eu-charter

EU Charter of Fundamental Rights

Член 49 - Принципи на законност и пропорционалност на престъплението и наказанието

Член 49 - Принципи на законност и пропорционалност на престъплението и наказанието

  1. Никой не може да бъде осъден за действие или бездействие, което в момента на извършването му не е представлявало престъпление съгласно националното или международното право. По същия начин, не може да бъде налагано по-тежко наказание от това, което е било приложимо към момента на извършване на престъплението. Ако в по-късен момент след престъплението законът предвижда по-леко наказание, трябва да се приложи това наказание.
  2. Настоящият член не засяга осъждането и наказанието на лице, виновно за действие или бездействие, което в момента на извършването му е било престъпление по смисъла на общите принципи, признати от всички народи.
  3. Тежестта на наказанията не трябва да бъде несъразмерна спрямо престъплението.
  • Text:

    Този член повтаря традиционното правило за липса на обратно действие на законите и наказанията. Добавено е правилото за обратното действие на наказателния закон, предвиждащ по-леко наказание, което съществува в редица държави-членки и е отразено в член 15 от Пакта за граждански и политически права.
    Член 7 от ЕКПЧ гласи следното:

    „1. Никой не може да бъде осъден за действие или бездействие, което в момента на неговото извършване не е било определено като престъпление според националното или международното право. Не може да бъде налагано наказание, по-тежко от това, което е било предвидено за съответното престъпление в момента, когато то е било извършено.

    2. Този член не изключва съденето и наказването на което и да е лице за действие или бездействие, което в момента на извършването му е представлявало престъпление в съответствие с общите принципи на правото, признати от цивилизованите народи.“

    В параграф 2 терминът „цивилизовани“ бе заличен, като това не предполага промяна в смисъла на този параграф, който се отнася по-специално до престъпленията срещу човечеството. Затова съгласно член 52, параграф 3 това гарантирано право има същия смисъл същия обхват, както гарантираното от ЕКПЧ право.
    Параграф 3 повтаря общия принцип на пропорционалност на престъплението и наказанието, утвърден от общи за държавите- членки конституционни традиции и от практиката на Съда на Европейските общности.

    Source:
    Официален вестник на Европейския съюэ C 303/17 - 14.12.2007
    Preamble - Explanations relating to the Charter of Fundamental Rights:
    Дадените по-долу разяснения бяха подготвени първоначално под ръководството на президиума на Конвента, който изработи Хартата на основните права на Европейския съюз. Те бяха актуализирани под ръководството на президиума на Европейския конвент в светлината на внесените от този Конвент изменения в текста на Хартата (по-специално в членове 51 и 52), както и на развитието на правото на Съюза. Въпреки че тези разяснения сами по себе си нямат юридическа сила, те представляват ценно средство за тълкуване, което е предназначено да изясни разпоредбите на Хартата.
  • Criminal proceedings against JI.
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    Court of Justice of the European Union
    Deciding body:
    Advocate General
    Type:
    Opinion
    Policy area:
    Justice, freedom and security
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:EU:C:2020:29
  • Procureur-generaal v X
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    Court of Justice of the European Union
    Deciding body:
    Advocate General
    Type:
    Opinion
    Policy area:
    Justice, freedom and security
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:EU:C:2019:1011
  • Dooel Uvoz-Izvoz Skopje Link Logistic N&N v Budapest Rendőrfőkapitánya
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    Court of Justice of the European Union
    Deciding body:
    Court (Fifth Chamber)
    Type:
    Decision
    Policy area:
    Taxation
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:EU:C:2018:810
  • Eliades v. Republic of Cyprus; Bank of Cyprus Public Company Ltd v The Republic of Cyprus
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    National Court/Tribunal
    Deciding body:
    Supreme Court of Cyprus, Appeal Jurisdiction
    Type:
    Decision
    Policy area:
    Economic and monetary affairs
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
  • A drug trafficking criminal group consisting of seven Columbian citizens vs Administration of Justice and Public Prosecutor
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    National Court/Tribunal
    Deciding body:
    Criminal Chamber of the Supreme Court
    Type:
    Decision
    Policy area:
    Justice, freedom and security
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI: ES:TS:2018:3146
  • Danish Prosecution Service v. T
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    National Court/Tribunal
    Deciding body:
    Supreme Court
    Type:
    Decision
    Policy area:
    Justice, freedom and security
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
  • Administration des douanes et droits indirects and Etablissement national des produits de l'agriculture et de la mer (FranceAgriMer) v Hubert Clergeau and Others
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    Court of Justice of the European Union
    Deciding body:
    Court (Fifth Chamber)
    Type:
    Decision
    Policy area:
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:EU:C:2018:651
  • Criminal proceedings against Daniela Pinzaru and Robert-Andrei Cirstinoiu
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    Court of Justice of the European Union
    Deciding body:
    Court (Sixth Chamber)
    Type:
    Decision
    Policy area:
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:EU:C:2018:574
  • Dooel Uvoz-Izvoz Skopje Link Logistic N&N v Budapest Rendőrfőkapitánya
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    Court of Justice of the European Union
    Deciding body:
    Advocate General
    Type:
    Opinion
    Policy area:
    Taxation
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:EU:C:2018:494
  • Administration des douanes et droits indirects and Etablissement national des produits de l'agriculture et de la mer (FranceAgriMer) v Hubert Clergeau and Others
    Decision date:
    Deciding body type:
    Court of Justice of the European Union
    Deciding body:
    Advocte General
    Type:
    Opinion
    Policy area:
    ECLI (European case law identifier):
    ECLI:EU:C:2018:240

