Equality

Equality, non-discrimination and racism

Equality is a core value of the EU. You have the right to fair treatment regardless of who you are, what you believe, or how you chose to live.

We carry out research and share expertise to help fight discrimination, inequality and racism in all its forms.

Highlights

  • Report / Paper / Summary
    29
    May
    2024
    Ahead of the EU elections, this report explores the political participation of people with disabilities. Although some Member States removed restrictions on the right to vote and to stand for elections, barriers still exist. This report is an update of new developments following FRA’s last report published in 2014. It sets out ways forward to ensure people with disabilities have equal opportunities, in line with the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
  • Report / Paper / Summary
    14
    May
    2024
    FRA’s third LGBTIQ survey shows that people still experience hate-motivated violence and discrimination. Trans and intersex people face even greater victimisation. Yet, signs of progress show that the EU’s and Member States’ efforts can positively affect people’s lives. More LGBTIQ people are open about their sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression and sex characteristics.
  • Report / Paper / Summary
    10
    April
    2024
    Racism in the police can include discriminatory racial profiling practices through to excessive use of force. Incidents like these highlight deeper systemic issues that need addressing. Many in society are affected by racism in policing, not only the individuals or communities targeted. Lack of trust in policing can fuel social exclusion and damages the foundations of a fair and equal society, however promising practices are developing to address these issues. This is the first EU-wide report on racism in policing. FRA’s findings identify gaps in regulatory frameworks and propose concrete steps for action.
  • Report / Paper / Summary
    25
    October
    2023
    FRA's first Being Black in the EU report exposed widespread and entrenched racism against people of African descent in Europe. Now updated with new data, this report revisits the situation revealing persistent racial discrimination, harassment and violence. Overall, experiences of racial discrimination increased in the EU countries since 2016, reaching as high as 77%. The lack of progress is alarming despite binding anti-discrimination law in the EU since 2000 and significant EU policy developments since then.
Products
30
May
2018
We live in a world of big data, where technological developments in the area of machine learning and artificial intelligence have changed the way we live. Decisions and processes concerning everyday life are increasingly automated, based on data. This affects fundamental rights in various ways. This focus paper specifically deals with discrimination, a fundamental rights area particularly affected by technological developments.
17
May
2018
Civil society organisations in the European Union play a crucial role in promoting fundamental
rights, but it has become harder for them do so – due to both legal and practical restrictions.
This summary outlines the main
findings and FRA’s opinions on the different
types and patterns of challenges faced by civil society
organisations across the EU,
25
April
2018
The methods used to determine the age of
an applicant may include “invasive” medical tests which interfere with the rights of the child, including their right to dignity,
integrity and privacy. It is often a challenge to find the right balance between protecting children from harm and promoting
their participation in these procedures. This report provides important insights and identifies the implications of collecting
children’s biometric data and conducting age assessments.
25
April
2018
The right to access justice and all other relevant procedural rights are not just rights in themselves; they also protect against violations of every other right. Respect for children’s rights in the area of justice is therefore essential. International treaties, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Union (EU) secondary law, and national legislation provide a number of relevant rights.
The EU's Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) and the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) work together to help states improve their ability to record and collect hate crime data through national workshops.
6
April
2018
Despite ambitious initiatives, the fundamental rights situation of Roma in the EU remains profoundly troubling. This report examines the persisting phenomenon of anti-Gypsyism and its effect on Roma inclusion efforts. It first presents data on key manifestations of anti-Gypsyism, namely discrimination, harassment and hate crime.
21
March
2018
New language versions: Estonian, Maltese, Danish, Latvian
23 March 2022
European non-discrimination law, as constituted in particular by the EU non-discrimination directives, and Article 14 of and Protocol 12 to the European Convention on Human Rights, prohibits discrimination across a range of contexts and grounds. This handbook examines European non-discrimination law stemming from these two sources as complementary systems, drawing on them interchangeably to the extent that they overlap, while highlighting differences where these exist.
16
January
2018
Guardians are a key element of a protection system for children who are temporarily or
permanently deprived of their family environment and cannot have their interests represented
by their parents. Great disparities exist between the types of guardianship provided
to children in and within European Union (EU) Member States. This report explores the key
features of guardianship systems put in place to cater for the needs of all children in need
of protection, including child victims and those at risk of becoming victims of trafficking in
human beings or of other forms of exploitation.
3
January
2018
Inside this book you will read about the justice system and the problems in justice for children and how to fix the problems.
