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Publication date:30 September 2015

Antisemitism - Overview of data available in the European Union 2004-2014

Antisemitism can be expressed in the form of verbal and physical attacks, threats, harassment, property damage, graffiti or other forms of text, including on the internet. This report relates to manifestations of antisemitism as they are recorded by official and unofficial sources in the 28 European Union (EU) Member States.


This report is based on data on antisemitism recorded by international, governmental and non-governmental sources.


Antisemitism continues to be a reality in the EU. Two thirds of respondents to FRA’s survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in eight EU Member States considered antisemitism to be a problem in the EU country they live in. Three quarters of respondents said that antisemitism had worsened over the past five years. Respondents also reported incidents of violence and harassment. Despite this, few EU Member States operate official data collection mechanisms that record incidents of antisemitism in detail. This lack of systematic data collection limits the ability of policy makers and other stakeholders to take effective, evidence-based action to counter antisemitism.


FRA consults a variety of sources to obtain the most complete and accurate picture of the data available on the situation of data collection on antisemitism in the EU:

  • Official sources of data on antisemitism available in the public domain, both at international and national levels. Sources at the international level include the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) at the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) at the Council of Europe. At the national level, data published by relevant governmental offices, equality bodies, police forces and criminal justice systems are consulted.
  • Specific requests made to governmental offices through the system of National Liaison Officers in place at FRA to ensure that the latest available official data on the situation of antisemitism are taken into consideration in drafting the yearly update.
  • Antisemitism data published by civil society organisations and NGOs are also taken into consideration.