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CJEU Case C-101/01 / Judgment

Criminal Proceedings against Bodil Lindqvist

Deciding Body type:
Court of Justice of the European Union
Decision date:
Key facts of the case:
Reference for a preliminary ruling: Göta hovrätt - Sweden.
Directive 95/46/EC - Scope - Publication of personal data on the internet - Place of publication - Definition of transfer of personal data to third countries - Freedom of expression - Compatibility with Directive 95/46 of greater protection for personal data under the national legislation of a Member State.
Outcome of the case:

On those grounds, THE COURT, in answer to the questions referred to it by the Göta hovrätt by order of 23 February 2001, hereby rules:

  1. The act of referring, on an internet page, to various persons and identifying them by name or by other means, for instance by giving their telephone number or information regarding their working conditions and hobbies, constitutes the processing of personal data wholly or partly by automatic means within the meaning of Article 3(1) of Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data.
  2. Such processing of personal data is not covered by any of the exceptions in Article 3(2) of Directive 95/46.
  3. Reference to the fact that an individual has injured her foot and is on half-time on medical grounds constitutes personal data concerning health within the meaning of Article 8(1) of Directive 95/46.
  4. There is no transfer [of data] to a third country within the meaning of Article 25 of Directive 95/46 where an individual in a Member State loads personal data onto an internet page which is stored on an internet site on which the page can be consulted and which is hosted by a natural or legal person who is established in that State or in another Member State, thereby making those data accessible to anyone who connects to the internet, including people in a third country.
  5. The provisions of Directive 95/46 do not, in themselves, bring about a restriction which conflicts with the general principles of freedom of expression or other freedoms and rights, which are applicable within the European Union and are enshrined inter alia in Article 10 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms signed at Rome on 4 November 1950. It is for the national authorities and courts responsible for applying the national legislation implementing Directive 95/46 to ensure a fair balance between the rights and interests in question, including the fundamental rights protected by the Community legal order.
  6. Measures taken by the Member States to ensure the protection of personal data must be consistent both with the provisions of Directive 95/46 and with its objective of maintaining a balance between freedom of movement of personal data and the protection of private life. However, nothing prevents a Member State from extending the scope of the national legislation implementing the provisions of Directive 95/46 to areas not included in the scope thereof provided that no other provision of Community law precludes it.