15
December
2017
This meeting report distils the discussions held during a high-level expert meeting organised by FRA, which explored the shared space between religion and human rights.
6
December
2017
Seventeen years after adoption of EU laws that forbid discrimination, immigrants, descendants of immigrants, and minority ethnic groups continue to face widespread discrimination across the EU and in all areas of life – most often when seeking employment. For many, discrimination is a recurring experience. This is just one of the findings of FRA’s second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS II), which collected information from over 25,500 respondents with different ethnic minority and immigrant backgrounds across all 28 EU Member States.
The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) launches its second EU Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS II).
This survey involved interviews with 25,515 people with different ethnic minority and immigrant backgrounds across 28 EU countries. It explores issues concerning discrimination as well as experiences of harassment, hate-motivated violence and discriminatory profiling.
This infographic illustrates the main experiences immigrants and ethnic minorities across the EU have when it comes to discrimination. It draws from the findings from FRA's EU-MIDIS II survey.
This infographic illustrates the main experiences immigrants and ethnic minorities across the EU have when it comes to victimisation. It draws from the findings from FRA's EU-MIDIS II survey.
This infographic illustrates the main experiences immigrants and ethnic minorities across the EU have when it comes to inclusion. It draws from the findings from FRA's EU-MIDIS II survey.
13
November
2017
Women and girls in the European Union (EU) experience persistent gender discrimination and gender-based violence, as evidence collected by FRA confirms. This severely limits the ability of women and girls to enjoy their rights and to participate on an equal footing in society. This FRA contribution to the third Annual Colloquium on Fundamental Rights ‘Women's rights in turbulent times’ looks at core human rights commitments. It balances these against selected evidence on gender discrimination, sexist hate speech and gender-based violence against women and girls in the EU.
20
November
2017
International treaties, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Union (EU) secondary law and national legislation provide a number of rights to citizens. The maps and tables presented show the various patterns concerning age requirements for children to acquire rights in the EU. They also identify inconsistencies, protection gaps and restrictions deriving from different age thresholds. The reference period was until April 2016. Any legislative developments since then have been included whenever relevant or if known.
9
November
2017
This report provides an overview of data on antisemitism as recorded by
international organisations and by official and unofficial sources in the 28 European
Union (EU) Member States, based on their own definitions and categorisations.
21
September
2017
Muslims living in the EU face discrimination in a broad range of settings – and particularly when looking for work, on the job, and when trying to access public or private services. The report examines how characteristics – such as an individual's first and last name, skin colour and the wearing of visible religious symbols like a headscarf, for example – may trigger discriminatory treatment and harassment.
This year is European Year of Youth. FRA supports this important initiative to listen to and engage with young people across the EU. We will continue to regularly meet youth representatives to address their concerns and give them a voice through our evidence and data.
On 26 January, FRA gave a presentation on measuring non-discrimination and equality through surveys at a meeting of the Praia Group Task Team on Non-Discrimination and Equality.
The online data explorer from the Roma and Travellers survey is now available.
On 19 January, FRA held the third meeting of the Working Group on improving hate crime recording, data collection and reporting.
A new report looks at how EU agencies address the socioeconomic effects of sustainable development.
The Handbook on European non-discrimination law – 2018 edition is now also available in Swedish.
The Coronavirus pandemic exposed sharp socio-economic inequalities across Europe. Roma children, migrants, people with disabilities, just some of the already marginalised groups that further bore the brunt of the impact of the pandemic. Human Rights Day is a chance to remind ourselves of how reducing inequalities can build more equal societies and a better world. Advancing rights can offer hope and opportunity to millions through equal access to such primary services like education, jobs and healthcare.
On 25 November, FRA spoke about the impact of the pandemic on people with disabilities. It drew from its Fundamental Rights Report 2021.
As EU countries grapple with a new wave of Covid-19, police, media and NGOs continue to report on increasing rates of violence against women and girls. This ‘shadow pandemic’ has a devastating effect on the rights of women and girls across Europe. The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) and the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) call on the EU and all Member States to redouble their efforts to protect women's rights and mark International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women with concrete action.
FRA took part in an international conference under the Slovenian EU Presidency on ‘Human Rights for All Ages: Promoting a Life Course Perspective and Intergenerational Cooperation to Combat Ageism’.
FRA took part in an international conference under the Slovenian EU Presidency on ‘Human Rights for All Ages: Promoting a Life Course Perspective and Intergenerational Cooperation to Combat Ageism’.
New languages of the handbook on European non-discrimination law are now available. It is now also in Lithuanian, Portuguese and Slovak.
