Being Black in the EU

Almost twenty years after adoption of EU laws forbidding discrimination, people of African descent in the EU face widespread and entrenched prejudice and exclusion. This report outlines selected results from FRA's second large-scale EU-wide survey on migrants and minorities (EU-MIDIS II). It examines the experiences of almost 6,000 people of African descent in 12 EU Member States.

Being Black in the EU/Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey

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Racial discrimination and harassment are commonplace. Experiences with racist violence vary greatly across countries, but reach as high as 14 %. Discriminatory profiling by the police, too, is a common reality. Hurdles to inclusion are multi-faceted, with many respondents facing discrimination during their job search and when looking for housing.

While the survey results paint a dire picture of reality on the ground, they can serve as an important resource for policymakers committed to promoting the full inclusion of people of African descent in the EU.

Access interactive country results using our survey data explorer >>


  1. Key findings and FRA opinions
  2. What do the results show?
    • Harassment and violence motivated by racism
    • Police stops
    • Discrimination and awareness of rights
    • Education and employment
    • Housing and social inclusion