Over 70 years after the Holocaust, Jews across the EU continue to experience antisemitism in the form of vandalism, insults, threats, attacks and even murder. The persistence and prevalence of antisemitism hinders their ability to live openly Jewish lives, free from fears for their security and well-being, as the survey from 2018 and the first survey from 2012 show.
Many antisemitic incidents are not reported. In addition, FRA found official data on reported antisemitic incidents to be missing in eight EU Member States for 2017. But only with robust and reliable data can the fight against antisemitism be effectively fought. These survey findings provide policymakers with the evidence they need to refine existing or devise new courses of action to prevent and counter antisemitism.
The online survey took place during May and June 2018. Based on experiences with the 2012 survey, FRA used online surveying. This allowed respondents to complete the survey when and where it was most convenient for them, at their own pace, and in their national language. The online method also allowed all interested self-identified Jewish people in the survey countries to potentially take part and share their experiences. In addition, it was the method which could be easily used to cover all selected countries equally.
FRA also carried out the survey in Latvia. Given the low responses to the online campaign in Latvia, a different methodology was applied. This limits the scope for comparisons between Latvia and the other survey countries.
The survey was open to individuals aged 16 years and over who consider themselves Jewish – based on religion, culture, upbringing, ethnicity, parentage or any other reason – and who were living in one of the survey countries. The results are based on 16,395 Jews in 12 EU Member States – Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. These Member States are home to over 96% of the EU’s estimated Jewish population. The Latvian results are annexed.
The survey report also contains quotes from respondents.
Comparisons are possible for the seven countries included in both surveys – Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Hungary, Sweden and the UK. However, due to the nature of an open online survey, the comparison should be read with caution as it is affected by several factors.