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Constitution of Romania


Article 44 (1) The right of property, as well as the debts incurring on the State are guaranteed. The content and limitations of these rights shall be established by law. (2) Private property shall be equally guaranteed and protected by the law, irrespective of its owner. Foreign citizens and stateless persons shall only acquire the right to private property of land under the terms resulting from Romania's accession to the European Union and other international treaties Romania is a party to, on a mutual basis, under the terms stipulated by an organic law, as well as a result of lawful inheritance. (3) No one shall be expropriated, except on grounds of public utility, established according to the law, against just compensation paid in advance. (4) The nationalization or any other measures of forcible transfer of assets to public property based on the owners' social, ethnic, religious, political, or other discriminatory features. (5) For projects of general interest, the public authorities are entitled to use the subsoil of any real estate with the obligation to pay compensation to its owner for the damages caused to the soil, plantations or buildings, as well as for other damages imputable to these authorities. (6) Compensation provided under paragraphs (3) and (5) shall be agreed upon with the owner, or by the decision of the court when a settlement cannot be reached. (7) The right of property compels to the observance of duties relating to environmental protection and ensurance of neighbourliness, as well as of other duties incumbent upon the owner, in accordance with the law or custom. (8) Legally acquired assets shall not be confiscated. Legality of acquirement shall be presumed. (9) Any goods intended for, used or resulting from a criminal or minor offence may be confiscated only in accordance with the provisions of the law. Article 135 (...) (2) The State must secure: (...) c) stimulation of national scientific and technological research, arts, and protection of copyright; Article 136 (1) Property is public or private. (...) (5) Private property is inviolable, in accordance with the organic law.