Racism & related intolerances

Despite a number of legal instruments that offer protection against racism and related forms of intolerance, ethnic and religious minorities across the EU continue to face racism, discrimination, verbal and physical violence, and exclusion.

For policy makers to take considered decisions on means to combat racism, they need information from the ground in addition to their knowledge of international and European legislation. FRA research provides evidence of racism and related intolerances, as well as the unequal treatment of ethnic minorities, while the agency’s studies also supply information about the fight against discrimination in key areas of social life.

All EU member states have accepted the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD). They are therefore obliged to prevent, prohibit and eradicate all forms of racial discrimination and incitement to racial hatred.

The EU’s Charter of Fundamental Rights prohibits discrimination on the grounds of race, colour, ethnic origin and religion or belief. The EU has passed detailed legislation that addresses discrimination in various areas of life. Member states are also bound to combat public incitement to violence and hatred against people of different race, colour, religion, or national or ethnic descent by means of criminal law.

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Status: 
Findings available

Database 2012-2017 on anti-Muslim hatred

This database provides an overview of hate crime, hate speech and discrimination against Muslims and migrants in the EU from 2012 to 2017.
Status: 
Findings available

FRA guide on preventing unlawful profiling

The Agency will update and expand the scope of its 2010 guide on Discriminatory Ethnic Profiling. The new Guide will provide a general update of the analysis, taking into account legal and technological developments, and expanding the scope to include border management.

Latest publications View all

Unmasking bias motives in crimes: selected cases of the European Court of Human Rights
December
2018

Unmasking bias motives in crimes: selected cases of the European Court of Human Rights

Paper
This paper discusses the evolution of European Court of Human Rights case law relating to hate crime, providing an update on the most recent rulings. Approaching hate crime from a fundamental rights perspective, it shows how Member State authorities’ duty to effectively investigate the bias motivation of crimes flows from key human rights instruments, such as the European Convention on Human Rights.
Experiences and perceptions of antisemitism - Second survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in the EU
December
2018

Experiences and perceptions of antisemitism - Second survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in the EU

Report
This report outlines the main findings of FRA’s second survey on Jewish people’s experiences with hate crime, discrimination and antisemitism in the European Union – the biggest survey of Jewish people ever conducted worldwide. Covering 12 EU Member States, the survey reached almost 16,500 individuals who identify as being Jewish. It follows up on the agency’s first survey, conducted in seven countries in 2012.
Being Black in the EU
November
2018

Being Black in the EU

Report
Almost twenty years after adoption of EU laws forbidding discrimination, people of African descent in the EU face widespread and entrenched prejudice and exclusion. This report outlines selected results from FRA's second large-scale EU-wide survey on migrants and minorities (EU-MIDIS II). It examines the experiences of almost 6,000 people of African descent in 12 EU Member States.