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- 21 January 2019
Delo z Romi: udeležba in krepitev vloge lokalnih skupnosti - Povzetek
To zbirno poročilo predstavlja ključne ugotovitve terenskega dela in mnenja agencije FRA, ki izhajajo iz njih.
1. Unija priznava in spoštuje pravico dostopa do dajatev socialne varnosti in socialnih služb, ki nudijo varstvo v primerih, kot so materinstvo, bolezen, nesreče pri delu, odvisnost ali starost ter v primeru izgube zaposlitve, v skladu s pravili, ki jih določajo pravo Unije ter nacionalne zakonodaje in običaji.
2. Vsakdo, ki v Uniji zakonito prebiva in spreminja prebivališče, ima pravico do dajatev socialne varnosti in socialnih ugodnosti v skladu s pravom Unije ter nacionalnimi zakonodajami in običaji.
3. V boju proti socialni izključenosti in revščini Unija priznava in spoštuje pravico do socialne pomoči in pomoči pri pridobitvi stanovanj, ki naj zagotovita dostojno življenje vsem, ki nimajo zadostnih sredstev, v skladu s pravili, ki jih določajo pravo Unije ter nacionalne zakonodaje in običaji.
Načelo iz odstavka 1 člena 34 temelji na členih 153 in 156 Pogodbe o delovanju Evropske unije ter na 12. členu Evropske socialne listine in točki 10 Listine Skupnosti o temeljnih socialnih pravicah delavcev. Unija ga mora spoštovati pri izvajanju pristojnosti, ki so ji dodeljene s členoma 153 in 156 Pogodbe o delovanju Unije. Sklicevanje na socialne službe se nanaša na primere, v katerih so bile takšne službe vzpostavljene z namenom zagotavljanja določenih storitev, vendar to ne pomeni, da je treba takšne službe uvesti, če ne obstajajo. `Materinstvo` je treba razumeti enako kot v prejšnjem členu.
Odstavek 2 temelji na četrtem odstavku 12. člena in četrtem odstavku 13. člena Evropske socialne listine ter točki 2 Listine Skupnosti o temeljnih socialnih pravicah delavcev in odraža pravila, ki izhajajo iz Uredbe Sveta (EGS) št. 1408/71 o uporabi sistemov socialne varnosti za zaposlene osebe in njihove družinske člane, ki se gibljejo v Skupnosti in Uredbe Sveta (EGS) št. 1612/68 o prostem gibanju delavcev v Skupnosti.
Odstavek 3 izhaja iz 13. člena Evropske socialne listine, 30. in 31. člena spremenjene Socialne listine ter točke 10 Listine Skupnosti o temeljnih socialnih pravicah delavcev. Unija ga mora spoštovati v okviru politik, ki temeljijo na členu 153 Pogodbe o delovanju Evropske unije.
Article 30 (1) Citizens have the right to adequate material security in old age and during periods of work incapacity, as well as in the case of the loss of their provider. (2) Everyone who suffers from material need has the right to such assistance as is necessary to ensure her a basic living standard. (3) Detailed provisions shall be set by law. Article 32 (…) (5) Parents who are raising children have the right to assistance from the state.
Článek 30 (1) Občané mají právo na přiměřené hmotné zabezpečení ve stáří a při nezpůsobilosti k práci, jakož i při ztrátě živitele. (2) Každý, kdo je v hmotné nouzi, má právo na takovou pomoc, která je nezbytná pro zajištění základních životních podmínek. (3) Podrobnosti stanoví zákon. Článek 32 (...) (5) Rodiče, kteří pečují o děti, mají právo na pomoc státu.
Chapter 1 - Basic principles of the form of government: Article 2(...) The personal, economic and cultural welfare of the individual shall be fundamental aims of public activity. In particular, the public institutions shall secure the right to employment, housing and education, and shall promote social care and social security, as well as favourable conditions for good health. (...)
1 kapitlet - Statsskickets grunder: 2 §(...) Den enskildes personliga, ekonomiska och kulturella välfärd ska vara grundläggande mål för den offentliga verksamheten. Särskilt ska det allmänna trygga rätten till arbete, bostad och utbildning samt verka för social omsorg och trygghet och för goda förutsättningar för hälsa. (...)
