Promising Practice

Afrocensus 2020 – Perspectives, experiences with anti-Black racism and social engagement of Black, African and Afrodiasporic people in Germany

Afrozensus 2020 – Perspektiven, Anti-Schwarze Rassismuserfahrungen und Engagement Schwarzer, afrikanischer und afrodiasporischer Menschen in Deutschland
#Afrozensus is the first comprehensive study addressing the everyday life perspectives and discrimination experiences of Black, African and Afrodiasporic people in Germany. The study was conducted by the German education and empowerment project Each One Teach One (EOTO) in cooperation with Citizens for Europe (CFE).
Operational guidelines
Ensure comprehensiveness
Enhance validity and reliability
Collect information on self-identification
Mainstream intersectional approach
All grounds / Cross-cutting


In this page:

Why was the practice needed?

There is a lack of data on living conditions and discrimination experiences of people of African descent in Germany. Official statistics and most large-scale surveys collect data on the so-called “migrant background” – a variable that is based on information on citizenship and country of birth. It is, however, not suited to capturing adequately the life perspectives and discrimination experiences of all Black, African and Afrodiasporic persons living in Germany. This lack of data was also criticised in the report of the Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent on its mission to Germany from 2017.

The #Afrozensus project contributes to closing this gap by collecting data on the human rights situation of people of African descent in Germany, from an intersectional perspective and based on self-identification.

How was it implemented?

The #Afrozensus project was initiated by the community-based organisation EOTO in cooperation with CFE. The goal was to examine the lives and discrimination experiences of people of African descent (including Black, African and Afrodiasporic people) living in Germany. The project was funded by Germany’s Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency. It is composed of an online survey among approximately 6,000 persons of the target groups aged 16+, which ran from July to September 2020. The questionnaire contained various modules. One of them was designed to capture, in detail, discrimination experiences based on different grounds, in all relevant areas of life. The survey was complemented by interviews and focus groups with experts from the health and education sector.

Throughout the research process, the project team paid special attention to the human rights-based principles of data collection, such as self-identification, transparency, privacy, voluntary participation and, especially, the participation of representatives of the target groups of the study (e.g. through community consultations).

The project is designed as a panel, and EOTO is planning to repeat the online survey in the future to measure anti-Black racism over time.


  • The results of the study have been published in a comprehensive report that also contains recommendations on how to tackle anti-Black racism and discrimination.
  • The findings of the #Afrozensus study were also presented and discussed at a digital conference in November 2021.

Key success factors

  • Inclusion and consultation of Black communities at different stages of the project, e.g. questionnaire development.
  • Collaboration with outreach partners consisting mainly of Black organisations and individuals who served as multipliers in the outreach for the study.
  • Research from Black perspectives at organisational level (EOTO as the implementing Black-led organisation) and content level (core team of Black researchers) to ensure community-based and intersectional anti-racist research.

Technical information

  • Data sources covered: Victimisation surveys; Qualitative research
  • Areas of life covered: Employment; Education; Health; Housing and living conditions; Access to goods and services; Hate crime; Others: Public spaces and leisure time, public authorities, media
  • Target audience: Political decision-makers and public authorities, academia, members of the Black, African and Afrodiasporic communities
  • Duration: 2019–2021
  • Geographical scope: National
  • Leading institution: Each One Teach One e.V. in cooperation with Citizens for Europe (CFE) gUG
  • Other organisations involved/consulted: The German Centre for Integration and Migration Research (DeZIM) and the Alice Salomon Hochschule (ASH Berlin) supported the project as scientific cooperation partners.
  • Financial & human resources: Budget: Funding of €176,660; Source of the budget: The Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency; Staff: No data provided


Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency: