New language versions: Estonian, Maltese, Danish, Latvian
23 March 2022

Handbook on European non-discrimination law – 2018 edition

European non-discrimination law, as constituted in particular by the EU non-discrimination directives, and Article 14 of and Protocol 12 to the European Convention on Human Rights, prohibits discrimination across a range of contexts and grounds. This handbook examines European non-discrimination law stemming from these two sources as complementary systems, drawing on them interchangeably to the extent that they overlap, while highlighting differences where these exist.

It also contains references to other Council of Europe instruments, in particular the European Charter of Social Rights, as well as to relevant United Nations instruments. With the impressive body of case law by the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Union in the non-discrimination field, it seems useful to present, in an accessible way, a handbook intended for legal practitioners – such as judges, prosecutors and lawyers, as well as law-enforcement officers – in the EU and Council of Europe Member States and beyond.


  1. Introduction to European non-discrimination law: context, evolution and key principles
  2. Discrimination categories
  3. Justification for less favourable treatment under European nondiscrimination law
  4. Selected areas of protection
  5. Protected grounds
  6. Procedural issues in non-discrimination law

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