The right to appeal against individual legal decisions made in first-instance proceedings by courts or other authorized bodies shall be guaranteed.
By way of exception, the right to appeal may be denied in cases specified by law if other legal protections are ensured.
All citizens of the Republic of Croatia and aliens shall be equal before the courts,
governmental agencies and other bodies vested with pubic authority.
Everyone is presumed innocent and may not be held guilty of a criminal offence until such
guilt is proven by a binding court judgment.
Everyone shall be entitled have his or her rights and obligations, or suspicion or accusation of
a criminal offence decided upon fairly before a legally established, independent and impartial
court within a reasonable period.
In the case of suspicion or accusation of a criminal offence, the suspected, accused or indicted
person shall be entitled:
– to be informed in detail and in a language he/she understands, within the shortest possible
term, of the nature and grounds for the charges against him/her and the evidence incriminating
– to have adequate time and opportunity to prepare his/her defence,
– to defence counsel and unrestricted communication therewith, and to be informed of this
– to mount his/her own defence independently or with the assistance of a defence counsel of
his/her own choice, and if he/she lacks the resources to engage such counsel, to have free
counsel provided under the conditions specified by law,
– to be present at his/her trial insofar as he/she is at the disposal of the court,
– to interrogate or to arrange for interrogation of witnesses for the prosecution and to demand
the attendance and questioning of defence witnesses under the same conditions which apply to
witnesses for the prosecution,
– to assistance by an interpreter free of charge insofar as he/she does not understand the
language used in the court.
An admission of guilt may not be coerced from a suspected, accused or indicted individual.
Evidence obtained illegally may not be admitted in court proceedings.
Criminal proceedings may only be initiated before the court at the request of an authorized