55 results found

  • Constitution of the Republic of Estonia
    Държава:
    Estonia

    Article 23. No one may be convicted of an act which did not constitute a criminal offence under the law in force at the time the act was committed.
    No one may be sentenced to a penalty that is more severe than the one that was applicable at the time the offence was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of the offence, the law makes provision for a lighter penalty, the lighter penalty applies.
    No one may be prosecuted or sentenced for a second time for an act in respect of which he or she has been the subject of a final conviction or acquittal pursuant to the law.
    Article 24. No one may be transferred, against his or her free will, from the jurisdiction of a court specified by law to the jurisdiction of another court.
    Everyone is entitled to attend any hearing held by a court in his or her case.
    Court hearings are public. The court may, in the cases and pursuant to a procedure provided by law, order a hearing or a part thereof to be held in camera to protect a state secret or a trade secret, public morality or the private and family life of individuals, or where the interests of a minor, a victim, or the administration of justice so require.
    Judgments are pronounced publicly, except in cases where the interests of a minor, a spouse, or a victim require otherwise.
    In accordance with the procedure provided by law, everyone is entitled to appeal a judgment rendered in his or her case to a higher court.

  • Eesti Vabariigi Põhiseadus
    Държава:
    Estonia

    § 23. Kedagi ei tohi süüdi mõista teo eest, kui seda tegu ei tunnista kuriteoks seadus, mis oli jõus teo toimepanemise ajal. Kellelegi ei tohi mõista raskemat karistust kui see, mida võinuks talle mõista õiguserikkumise toimepanemise ajal. Kui seadus sätestab pärast õiguserikkumise toimepanemist kergema karistuse, kohaldatakse kergemat karistust. Kedagi ei tohi teist korda kohtu alla anda ega karistada teo eest, milles teda vastavalt seadusele on mõistetud lõplikult süüdi või õigeks.
    § 24. Kedagi ei tohi tema vaba tahte vastaselt üle viia seadusega määratud kohtu alluvusest teise kohtu alluvusse.Igaühel on õigus olla oma kohtuasja arutamise juures. Kohtuistungid on avalikud. Kohus võib seaduses sätestatud juhtudel ja korras oma istungi või osa sellest kuulutada kinniseks riigi- või ärisaladuse, kõlbluse või inimeste perekonna- ja eraelu kaitseks või kui seda nõuavad alaealise, kannatanu või õigusemõistmise huvid.Kohtuotsus kuulutatakse avalikult, välja arvatud juhud, kui alaealise, abielupoole või kannatanu huvid nõuavad teisiti.Igaühel on õigus tema kohta tehtud kohtuotsuse peale seadusega sätestatud korras edasi kaevata kõrgemalseisvale kohtule. 

  • Karistusseadustik
    Държава:
    Estonia

    § 2. Karistamise alus
    (1) Kedagi ei tohi süüdi mõista ega karistada teo eest, mis selle toimepanemise ajal kehtinud seaduse kohaselt ei olnud süütegu.
    (2) Karistatakse teo eest, kui see vastab süüteokoosseisule, on õigusvastane ja isik on selle toimepanemises süüdi.
    (3) Sama süüteo eest ei või kedagi karistada mitu korda, sõltumata sellest, kas karistus on mõistetud Eestis või mõnes teises riigis.
    (4) Tegu ei või tunnistada süüteoks seaduse analoogia põhjal.

  • Penal Code
    Държава:
    Estonia

    § 2. Basis for punishment
    (1) No one shall be convicted or punished for an act which was not an offence pursuant to the law applicable at the time of the commission of the act.
    (2) A person shall be punished for an act if the act comprises the necessary elements of an offence, is unlawful and the person is guilty of commission of the offence.
    (3) No one shall be punished more than once for the same offence, regardless of whether the punishment is imposed in Estonia or in another state.
    (4) An act shall not be declared to be an offence by analogy in law.

  • The Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus
    Държава:
    Cyprus

    Article 12
    1. No person shall be held guilty of any offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute an offence under the law at the time when it was committed; and no person shall have a heavier punishment imposed on him for an offence other than that expressly provided for it by law at the time when it was committed.

