Publication date: 20 November 2017

Mapping minimum age requirements concerning the rights of the child in the EU

International treaties, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Union (EU) secondary law and national legislation provide a number of rights to citizens. The maps and tables presented show the various patterns concerning age requirements for children to acquire rights in the EU. They also identify inconsistencies, protection gaps and restrictions deriving from different age thresholds. The aim is to assist EU Member States in addressing these issues and to facilitate the EU in exercising its competence to support and coordinate Member States’ actions related to children and youth.


Publication date: 24 April 2018

Minimum age requirements concerning children's rights in the EU - Specific data on Asylum and migration; Digital world (499.42 KB)

Publication date: 24 April 2018

Minimum age requirements concerning children's rights in the EU - Specific data on Marriage and sexual consent; Citizenship; Political Participation; Religion; Health. (513.59 KB)


FRA collected data and identified key findings in the areas listed below. More variables for each area can be found in the data explorer.

  1. Defining different age groups
  2. Age for marriage and sexual consent
  3. Children and citizenship
  4. Age for political participation
  5. Children and religion
  6. Age requirements and health
  7. Asylum and migration procedures
  8. Children in the digital world
  9. Social rights
  10. Employment and finance
  11. Education
  12. Alternative care
  13. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) children's rights
  14. Mobility

The maps and tables presented on the following web pages show the national legislative provisions on age requirements in various policy areas and domains for protection and participation rights of children. A summary of key findings for each area is provided under the maps and tables.

For further details about how minimum ages affect the rights of children, the FRA research and related work by the European Commission, see the background information.

Research – The information was collected through Franet, FRA’s multidisciplinary research network. The information was shared in September 2017 with all EU Member States through the European Commission’s informal group of experts of rights of the child, with the request to check the accuracy of the data or update any data if relevant.

Timeline – The reference period was until April 2016. Any legislative developments since then have been included whenever relevant or if known.