Reports on Anti-Islamic reactions within the European Union after the acts of terror against the USA

Following the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001, the Agency asked its National Focal Points for a series of country reports on potential anti-Islamic reactions in the then 15 EU Member States. Key findings are summarised in a synthesis report on "Islamophobia in the EU after September 11".

With the present synthesis report the Agency presents a comparative analysis of acts of aggression and changes in attitudes towards Muslims and other minority groups across the European Union in the wake of 11 September. The report is based on 15 country reports provided by the Agency's RAXEN network of National Focal Points (NFPs) in all EU Member States, and which cover the period: 12th September - 31st December 2001.

Second Report  29 November 2001

In order to have a longer term and regular monitoring on attitudes/incidents towards Muslim/Islamic communities and other vulnerable groups, the Agency has decided to follow up the first report and continue to closely monitor the situation at least until the end of the year 2001.

This second report covers the period from the 25th September to the 19th October. It is a collection of edited country reports that, according to the Agency request, have addressed in particular the following issues:

  • acts of violence or aggression and changes in the attitude of the EU population towards ethnic, cultural or religious minorities (especially Muslim/Islamic communities but also other vulnerable groups or new types of victims), related to the recent terrorist attacks in the USA;
  • good practises and positive case studies established in order to reduce prejudice and violence;
  • reactions by politicians and other opinion leaders including initiatives to reduce polarization and counteract negative national trends. 

Initial Report  04 October 2001

Following the tragic terrorist attacks in the USA on 11th September the Agency found that there was a pressing need to follow closely the possible negative repercussions on racial and xenophobic attitudes and events in civil societies in Europe. On the basis of national reports drafted by its RAXEN network of National Focal Points (NFPs), the Agency has produced a first short-term report on anti-Islamic reactions in all countries of the European Union on 9th October 2001.

The Agency asked the RAXEN National Focal Points to produce an overview on the following Questions:

  • Have there been any verbal attacks against the Muslim/Islamic community in the media, in the public discourse, in politics?
  • Have any physical attacks (harassment, verbal abuse, violent acts, etc.) against members of the Muslim/Islamic community been reported (in the media or by human right/anti-discrimination NGOs)?
  • Does this mean, in your opinion, an increase or a change of attitudes towards Islamic community and can it be seen asa reaction to the terrorist attacks in the USA