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Člen 50 - Pravica, da se za isto kaznivo dejanje kazensko ne preganja ali kaznuje dvakrat

Člen 50 - Pravica, da se za isto kaznivo dejanje kazensko ne preganja ali kaznuje dvakrat

Nihče ne sme biti ponovno v kazenskem postopku ali kaznovan zaradi kaznivega dejanja, za katero je bil v Uniji v skladu z zakonom s pravnomočno sodbo že oproščen ali obsojen.

    Text:

    4. člen Protokola št. 7 k EKČP se glasi:

    `1. Pravosodni organi iste države ne smejo nikogar ne kazensko preganjati ne kaznovati za kaznivo dejanje, za katero je bil na podlagi zakona in v skladu s kazenskim postopkom te države s pravnomočno sodbo že oproščen ali obsojen.

    2. Določbe prejšnjega odstavka ne preprečujejo obnove kazenskega postopka na podlagi zakona in skladno s kazenskim postopkom prizadete države, če obstajajo dokazi o novih ali na novo odkritih dejstvih ali pa če je v prejšnjih postopkih prišlo do bistvene napake, ki bi lahko vplivala na izid sojenja.

    3. Določila tega člena se ne smejo derogirati s sklicevanjem na 15. člen Konvencije.`

    Pravilo `non bis in idem` se uporablja v pravu Unije (glej med obsežno sodno prakso, sodbo Sodišča z dne 5. maja 1966 v združenih zadevah Gutmann proti Komisiji, 18/65 in 35/65, rec. 1966, str. 150 in za novejšo zadevo, sodbo Sodišča prve stopnje z dne 20. aprila 1999 v združenih zadevah Limburgse Vinyl Maatschappij NV proti Komisiji, T-305/94 in druge, rec. 1999, str. II-931). Pravilo o prepovedi kumulacije se nanaša na kumulacijo dveh kazni enake vrste, v tem primeru kazni, izrečene na kazenskem sodišču.

    V skladu s členom 50 se pravilo `non bis in idem` ne uporablja zgolj v okviru sodne pristojnosti ene države, temveč tudi v okviru sodne pristojnosti več držav članic. To ustreza pravnemu redu Unije; glej člene 54 do 58 Konvencije o izvajanju schengenskega sporazuma in sodbo Sodišča z dne 11. februarja 2003 v zadevi Gözütok, C-187/01 rec. 2003, str. I-1345), člen 7 Konvencije o varstvu finančnih interesov Skupnosti in člen 10 Konvencije o boju proti korupciji. Zelo omejene izjeme v navedenih konvencijah, ki državam članicam omogočajo izjemo od pravila `non bis in idem`, so določene s horizontalno klavzulo člena 52(1) Listine o omejitvah. Kar zadeva primere iz 4. člena Protokola št. 7 EKČP, tj. uporabo načela v isti državi članici, ima zagotovljena pravica enak pomen in obseg kot ustrezna pravica v EKČP.

    Source:
    Uradni list Evropske unije C 303/17 - 14.12.2007

    Preamble - Explanations relating to the Charter of Fundamental Rights:
    vV nadaljevanju navedena pojasnila so bila prvotno pripravljena pod vodstvom predsedstva Konvencije, ki je sestavilo Listino Evropske unije o temeljnih pravicah. Ta pojasnila so bila posodobljena pod vodstvom predsedstva Evropske konvencije zaradi prilagoditve besedila Listine s strani omenjene konvencije (zlasti členov 51 in 52) in nadaljnjega razvoja prava Unije. Čeprav sama nimajo pravne veljave, so dragocena pomoč pri razlagi in pojasnjevanju določb Listine.

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  • Directive (EU) 2017/1371 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 July 2017 on the fight against fraud to the Union's financial interests by means of criminal law
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    (Directive on the fight against fraud to the Union's financial interests by means of criminal law)

    Preamble: (21) Given the possibility of multiple jurisdictions for cross-border criminal offences falling under the scope of this Directive, the Member States should ensure that the principle of ne bis in idem is respected in full in the application of national law transposing this Directive ... (28) The intended dissuasive effect of the application of criminal law sanctions requires particular caution with regard to fundamental rights. This Directive respects fundamental rights and observes the principles recognised in particular by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (the ‘Charter’) and in particular the right to liberty and security, the protection of personal data, the freedom to choose an occupation and right to engage in work, the freedom to conduct a business, the right to property, the right to an effective remedy and to a fair trial, the presumption of innocence and the right of defence, the principles of the legality and proportionality of criminal offences and sanctions, as well as the principle of ne bis in idem. This Directive seeks to ensure full respect for those rights and principles and must be implemented accordingly.

  • Directive 2014/41/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 April 2014 regarding the European Investigation Order in criminal matters
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    Directive on regarding the European Investigation Order in criminal matters

    Preamble: (17) The principle of ne bis in idem is a fundamental principle of law in the Union, as recognised by the Charter and developed by the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union. Therefore the executing authority should be entitled to refuse the execution of an EIO if its execution would be contrary to that principle. Given the preliminary nature of the proceedings underlying an EIO, its execution should not be subject to refusal where it is aimed to establish whether a possible conflict with the ne bis in idem principle exists, or where the issuing authority has provided assurances that the evidence transferred as a result of the execution of the EIO would not be used to prosecute or impose a sanction on a person whose case has been finally disposed of in another Member State for the same facts. ... Article 11. Grounds for non-recognition or non-execution: 1. Without prejudice to Article 1(4), recognition or execution of an EIO may be refused in the executing State where: ... (d) the execution of the EIO would be contrary to the principle of ne bis in idem

  • Directive 2014/57/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on criminal sanctions for market abuse (market abuse directive)
    URL:
    Directive on criminal sanctions for market abuse (market abuse directive)

    Preamble: (23) The scope of this Directive is determined in such a way as to complement, and ensure the effective implementation of, Regulation (EU) No 596/2014. Whereas offences should be punishable under this Directive when committed intentionally and at least in serious cases, sanctions for breaches of Regulation (EU) No 596/2014 do not require that intent is proven or that they are qualified as serious. In the application of national law transposing this Directive, Member States should ensure that the imposition of criminal sanctions for offences in accordance with this Directive and of administrative sanctions in accordance with the Regulation (EU) No 596/2014 does not lead to a breach of the principle of ne bis in idem.