The survey builds strongly on the Agency’s first survey in 2012. Both surveys are based on non-probability samples from open online surveys. Due to the lack of comprehensive Jewish population statistics, and data relating to Jewish communities, in most countries the available information is based on educated estimates and assumptions, and it is not possible to ensure that the samples represent accurate demographic profiles.
Comparisons are possible for the seven countries included in both surveys – Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Hungary, Sweden and the UK. However, due to the nature of an open online survey, the comparison should be read with caution as it is affected by several factors, such as country coverage; sample sizes and their quality; as well as the changes in the questionnaire (e.g. adding new items or slightly changing the wording to address problems in question comprehension or to ensure comparability with other surveys).
To assess the trends between the 2012 and 2018 surveys, FRA carried out a detailed assessment of the quality of the samples achieved across the countries covered by both surveys. This aimed to clarify whether trends in perceptions and experiences of antisemitism can be identified on the basis of information collected, and whether any statistical adjustments to the data should be considered before comparing the data. Even when adjustments were applied, they did not change the overall results substantially. The presented results from the two surveys cannot be used to establish actual trends in the populations targeted.