Ervaren Discriminatie in Nederland
The Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP) conducted surveys in 2013 and 2018/2019 collecting data on the experiences of discrimination among the general population. The survey closes a previous gap of data on the extent of discrimination by looking at various discrimination grounds across several areas of life in the Netherlands and uses booster samples for groups with specific ethnic backgrounds.
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The survey on experiences of discrimination of the general population responds to a previous gap in comprehensive and comparable data.
The House of Representatives therefore requested the Government to conduct a periodical data overview on discrimination experiences.
The Ministry of Social Affairs, which coordinates the National Plan of Action against Discrimination, commissioned the Netherlands Institute for Social Research to conduct a survey responding to the data need.
The objective of the survey is to provide insight on the extent to which various groups in the Netherlands experience discrimination, on what grounds, in which forms, in which areas of life, and how these variables change over time.
The Netherlands Institute for Social Research constructed the questionnaire. The fieldwork of the survey was carried out by TNS NIPO, a research firm. The report was written by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research.
The survey focusses on the respondent’s subjective experiences of discrimination. It collects data on discrimination on various grounds (gender, age, ethnic background, skin colour, religion, disability and sexual orientation) and in various areas of life (education, labour market, contact with institutions – including local and central government, police, social services, and hospitals –, free time, street and neighbourhood).
The survey uses a representative random sample of inhabitants of the Netherlands, based on national register data. In order to achieve sufficient sample sizes for groups with a specific ethnic background, namely Surinamese, Antillean, Turkish, Moroccan and middle and eastern European, researchers applied booster samples.
To facilitate their participation in the survey, the questionnaire was available in English, Polish, Arabic (2013 edition only), as well as Turkish.
In addition, as a person’s sexual orientation is not recorded in register data, the survey team recruited a sample of LGB respondents from a panel of TNS NIPO.
In addition to mapping discrimination experiences, the survey explores the emotional and behavioural consequences of the discrimination felt by respondents by asking whether and to what extent they had changed their behaviour as a result of the discrimination experience. Examples of possible consequences include avoiding certain places or changing employment preferences.
When drawing the report on the basis of the survey, one of the issues that demanded particular attention was that there is no perfect correlation between the target groups (e.g. Jews) and the ground on which they feel discriminated (i.e. it might not necessarily be due to anti-Semitism). Therefore, the report needed to make very clear when it was speaking about groups and when it was speaking about discrimination grounds.
A further problematic aspect was how to address intersectionality. In the survey, respondents could mention any combination of discrimination grounds. This design potentially enables an intersectional view of discrimination on all the grounds covered by the research: gender, age, ethnic background, skin colour, religion, disability, and sexual orientation.
A complicating factor was that the list of combinations of discrimination grounds mentioned by respondents in the questionnaire was very long and the numbers in many cases (with two, three or even more grounds mentioned) too small to report reliably. Only those combinations that are relatively common can be reported reliably.
Additional qualitative interviews, as planned in the next edition of the survey, could shed more light on intersectionality.
Email: info (at) @scp (dot) nl