurator, precum si mentinerea echilibrului ecologic;f) crearea conditiilor necesare pentru cresterea calitatii vietii;g) aplicarea politicilor de dezvoltare regionala în concordanta cu obiectivele Uniunii Europene.
Article 45Free access of persons to an economic activity, free enterprise, and their exercise under the law shall be guaranteed.Article 135(1) Romania's economy is a free market economy, based on free enterprise and competition. (2) The State must secure: a) a free trade, protection of fair competition, provision of a favourable framework in order to stimulate and capitalize every factor of production; b) protection of national interests in economic, financial and currency activity; c) stimulation of national scientific and technological research, arts, and protection of copyright; d) exploitation of natural resources, in conformity with national interests; e) environmental protection and recovery, as well as preservation of the ecological balance; f) creation of all necessary conditions so as to increase the quality of life; g) implementation of regional development policies in compliance with the objectives of the European Union.
Artigo 61.º (Iniciativa privada, cooperativa e autogestionária) 1. A iniciativa económica privada exerce-se livremente nos quadros definidos pela Constituição e pela lei e tendo em conta o interesse geral. Artigo 80.º (Princípios fundamentais) A organização económico-social assenta nos seguintes princípios: d) Propriedade pública dos recursos naturais e de meios de produção, de acordo com o interesse colectivo; Artigo 81.º (Incumbências prioritárias do Estado) Incumbe prioritariamente ao Estado no âmbito económico e social: a) Promover o aumento do bem-estar social e económico e da qualidade de vida das pessoas, em especial das mais desfavorecidas, no quadro de uma estratégia de desenvolvimento sustentável; b) Promover a justiça social, assegurar a igualdade de oportunidades e operar as necessárias correcções das desigualdades na distribuição da riqueza e do rendimento, nomeadamente através da política fiscal; c) Assegurar a plena utilização das forças produtivas, designadamente zelando pela eficiência do sector público; d) Promover a coesão económica e social de todo o território nacional, orientando o desenvolvimento no sentido de um crescimento equilibrado de todos os sectores e regiões e eliminando progressivamente as diferenças económicas e sociais entre a cidade e o campo e entre o litoral e o interior; e) Promover a correcção das desigualdades derivadas da insularidade das regiões autónomas e incentivar a sua progressiva integração em espaços económicos mais vastos, no âmbito nacional ou internacional; f) Assegurar o funcionamento eficiente dos mercados, de modo a garantir a equilibrada concorrência entre as empresas, a contrariar as formas de organização monopolistas e a reprimir os abusos de posição dominante e outras práticas lesivas do interesse geral; g) Desenvolver as relações económicas com todos os povos, salvaguardando sempre a independência nacional e os interesses dos portugueses e da economia do país; h) Eliminar os latifúndios e reordenar o minifúndio; i) Garantir a defesa dos interesses e os direitos dos consumidores; j) Criar os instrumentos jurídicos e técnicos necessários ao planeamento democrático do desenvolvimento económico e social; l) Assegurar uma política científica e tecnológica favorável ao desenvolvimento do país; m) Adoptar uma política nacional de energia, com preservação dos recursos naturais e do equilíbrio ecológico, promovendo, neste domínio, a cooperação internacional; n) Adoptar uma política nacional da água, com aproveitamento, planeamento e gestão racional dos recursos hídricos.