Artículo 41 Los poderes públicos mantendrán un régimen público de Seguridad Social para todos los ciudadanos, que garantice la asistencia y prestaciones sociales suficientes ante situaciones de necesidad, especialmente en caso de desempleo. La asistencia y prestaciones complementarias serán libres.Artículo 47 Todos los españoles tienen derecho a disfrutar de una vivienda digna y adecuada. Los poderes públicos promoverán las condiciones necesarias y establecerán las normas pertinentes para hacer efectivo este derecho, regulando la utilización del suelo de acuerdo con el interés general para impedir la especulación.La comunidad participará en las plusvalías que genere la acción urbanística de los entes públicos.
Article 41 The public authorities shall maintain a public Social Security system for all citizens guaranteeing adequate social assistance and benefits in situations of hardship, especially in case of unemployment. Supplementary assistance and benefits shall be optional. Article 47 All Spaniards have the right to enjoy decent and adequate housing. The public authorities shall promote the necessary conditions and establish appropriate standards in order to make this right effective, regulating land use in accordance with the general interest in order to prevent speculation. The community shall have a share in the benefits accruing from the town-planning policies of public bodies.
Article 50* (Right to Social Security)Citizens have the right to social security, including the right to a pension, under conditions provided by law.The state shall regulate compulsory health, pension, disability and other social insurance, and shall ensure its proper functioning.Special protection in accordance with the law shall be guaranteed to war veterans and victims of war.* As amended by the Constitutional Act Amending Article 50 of the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia, 15 June 2004 (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, No. 69/04).
50. člen (pravica do socialne varnosti) Državljani imajo pod pogoji, določenimi z zakonom, pravico do socialne varnosti, vključno s pravico do pokojnine. (Sprememba - datum razglasitve 23. 6. 2004; UL RS, št. 69/2004 z dne 24. 6. 2004. Besedilo prvega odstavka 50. člena Ustave RS, ki je bilo spremenjeno z Ustavnim zakonom o spremembi 50. člena Ustave RS (UZ50), se je pred spremembo glasilo:"Državljani imajo pod pogoji, določenimi z zakonom, pravico do socialne varnosti.") Država ureja obvezno zdravstveno, pokojninsko, invalidsko in drugo socialno zavarovanje ter skrbi za njihovo delovanje.Vojnim veteranom in žrtvam vojnega nasilja je zagotovljeno posebno varstvo v skladu z zakonom.
Article 39 (1) Citizens have the right to adequate material provision in old age, in the event of work disability, as well as after losing their provider. (2) Everyone who is in material need is entitled to assistance necessary to ensure basic living conditions. (3) Details concerning rights listed in paragraphs 1 and 2 shall be laid down by law. Article 41 (...) (2) 2) Special care, protection in labor relations, and adequate working conditions are guaranteed to a woman during the period of pregnancy. (...)
Čl. 39 (1) Občania majú právo na primerané hmotné zabezpečenie v starobe a pri nespôsobilosti na prácu, ako aj pri strate živiteľa. (2) Každý, kto je v hmotnej núdzi, má právo na takú pomoc, ktorá je nevyhnutná na zabezpečenie základných životných podmienok. (3) Podrobnosti o právach podľa odsekov 1 a 2 ustanoví zákon. Čl. 41 (...) (2) Žene v tehotenstve sa zaručuje osobitná starostlivosť, ochrana v pracovných vzťahoch a zodpovedajúce pracovné podmienky (...).
Articolul 47(1) Statul este obligat sa ia masuri de dezvoltare economica si de protectie sociala, de natura sa asigure cetatenilor un nivel de trai decent. (2) Cetatenii au dreptul la pensie, la concediu de maternitate platit, la asistenta medicala în unitatile sanitare de stat, la ajutor de somaj si la alte forme de asigurari sociale publice sau private, prevazute de lege. Cetatenii au dreptul si la masuri de asistenta sociala, potrivit legii.
Article 47(1) The State shall be bound to take measures of economic development and social protection, of a nature to ensure a decent living standard for its citizens. (2) Citizens have the right to pensions, paid maternity leave, medical care in public health centres, unemployment benefits, and other forms of public or private social securities, as stipulated by the law. Citizens have the right to social assistance, according to the law.
