Being Black in the EU – Experiences of people of African descent

FRA's first Being Black in the EU report exposed widespread and entrenched racism against people of African descent in Europe. Now updated with new data, this report revisits the situation revealing persistent racial discrimination, harassment and violence. Overall, experiences of racial discrimination increased in the EU countries since 2016, reaching as high as 77%. The lack of progress is alarming despite binding anti-discrimination law in the EU since 2000 and significant EU policy developments since then.

FRA’s third large-scale survey on immigrants and the descendants of immigrants offers crucial insights into experiences of discrimination and racism. This report examines the experiences of almost 6,800 people of African descent in 13 EU Member States. Without this much needed data, racial discrimination remains invisible. FRA’s findings support developing a better understanding of the experiences of people of African descent in the EU and promote action on equality and inclusion.

In this report:

  • Key findings and FRA opinions
  1. Discrimination and awareness of rights
    • Experiences of discrimination
    • Reporting discrimination
    • Awareness of support organisations, equality bodies and anti-discrimination laws
    • Racial discrimination and trust in public institutions
  2. Hate crime: Harassment and violence
    • Scale and types of racist harassment
    • Experiences of racist violence
  3. Police stops
    • Encounters with law enforcement
    • Circumstances and nature of most recent police stop
    • Treatment by the police during stops
  4. Socioeconomic situation and living conditions
    • Education
    • Access to employment and quality of work
    • Access to affordable housing and poverty
    • Health

Please find below the links to the questionnaire in the different languages in which it was asked. Please always follow the source questionnaire in English available in the Downloads section above for for the overview and reading aid, instructions, routing and other details.

Findings Q & A
Methodology Q & A