Article 61 (Private enterprise, cooperatives and worker management) (1). Private economic enterprise shall be freely exercised, within the framework provided by this Constitution and the law, and with due account to the general interest. Article 80 (Fundamental principles) Social and economic organisation shall be based on the following principles: (d) Public ownership of natural resources and of the means of production, where required in the public interest. Article 81 (Priority duties of the State) In the economic and social field the state shall be under a primary duty: (a) Within the overall framework of a sustainable development strategy, to promote an increase in people’s social and economic well-being and quality of life, especially those of the most disadvantaged persons; (b) To promote social justice, ensure equal opportunity and carry out the necessary corrections to inequalities in the distribution of wealth and income, particularly by means of the fiscal policy; (c) To ensure the full use of the forces of production, particularly by making every effort to ensure the efficiency of the public sector; (d) To promote the economic and social cohesion of the whole country by guiding development in the direction of a balanced growth in every sector and region and progressively eliminating the economic and social differences between towns and the country and between the coastal strip and the inland areas; (e) To promote the correction of the inequalities derived from the autonomous regions’ insular nature and encourage the said regions’ progressive integration into broader economic areas with a national or international scope; (f) To ensure the efficient operation of the markets, in such a way as to guarantee a balanced competition between businesses, counter monopolistic forms of organisation and repress abuses of dominant positions and other practises that are harmful to the general interest; (g) To develop economic relations with all peoples, while always safeguarding national independence and the interests of both the Portuguese people and the country’s economy; (h) To eliminate very large estates and restructure small farms; (i) To guarantee consumer rights and interests; (j) To create the legal and technical instruments needed to democratically plan economic and social development; (l) To ensure the existence of a science and technology policy that favours the country’s development; (m) To adopt a national energy policy that preserves natural resources and the ecological balance, while promoting international cooperation in this domain; (n) To adopt a national water policy that uses, plans and rationally manages water resources.
Article 20A social market economy, based on the freedom of economic activity, private ownership, and solidarity, dialogue and cooperation between social partners, shall be the basis of the economic system of the Republic of Poland.Article 22Limitations upon the freedom of economic activity may be imposed only by means of statute and only for important public reasons.Article 655. Public authorities shall pursue policies aiming at full, productive employment by implementing programmes to combat unemployment, including the organization of and support for occupational advice and training, as well as public works and economic intervention.
Article 20 A social market economy, based on the freedom of economic activity, private ownership, and solidarity, dialogue and cooperation between social partners, shall be the basis of the economic system of the Republic of Poland.Article 22Limitations upon the freedom of economic activity may be imposed only by means of statute and only for important public reasons.Article 655. Public authorities shall pursue policies aiming at full, productive employment by implementing programmes to combat unemployment, including the organization of and support for occupational advice and training, as well as public works and economic intervention.
Art. 20Społeczna gospodarka rynkowa oparta na wolności działalności gospodarczej, własności prywatnej oraz solidarności, dialogu i współpracy partnerów społecznych stanowi podstawę ustroju gospodarczego Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej.Art. 22Ograniczenie wolności działalności gospodarczej jest dopuszczalne tylko w drodze ustawy i tylko ze względu na ważny interes publiczny.Art. 655. Władze publiczne prowadzą politykę zmierzającą do pełnego, produktywnego zatrudnienia poprzez realizowanie programów zwalczania bezrobocia, w tym organizowanie i wspieranie poradnictwa i szkolenia zawodowego oraz robót publicznych i prac interwencyjnych.
Article 46. Lithuania’s economy shall be based on the right of private ownership, freedom of individual economic activity and initiative. The State shall support economic efforts and initiative that are useful to society. The State shall regulate economic activity so that it serves the general welfare of the Nation. The law shall prohibit monopolisation of production and the market and shall protect freedom of fair competition.
46 straipsnis. Lietuvos ūkis grindžiamas privačios nuosavybės teise, asmens ūkinės veiklos laisve ir iniciatyva. Valstybė remia visuomenei naudingas ūkines pastangas ir iniciatyvą. Valstybė reguliuoja ūkinę veiklą taip, kad ji tarnautų bendrai tautos gerovei. Įstatymas draudžia monopolizuoti gamybą ir rinką, saugo sąžiningos konkurencijos laisvę.