Artigo 63.º (Segurança social e solidariedade) 1. Todos têm direito à segurança social. 2. Incumbe ao Estado organizar, coordenar e subsidiar um sistema de segurança social unificado e descentralizado, com a participação das associações sindicais, de outras organizações representativas dos trabalhadores e de associações representativas dos demais beneficiários. 3. O sistema de segurança social protege os cidadãos na doença, velhice, invalidez, viuvez e orfandade, bem como no desemprego e em todas as outras situações de falta ou diminuição de meios de subsistência ou de capacidade para o trabalho. 4. Todo o tempo de trabalho contribui, nos termos da lei, para o cálculo das pensões de velhice e invalidez, independentemente do sector de actividade em que tiver sido prestado. 5. O Estado apoia e fiscaliza, nos termos da lei, a actividade e o funcionamento das instituições particulares de solidariedade social e de outras de reconhecido interesse público sem carácter lucrativo, com vista à prossecução de objectivos de solidariedade social (...).
Article 63 (Social security and solidarity) (1) Everyone shall have the right to social security. (2) The state shall be charged with organising, coordinating and subsidising a unified and decentralised social security system, with the participation of the trade unions, other organisations that represent workers and associations that represent any other beneficiaries. (3) The social security system shall protect citizens in illness and old age and when they are disabled, widowed or orphaned, as well as when they are unemployed or in any other situation that entails a lack of or reduction in means of subsistence or ability to work. (4) All periods of work shall, as laid down by law, contribute to the calculation of old age and disability pensions, regardless of the sector of activity in which they were performed. (5). With a view to the pursuit of the social solidarity objectives (...) the state shall, as laid down by law, support and inspect the activities and operation of private charitable institutions and other non-profit institutions that are recognised to be in the public interest.
Article 671. A citizen shall have the right to social security whenever incapacitated for work by reason of sickness or invalidism as well as having attained retirement age. The scope and forms of social security shall be specified by statute.2. A citizen who is involuntarily without work and has no other means of support, shall have the right to social security, the scope of which shall be specified by statute.Article 681. Everyone shall have the right to have his health protected.2. Equal access to health care services, financed from public funds, shall be ensured by public authorities to citizens, irrespective of their material situation. The conditions for, and scope of, the provision of services shall be established by statute. (...)Article 711. The State, in its social and economic policy, shall take into account the good of the family. Families, finding themselves in difficult material and social circumstances - particularly those with many children or a single parent - shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities. (...)Article 751. Public authorities shall pursue policies conducive to satisfying the housing needs of citizens, in particular combatting homelessness, promoting the development of low-income housing and supporting activities aimed at acquisition of a home by each citizen.2. Protection of the rights of tenants shall be established by statute.
Article 67.1. A citizen shall have the right to social security whenever incapacitated for work by reason of sickness or invalidism as well as having attained retirement age. The scope and forms of social security shall be specified by statute.2. A citizen who is involuntarily without work and has no other means of support, shall have the right to social security, the scope of which shall be specified by statute.Article 68.1. Everyone shall have the right to have his health protected.2. Equal access to health care services, financed from public funds, shall be ensured by public authorities to citizens, irrespective of their material situation. The conditions for, and scope of, the provision of services shall be established by statute. (...)Article 71.1. The State, in its social and economic policy, shall take into account the good of the family. Families, finding themselves in difficult material and social circumstances - particularly those with many children or a single parent - shall have the right to special assistance from public authorities. (...)Article 75.1. Public authorities shall pursue policies conducive to satisfying the housing needs of citizens, in particular combatting homelessness, promoting the development of low-income housing and supporting activities aimed at acquisition of a home by each citizen.2. Protection of the rights of tenants shall be established by statute.