    3. No law shall provide for a punishment which is disproportionate to the gravity of the offence.

  • Tο Σύνταγμα της Κυπριακής Δημοκρατίας
    Държава:
    Cyprus

    ΑΡΘΡΟΝ 12
    1. Ουδείς κηρύσσεται ένοχος οιουδήποτε αδικήματος λόγω πράξεως ή παραλείψεως μη συνιστώσης αδίκημα συμφώνως τω νόμω τω ισχύοντι κατά τον χρόνον της τελέσεως αυτής και εις ουδένα επιβάλλεται δι’ αδίκημά τι ποινή βαρυτέρα της ρητώς προβλεπομένης υπό του κατά τον χρόνον της τελέσεως ισχύοντος νόμου.

    3. Ο νόμος δεν δύναται να προβλέψη ποινήν δυσανάλογον προς την βαρύτητα του αδικήματος.

  • Constitution of the Republic of Croatia
    Държава:
    Croatia

    Article 16
    Freedoms and rights may only be curtailed by law in order to protect the freedoms and rights of others, the legal order, and public morals and health.
    Any restriction of freedoms or rights shall be proportionate to the nature of the need to do so in each individual case.

    Article 30
    The sentence for a severe and particularly ignominious criminal offence may, in compliance with law, have as a consequence the loss of acquired rights or a ban on exercising, for a set period, certain rights pertaining to the conduct of specific affairs, if this is required to safeguard the legal order.

    Article 31
    (1)No one may be punished for an act which, prior to its commission, was not defined as a punishable offence by domestic or international law, nor may such individual be sentenced to
    a penalty which was not then defined by law. If a less severe penalty is determined by law after the commission of said act, such penalty shall be imposed.

  • Ustav Republike Hrvatske
    Държава:
    Croatia

    Članak 16.
    Slobode i prava mogu se ograničiti samo zakonom da bi se zaštitila sloboda i prava drugih ljudi te pravni poredak, javni moral i zdravlje.
    Svako ograničenje slobode ili prava mora biti razmjerno naravi potrebe za ograničenjem u svakom pojedinom slučaju.

    Članak 30.
    Kaznena osuda za teška i osobito nečasna kaznena djela može, u skladu sa zakonom, imati za posljedicu gubitak stečenih ili zabranu stjecanja na određeno vrijeme nekih prava na obavljanje određenih poslova, ako to zahtijeva zaštita pravnog poretka.

    Članak 31.
    (1)Nitko ne može biti kažnjen za djelo koje prije nego je počinjeno nije bilo utvrđeno zakonom ili međunarodnim pravom kao kazneno djelo, niti mu se može izreći kazna koja nije bila određena zakonom. Ako zakon nakon počinjenog djela odredi blažu kaznu, odredit će se takva kazna.

  • Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria
    Държава:
    Bulgaria

    Art. 5(3) No one shall be convicted for action or inaction which at the time it was committed, did not constitute a crime. Art. 31 [...] (7) There shall be no limitation to the prosecution and the execution of a sentence for crimes against peace and humanity.

  • КОНСТИТУЦИЯ на Република България
    Държава:
    Bulgaria

    Чл. 5(3) Никой не може да бъде осъден за действие или бездействие, което не е било обявено от закона за престъпление към момента на извършването му. Чл. 31 [...] (7) Не се погасяват по давност наказателното преследване и изпълнението на наказанието за престъпления против мира и човечеството.

  • De Belgische Grondwet
    Държава:
    Belgium

    Artikel 14Geen straf kan worden ingevoerd of toegepast dan krachtens de wet. Artikel 17De straf van verbeurdverklaring der goederen kan niet worden ingevoerd.

  • La Constitution Belge
    Държава:
    Belgium

    Article 14Nulle peine ne peut être établie ni appliquée qu'en vertu de la loi. Article 17La peine de la confiscation des biens ne peut être établie.

  • The Belgian Constitution
    Държава:
    Belgium

    Article 14.No punishment can be introduced or administered except by virtue of the law. Article 17.Assets may not be confiscated as a means of punishment.

  • European Convention on Human Rights - Article 7
    Държава:
    Austria

    Artikel 7

    1. No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under national or international law at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the criminal offence was committed.

    2. This Article shall not prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles of law recognised by civilised nations.

  • Konvention zum Schutze der Menschenrechte und Grundfreiheiten
    Държава:
    Austria

    Artikel 7 (1) Niemand kann wegen einer Handlung oder Unterlassung verurteilt werden, die zur Zeit ihrer Begehung nach inländischem oder internationalem Recht nicht strafbar war. Ebenso darf keine höhere Strafe als die im Zeitpunkt der Begehung der strafbaren Handlung angedrohte Strafe verhängt werden. (2) Durch diesen Artikel darf die Verurteilung oder Bestrafung einer Person nicht ausgeschlossen werden, die sich einer Handlung oder Unterlassung schuldig gemacht hat, welche im Zeitpunkt ihrer Begehung nach den von den zivilisierten Völkern allgemein anerkannten Rechtsgrundsätzen strafbar war.

0 results found

0 results found

0 results found