Hate crime

Violence and offences motivated by racism, xenophobia, religious intolerance, or by bias against a person’s disability, sexual orientation or gender identity are all examples of hate crime.

These crimes can affect anyone in society. But whoever the victim is, such offences harm not only the individual targeted but also strike at the heart of EU commitments to democracy and the fundamental rights of equality and non-discrimination. 

To combat hate crime, the EU and its Member States need to make these crimes more visible and hold perpetrators to account. Numerous rulings by the European Court of Human Rights oblige countries to ‘unmask’ the bias motivation behind criminal offences.

Efforts to form targeted policies for combating hate crime are hampered by under-recording, ie the fact that few EU Member States collect comprehensive data on such offences. In addition, a lack of trust in the law enforcement and criminal justice systems means that the majority of hate crime victims do not report their experiences, leading to under-reporting. FRA’s work documents both of these gaps in data collection, as well as the extent of prejudice against groups such as Roma, LGBT, Muslims, and migrant communities. At the same time, it makes recommendations on how the situation could be improved.

Article 1 of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights guarantees the right to human dignity, while Article 10 stipulates the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. Article 21 prohibits discrimination based on any ground, including sex, ethnic origin, religion, sexual orientation or disability.

Latest news View all

National antisemitism data collection falls short of what is needed
08/11/2019

National antisemitism data collection falls short of what is needed

Without adequate data, government and civil society cannot formulate effective responses to antisemitism that continues to haunt Europe. FRA’s latest annual overview of antisemitism data 2008-2018 identifies large gaps in recording antisemitic incidents in a way that allows to collect adequate official data across the EU.
01/11/2019

FRA addresses Irish police diversity conference

The Irish police force, the Garda Síochána, invited FRA to give a presentation on the experiences of discrimination, harassment and violence of Muslims and people of African descent across the EU.

Latest projects View all

Status: 
Findings available

Database 2012-2017 on anti-Muslim hatred

This database provides an overview of hate crime, hate speech and discrimination against Muslims and migrants in the EU from 2012 to 2017.
Status: 
Findings available

Subgroup on methodologies for recording and collecting data on hate crime

In 2016 the European Commission asked the FRA to join its High Level Group (HLG) to combat racism, xenophobia and other forms of intolerance, and to coordinate a specific Subgroup of the HLG that will work to develop methodologies for recording and collecting data on hate crime.

Latest publications View all

Antisemitism - Overview of data available in the European Union 2008–2018
November
2019

Antisemitism - Overview of data available in the European Union 2008–2018

Paper
This annual overview provides an update of the most recent figures on antisemitic incidents, covering the period 1 January 2008 – 31 December 2018, across the EU Member States, where data are available. It includes a section that presents evidence from international organisations. In addition, for the first time, it provides an overview of how Member States that have adopted or endorsed the non-legally binding working definition of antisemitism adopted by the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) (2016) use or intend to use it.
Young Jewish Europeans: perceptions and experiences of antisemitism
July
2019

Young Jewish Europeans: perceptions and experiences of antisemitism

Report
Based on FRA’s second large-scale survey on experiences and perceptions of antisemitism, this report focuses on the perspectives of young Jewish Europeans (aged 16-34) living in twelve EU Member States. It first describes this particular group and takes a look at defining antisemitism and understanding the place of Israel in it.