Art. 67.1. Obywatel ma prawo do zabezpieczenia społecznego w razie niezdolności do pracy ze względu na chorobę lub inwalidztwo oraz po osiągnięciu wieku emerytalnego. Zakres i formy zabezpieczenia społecznego określa ustawa.2. Obywatel pozostający bez pracy nie z własnej woli i nie mający innych środków utrzymania ma prawo do zabezpieczenia społecznego, którego zakres i formy określa ustawa.Art. 68.1. Każdy ma prawo do ochrony zdrowia.2. Obywatelom, niezależnie od ich sytuacji materialnej, władze publiczne zapewniają równy dostęp do świadczeń opieki zdrowotnej finansowanej ze środków publicznych. Warunki i zakres udzielania świadczeń określa ustawa. (...)Art. 71.1. Państwo w swojej polityce społecznej i gospodarczej uwzględnia dobro rodziny. Rodziny znajdujące się w trudnej sytuacji materialnej i społecznej, zwłaszcza wielodzietne i niepełne, mają prawo do szczególnej pomocy ze strony władz publicznych. (...)Art. 75.1. Władze publiczne prowadzą politykę sprzyjającą zaspokojeniu potrzeb mieszkaniowych obywateli, w szczególności przeciwdziałają bezdomności, wspierają rozwój budownictwa socjalnego oraz popierają działania obywateli zmierzające do uzyskania własnego mieszkania.2. Ochronę praw lokatorów określa ustawa.
Article 17(1) Every citizen incapable of work and unprovided with the resources necessary for subsistence is entitled to maintenance and social assistance.(2) Workers are entitled to reasonable insurance on a contributory basis for their requirements in case of accident, illness, disability, old-age and involuntary unemployment. (3) Disabled persons and persons incapable of work are entitled to education and vocational training.
Article 11.(5) La loi règle quant à ses principes la sécurité sociale, la protection de la santé, les droits des travailleurs, la lutte contre la pauvreté et l’intégration sociale des citoyens atteints d’un handicap.
Article 11.(5) The law regulates as to their principles[:] social security, the protection of health, the rights of workers, [and] the struggle against poverty and social integration of citizens affected by a handicap.
Marital and family status ‘31. Marital and family status may differ between individuals because, inter alia, they are married or unmarried, married under a particular legal regime, in a de facto relationship or one not recognized by law, divorced or widowed, live in an extended family or kinship group or have differing kinds of responsibility for children and dependants or a particular number of children. Differential treatment in access to social security benefits on the basis of whether an individual is married must be justified on reasonable and objective criteria. In certain cases, discrimination can also occur when an individual is unable to exercise a right protected by the Covenant because of his or her family status or can only do so with spousal consent or a relative’s concurrence or guarantee.‘
‘17. States parties should promote inclusive and sustainable economic development which enables rural women to enjoy their rights, and: [...] (c) Ensure that they are able to effectively and directly benefit from economic and social programmes by involving them in the design and development of all relevant plans and strategies, such as those related to health, education, employment, social security, etc.‘ ‘40. Article 14, paragraph 2(c) requires States parties to ensure that rural women benefit directly from social security. However, a majority of rural women have limited opportunities in the formal labour market, and are more likely to be engaged in activities not regulated by labour codes and social security legislation linked with formal employment. They are therefore exposed to increased risks and need measures of social protection taking their situation into account. 41. In order to eliminate discrimination against rural women in economic and social life, States parties should: (a) Ensure that rural women engaged in unpaid work and/or in the informal sector have access to non-contributory social protection in line with GR 16 (1991) on unpaid women workers in rural and urban family enterprises, and that those employed in the formal sector have access to contributory social security benefits in their own right, irrespective of their marital status; (b) Adopt gender-responsive social protection floors to ensure that all rural women have access to essential health care, childcare facilities and income security, in line with article 14, paragraph 2 (b) and (h) and ILO Recommendation No. 202 (2012) on social protection floors.‘
2. Right to social security ‘67. With respect to social security, article 27, paragraph 1, of the Convention provides that all migrant workers and members of their families shall have the right to the same treatment granted to nationals of the State of employment, insofar as they fulfil the requirements provided for by the applicable legislation of that State and the applicable bilateral and multilateral treaties. When a State party enacts legislation providing for the payment of a social benefit, whether conditional or not on the prior payment of contributions, and if the migrant worker concerned fulfils the requirements provided for in such legislation, it cannot arbitrarily exclude him or her from that benefit or limit his or her access to such benefit, as the prohibition of discrimination applies to the right to social security. Accordingly, any distinction based on nationality or migration status must be prescribed by law, pursue a legitimate aim under the Convention, be necessary in the specific circumstances, and be proportionate to the legitimate aim pursued. While States parties enjoy a certain margin of discretion in assessing whether and to what extent differences in otherwise similar situations justify different treatment, they must explain how such different treatment, based exclusively on nationality or migration status, is compatible with articles 7 and 27. [...]‘
