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The note focuses on effective remedies for human rights violations at the European borders. It also provides detailed information on complaints mechanisms and the duty to carry out investigations into alleged violations at borders.

The standards stem from EU law and the European Convention on Human Rights.

This note complements a previous joint note on ‘Fundamental rights of refugees, asylum applicants and migrants at the European borders’.

Both notes underline FRA’s and the Council of Europe’s commitment to strengthening their cooperation on human rights protection at Europe’s borders.