Diskriminierungserfahrungen in Deutschland
In 2015, the Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency of Germany (FADA) surveyed people affected by discrimination for an in-depth analysis of discrimination experiences. To enhance the validity and reliability of the survey, its design included possibilities for self-identification of respondents and measures to reach out to respondents from under-represented and/or hard-to-reach groups.
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In 2015, the Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency (FADA) conducted a study comprising of two different elements: a representative survey on discrimination experiences of the general population with a sample of 1007 people; and a survey targeting people who had witnessed or suffered discrimination. This reached 18,162 people, who were asked to describe up to two discrimination experiences that occurred during the 24 months preceding the survey. The following information relates to this second survey of people who experienced discrimination.
In order to enhance the validity and reliability of the data collected, the research was designed to consider key principles for the collection and use of equality data. This included: the participation of groups or communities at risk of discrimination; allowing for respondent self-identification; and capturing forms of multiple or intersectional discrimination.
This design aimed to build trust in the survey and the implementing institutions. It ensured support from various relevant civil society organisations in distributing the questionnaire among their community members. It also improved the quality of the questionnaire and increased its acceptance among potential respondents by reaching consensus on data collection issues, including definitions, categories and proxies.
Furthermore, specific measures were taken to increase the number of interviews with respondents from hard-to-reach target groups.
FADA commissioned the Berlin Institute for Integration and Migration Research (BIM) to conduct the survey. The preparation of the survey included expert interviews with researchers and representatives of organisations in the field of anti-discrimination, who provided useful feedback on the draft questionnaire.
Before the launch of the survey, a workshop with representatives of relevant NGOs, the Federal Government Commissioner for Migration, Refugees and Integration and the Federal Government Commissioner for Matters relating to people with disabilities allowed for feedback on the questionnaire itself, its distribution, and the commissioning of multipliers for hard-to-reach target groups. After the fieldwork was completed a second workshop with the same stakeholders discussed the preliminary results and recommendations.
Measures taken to enable self-identification of the respondents and the recognition of intersectional/multiple discrimination include:
Measures taken to reach out to respondents from specific target groups include:
The grounds of discrimination respondents expressed included the ones set out in the General Equal Treatment Act, namely sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, ethnic and racial origin, migration background, religion, disability or impairment, but also others, such as socio-economic status, physical appearance or family status.
Respondents could also indicate if they had been discriminated against on more than one ground in a specific situation.
Email: rainer (dot) stocker (at) ads (dot) bund (dot) de