‘4. Members should, in accordance with national circumstances, establish as quickly as possible and maintain their social protection floors comprising basic social security guarantees. The guarantees should ensure at a minimum that, over the life cycle, all in need have access to essential health care and to basic income security which together secure effective access to goods and services defined as necessary at the national level. 5. The social protection floors referred to in Paragraph 4 should comprise at least the following basic social security guarantees: (a) access to a nationally defined set of goods and services, constituting essential health care, including maternity care, that meets the criteria of availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality; (b) basic income security for children, at least at a nationally defined minimum level, providing access to nutrition, education, care and any other necessary goods and services; (c) basic income security, at least at a nationally defined minimum level, for persons in active age who are unable to earn sufficient income, in particular in cases of sickness, unemployment, maternity and disability; and (d) basic income security, at least at a nationally defined minimum level, for older persons. 6. Subject to their existing international obligations, Members should provide the basic social security guarantees referred to in this Recommendation to at least all residents and children, as defined in national laws and regulations. 7. Basic social security guarantees should be established by law. National laws and regulations should specify the range, qualifying conditions and levels of the benefits giving effect to these guarantees. Impartial, transparent, effective, simple, rapid, accessible and inexpensive complaint and appeal procedures should also be specified. Access to complaint and appeal procedures should be free of charge to the applicant. Systems should be in place that enhance compliance with national legal frameworks. 8. When defining the basic social security guarantees, Members should give due consideration to the following: (a) persons in need of health care should not face hardship and an increased risk of poverty due to the financial consequences of accessing essential health care. Free prenatal and postnatal medical care for the most vulnerable should also be considered; (b) basic income security should allow life in dignity. Nationally defined minimum levels of income may correspond to the monetary value of a set of necessary goods and services, national poverty lines, income thresholds for social assistance or other comparable thresholds established by national law or practice, and may take into account regional differences; (c) the levels of basic social security guarantees should be regularly reviewed through a transparent procedure that is established by national laws, regulations or practice, as appropriate; and (d) in regard to the establishment and review of the levels of these guarantees, tripartite participation with representative organizations of employers and workers, as well as consultation with other relevant and representative organizations of persons concerned, should be ensured. [...]‘
Preamble: ‘(46) Third-country national seasonal workers should be granted equal treatment in respect of those branches of social security listed in Article 3 of Regulation (EC) No 883/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council (13). This Directive does not harmonise the social security legislation of Member States and does not cover social assistance. It is limited to applying the principle of equal treatment in the field of social security to the persons falling within its scope. This Directive should not confer more rights than those already provided in existing Union legislation in the field of social security for third-country nationals who have cross-border interests between Member States. Due to the temporary nature of the stay of seasonal workers and without prejudice to Regulation (EU) No 1231/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council (14), Member States should be able to exclude family benefits and unemployment benefits from equal treatment between seasonal workers and their own nationals and should be able to limit the application of equal treatment in relation to education and vocational training, as well as tax benefits. This Directive does not provide for family reunification. Furthermore, this Directive does not grant rights in relation to situations which lie outside the scope of Union law such as, for example, situations where family members reside in a third country. That should not, however, affect the right of survivors who derive rights from the seasonal worker to receive survivor’s pensions when residing in a third country. This should be without prejudice to the non-discriminatory application by Member States of national law providing for de minimis rules on contributions to pension systems. Mechanisms should be in place in order to ensure effective social security coverage during the stay and the exporting of acquired rights of the seasonal workers, where applicable. (47) Union law does not limit the power of the Member States to organise their social security schemes. In the absence of harmonisation at Union level, it is for each Member State to lay down the conditions under which social security benefits are granted, as well as the amount of such benefits and the period for which they are granted. However, when exercising that power, Member States should comply with Union law.‘