Art. 41. (…) The law shall provide for appropriate programmes and controls so that public and private-sector economic activity may be oriented and co-ordinated for social purposes. Art. 43. For the purposes of the common good, the law may establish that an enterprise or a category thereof be, through a pre-emptive decision or compulsory purchase authority with provision of compensation, reserved to the Government, a public agency, a workers' or users' association, provided that such enterprise operates in the field of essential public services, energy sources or monopolies and are of general public interest.
Art. 41(…) La legge determina i programmi e i controlli opportuni perché l'attività economica pubblica e privata possa essere indirizzata e coordinata a fini sociali. Art. 43. A fini di utilità generale la legge può riservare originariamente o trasferire, mediante espropriazione e salvo indennizzo, allo Stato, ad enti pubblici o a comunità di lavoratori o di utenti, determinate imprese o categorie di imprese, che si riferiscano a servizi pubblici essenziali o a fonti di energia o a situazioni di monopolio ed abbiano carattere di preminente interesse generale.
Article 45.2. The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing :(…) iii. That, especially, the operation of free competition shall not be allowed so to develop as to result in the concentration of the ownership or control of essential commodities in a few individuals to the common detriment. (…).Article 45.3.1. The State shall favour and, where necessary, supplement private initiative in industry and commerce.
XII. cikk (SZABADSÁG ÉS FELELŐSSÉG) (1) Magyarország törekszik arra, hogy az emberhez méltó lakhatás feltételeit és a közszolgáltatásokhoz való hozzáférést mindenki számára biztosítsa. […]
Article XII (Freedom and Responsibility) (1) Hungary shall strive to ensure decent housing conditions and access to public services for everyone. […]
Article 106 (3) With the reservation of the protection provided in article 107 in connection with the re-export of foreign capital, the law may regulate the acquisition by purchase of enterprises or the compulsory participation therein of the State or other public agencies, in the event these enterprises are of the nature of a monopoly or are of vital importance to the development of sources of national wealth or are primarily intended to offer services to the community as a whole. [...]
Άρθρο 106 (3) Mε την επιφύλαξη της πρoστασίας πoυ παρέχεται από τo άρθρo 107 ως πρoς την επανεξαγωγή κεφαλαίων εξωτερικoύ, μπoρεί να ρυθμίζoνται με νόμo τα σχετικά με την εξαγoρά επιχειρήσεων ή την αναγκαστική συμμετoχή σ’ αυτές τoυ Kράτoυς ή άλλων δημόσιων φoρέων, εφόσoν oι επιχειρήσεις αυτές έχoυν χαρακτήρα μoνoπωλίoυ ή ζωτική σημασία για την αξιoπoίηση των πηγών τoυ εθνικoύ πλoύτoυ, ή έχoυν ως κύριo σκoπό την παρoχή υπηρεσιών στo κoινωνικό σύνoλo. [...]
Article 87e (…) (4) The Federation shall ensure that in developing and maintaining the federal railway system as well as in offering services over this system, other than local passenger services, due account is taken of the interests and especially the transportation needs of the public. Details shall be regulated by a federal law. (…) Article 87f (1) In accordance with a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat, the Federation shall ensure the availability of adequate and appropriate postal and telecommunications services throughout the federal territory. (2) Services within the meaning of paragraph (1) of this Article shall be provided as a matter of private enterprise by the firms succeeding to the special trust Deutsche Bundespost and by other private providers. Sovereign functions in the area of posts and telecommunications shall be discharged by federal administrative authorities. (...)