FRA presented its disability work during the European Parliament’s annual workshop on the rights of people with disabilities.
Incidents of hatred against Jews have been evident throughout the Coronavirus pandemic. Even though in some countries the number of antisemitic incidents decreased, the main problem remains the same across Europe – most incidents still go unreported. Each country collects data differently and some do not collect any data at all. This continues to hamper efforts to effectively tackle antisemitism in Europe, shows the latest annual overview of antisemitic incidents from the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA).
On 21 October, FRA took part in the first high-level conference of a joint EU and Council of Europe project to strengthen child participation in Europe.
Hate crime is a persistent problem across the world. Millions experience violence because of racism and intolerance. Across the EU, many good practices are in place, tackling hate crime daily. An updated compendium of good practice, hosted by the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), pools resources of what exists for others to draw on in their own work.
The Council of Europe, FRA, ENNHRI, Equinet collaborative platform on social and economic rights met on 27 September.
FRA took part in a virtual webinar as part of the European Network on Independent Living’s ‘Freedom Surf’.
On 16 September, FRA took part in a virtual hearing organised by the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) on deinstitutionalisation.
FRA presented findings from its LGBTI survey during a virtual international conference on 9 September.
The FRA Director will share key insights from FRA’s body of evidence on racism and racial discrimination during a high-level conference on racial discrimination.
FRA will join panel discussions on 8 April, International Roma Day, organised by the Austrian parliamentary president.
FRA will present results from its Roma and Travellers Survey during a webinar organised by European Public Health Alliance (EPHA).
FRA Director will deliver a keynote speech during a high-level online conference on protecting vulnerable adults across Europe. The conference provides an opportunity to reflect on the current situation and look ahead to what steps are necessary to ensure that all members of our diverse societies can enjoy their fundamental rights, including equal access to justice.
FRA will join panel discussions on 23 March during Spain’s anti-racist week, organised by its Ministry of Equality.
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UNECE will hold an online workshop on poverty measurement from 25 to 26 March. FRA will present innovative approaches put into practice by various EU Member States. The workshop aims to provide hands-on training and address the capacity-building needs expressed by countries on adapting their surveys.
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FRA will present results from its EU LGBTI survey on workplace discrimination during an international conference on creating a safe and friendly environment for LGBTIQ+ employees and employment seekers.
FRA’s Director Michael O’Flaherty will introduce the opening high-level panel at the first European Summit against Racism, as foreseen in the EU Anti-racism Action Plan 2020-2025.
FRA will hold a meeting to prepare for the second part of its Procedural safeguards for children who are suspects or accused in criminal proceedings project.
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The Roma Working Party will have its 4th virtual meeting from 25 to 26 February.
FRA will join the close of the European Commission’s online conference on the feasibility of a child guarantee. The event will cover some of the findings from a feasibility study, the second phase of the Preparatory Action for a Child Guarantee.
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FRA will speak at an expert meeting on combating antisemitism. The 2021 Swedish OSCE chairpersonship in consultation with the OSCE’s Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) organises the event.
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FRA will contribute to the first edition of the online ‘Human rights go local: what works’ event Winter Academy. It will bring expertise from its work on Roma indicators, equality data and cooperation with human rights cities. The event will look at how to base policy-making at the local level on scientific evidence through tailored human rights research. It aims at building bridges between all governance levels, disciplines and regions. It allows knowledge sharing among human rights researchers, local authorities, representatives of International, European and EU organisations, and policy-makers across regions.
On 28 January, FRA will meet Olivier De Schutter, UN Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights. It forms part of his visit to the EU Institutions. It will focus on the implementation of the Recovery and Resilience Facility. It will also look at whether the funds will be used in line with human rights and address vulnerable groups. The Special Rapporteur will examine the impact of EU policies on the eradication of poverty in the region. He will present the report to the Human Rights Council session in June 2021.
On 18 January, FRA will host the second meeting of working group on hate crime recording, data collection and encouraging reporting.
FRA will draw on its hate crime work and victimisation data from its survey during a roundtable discussion on strengthening diversity in Portugal’s police. The roundtable takes place on 18 January.
The Rumourless Cities will host a workshop on European and local perspectives and actions against LGBTI discrimination. FRA will present the results of the EU LGBTI survey II during the workshop. The online workshop takes place on 25 January.
FRA will take part in the presentation of results from the European Network on Independent Living’s (ENIL) first Independent Living Survey on 10 December.
Results from FRA’s survey of Traveller discrimination in Ireland will feature during a webinar on 7 December.