Preamble: ‘(55) Equal treatment as granted to researchers and students, as well as trainees, volunteers and au pairs when they are considered to be in an employment relationship in the Member State concerned, includes equal treatment in respect of those branches of social security listed in Article 3 of Regulation (EC) No 883/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council (13). This Directive does not harmonise the social security legislation of Member States. It is limited to applying the principle of equal treatment in the field of social security to the third-country nationals falling within its scope. In addition, this Directive does not grant rights in relation to situations which lie outside the scope of Union law, such as in relation to family members residing in a third country. That should not affect, however, the right of survivors who derive rights from third-country nationals falling under the scope of this Directive, where applicable, to receive survivors' pensions when residing in a third country. (56) In many Member States, the right to family benefits is conditional upon a certain connection with that Member State since the benefits are designed to support a positive demographic development in order to secure the future work force in that Member State. Therefore, this Directive should not affect the right of a Member State to restrict, under certain conditions, equal treatment in respect of family benefits when the researcher and the accompanying family members are staying temporarily in that Member State. (57) In the event of mobility between Member States, Regulation (EU) No 1231/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council (14) applies. This Directive should not confer more rights than those already provided for in existing Union law in the field of social security for third-country nationals who have cross-border interests between Member States.‘
Preamble: ‘(38) Adequate social security coverage for intra-corporate transferees, including, where relevant, benefits for their family members, is important for ensuring decent working and living conditions while staying in the Union. Therefore, equal treatment should be granted under national law in respect of those branches of social security listed in Article 3 of Regulation (EC) No 883/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council (10). This Directive does not harmonise the social security legislation of Member States. It is limited to applying the principle of equal treatment in the field of social security to the persons falling within its scope. The right to equal treatment in the field of social security applies to third-country nationals who fulfil the objective and non-discriminatory conditions laid down by the law of the Member State where the work is carried out with regard to affiliation and entitlement to social security benefits. In many Member States, the right to family benefits is conditional upon a certain connection with that Member State since the benefits are designed to support a positive demographic development in order to secure the future work force in that Member State. Therefore, this Directive should not affect the right of a Member State to restrict, under certain conditions, equal treatment in respect of family benefits, since the intra-corporate transferee and the accompanying family members are staying temporarily in that Member State. Social security rights should be granted without prejudice to provisions of national law and/or bilateral agreements providing for the application of the social security legislation of the country of origin. However, bilateral agreements or national law on social security rights of intra-corporate transferees which are adopted after the entry into force of this Directive should not provide for less favourable treatment than the treatment granted to nationals of the Member State where the work is carried out. As a result of national law or such agreements, it may be, for example, in the interests of the intra-corporate transferees to remain affiliated to the social security system of their country of origin if an interruption of their affiliation would adversely affect their rights or if their affiliation would result in their bearing the costs of double coverage. Member States should always retain the possibility to grant more favourable social security rights to intra-corporate transferees. Nothing in this Directive should affect the right of survivors who derive rights from the intra-corporate transferee to receive survivor's pensions when residing in a third country. (39) In the event of mobility between Member States, Regulation (EU) No 1231/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council (11) should apply accordingly. This Directive should not confer more rights than those already provided for in existing Union law in the field of social security for third-country nationals who have cross-border interests between Member States.‘ Article 18 Right to equal treatment ‘2. Intra-corporate transferees shall enjoy equal treatment with nationals of the Member State where the work is carried out as regards: (c) provisions in national law regarding the branches of social security defined in Article 3 of Regulation (EC) No 883/2004, unless the law of the country of origin applies by virtue of bilateral agreements or the national law of the Member State where the work is carried out, ensuring that the intra-corporate transferee is covered by the social security legislation in one of those countries. In the event of intra-EU mobility, and without prejudice to bilateral agreements ensuring that the intra-corporate transferee is covered by the national law of the country of origin, Regulation (EU) No 1231/2010 shall apply accordingly; [...]‘
To zbirno poročilo predstavlja ključne ugotovitve terenskega dela in mnenja agencije FRA, ki izhajajo iz njih.
Dejstvo je, da 80 % anketiranih Romov živi pod pragom tveganja revščine, kot velja v njihovi državi prebivališča, vsak tretji Rom živi v gospodinjstvu brez tekoče vode, vsak tretji romski otrok živi v gospodinjstvu, v katerem je v preteklem mesecu nekdo šel vsaj enkrat lačen spat, romski otroci zaostajajo v izobrazbi za svojimi vrstniki, ki niso Romi. Poročilo tako izpostavlja zaskrbljujočo, a neizogibno resnico: največja etnična manjšina v Evropi se še vedno spopada z nevzdržno diskriminacijo in neenakopravnim dostopom do raznih osnovnih storitev.