Artikel 87e (4) Der Bund gewährleistet, daß dem Wohl der Allgemeinheit, insbesondere den Verkehrsbedürfnissen, beim Ausbau und Erhalt des Schienennetzes der Eisenbahnen des Bundes sowie bei deren Verkehrsangeboten auf diesem Schienennetz, soweit diese nicht den Schienenpersonennahverkehr betreffen, Rechnung getragen wird. Das Nähere wird durch Bundesgesetz geregelt. (...) Artikel 87f (1) Nach Maßgabe eines Bundesgesetzes, das der Zustimmung des Bundesrates bedarf, gewährleistet der Bund im Bereich des Postwesens und der Telekommunikation flächendeckend angemessene und ausreichende Dienstleistungen. (2) Dienstleistungen im Sinne des Absatzes 1 werden als privatwirtschaftliche Tätigkeiten durch die aus dem Sondervermögen Deutsche Bundespost hervorgegangenen Unternehmen und durch andere private Anbieter erbracht. Hoheitsaufgaben im Bereich des Postwesens und der Telekommunikation werden in bundeseigener Verwaltung ausgeführt.(...)
Preamble: ‘(6) It should be recalled that Member States are free to decide, in compliance with the principles of the TFEU on equal treatment, non-discrimination, transparency and the free movement of persons to organise the provision of services either as services of general economic interest or as non-economic services of general interest or as a mixture thereof. It should also be recalled that this Directive is without prejudice to the freedom of national, regional and local authorities to define, in conformity with Union law, services of general economic interest, their scope and the characteristics of the service to be provided, including any conditions regarding the quality of the service, in order to pursue their public policy objectives. It should also be without prejudice to the power of national, regional and local authorities to provide, commission and finance services of general economic interest in accordance with Article 14 TFEU and Protocol No 26 annexed to the TFEU and to the Treaty on European Union (TEU). In addition, this Directive does not deal with the funding of services of general economic interest or with systems of aid granted by Member States, in particular in the social field, in accordance with Union rules on competition. It is appropriate to clarify that non-economic services of general interest should not fall within the scope of this Directive.‘ ‘(7) It is also appropriate to recall that this Directive should not affect the social security legislation of the Member States. Nor should it entail the liberalisation of services of general economic interest, reserved to public or private entities, or the privatisation of public entities providing services.‘ ‘(9) It should finally be recalled that this Directive is without prejudice to the freedom of national, regional and local authorities to define, in conformity with Union law, services of general economic interest, their scope and the characteristics of the service to be provided, including any conditions regarding the quality of the service, in order to pursue their public policy objectives. This Directive should also be without prejudice to the power of national, regional and local authorities to provide, commission and finance services of general economic interest in accordance with Article 14 TFEU and Protocol No 26 on Services of General Interest annexed to the TFEU and to the Treaty on European Union (TEU). In addition, this Directive does not deal with the funding of services of general economic interest or with systems of aids granted by Member States, in particular in the social field, in accordance with Union rules on competition.‘ Article 4 - Freedom to define services of general economic interest ‘1. This Directive does not affect the freedom of Member States to define, in conformity with Union law, what they consider to be services of general economic interest, how those services should be organised and financed, in compliance with the State aid rules, and what specific obligations they should be subject to. Equally, this Directive does not affect the way in which the Member States organise their social security systems. 2. Non-economic services of general interest shall fall outside the scope of this Directive. [...]‘
Preamble: ‘(8) It is also appropriate to recall that this Directive should not affect the social security legislation of the Member States. Nor should it deal with the liberalisation of services of general economic interest, reserved to public or private entities, or with the privatisation of public entities providing services. It should equally be recalled that Member States are free to organise the provision of compulsory social services or of other services such as postal services either as services of general economic interest or as non-economic services of general interest or as a mixture thereof. It is appropriate to clarify that non-economic services of general interest should not fall within the scope of this Directive.‘
This Regulation establishes provisions aimed at safeguarding the security of gas supply by ensuring the proper and continuous functioning of the internal market in natural gas (gas), by allowing for exceptional measures to be implemented when the market can no longer deliver the required gas supplies and by providing for a clear definition and attribution of responsibilities among natural gas undertakings, the Member States and the Union regarding both preventive action and the reaction to concrete disruptions of supply. This Regulation also provides transparent mechanisms, in a spirit of solidarity, for the coordination of planning for, and response to, an emergency at Member State, regional and Union levels.’ (Article 1)