Getting the future right – Artificial intelligence and fundamental rights

Artificial intelligence (AI) already plays a role in deciding what unemployment benefits someone gets, where a burglary is likely to take place, whether someone is at risk of cancer, or who sees that catchy advertisement for low mortgage rates. Its use keeps growing, presenting seemingly endless possibilities. But we need to make sure to fully uphold fundamental rights standards when using AI. This report presents concrete examples of how companies and public administrations in the EU are using, or trying to use, AI. It focuses on four core areas – social benefits, predictive policing, health services and targeted advertising.

The report discusses the potential implications for fundamental rights and analyses how such rights are taken into account when using or developing AI applications. In so doing, it aims to help ensure that the future EU regulatory framework for AI is firmly grounded in respect for human and fundamental rights.

In this report:

  1. Key findings and FRA opinions
  2. AI and fundamental rights - why it is relevant for policymaking?
  3. Putting fundamental rights in context - selected use cases of AI in the EU
  4. Fundamental rights framework applicable to AI
  5. Impact of current use of AI on selected fundamental rights
  6. Fundamental rights impact assessment - a practical tool for protecting fundamental rights
  7. Moving forward: challenges and opportunities
Respondents' quotes
Key findings and FRA opinions

Safeguarding fundamental rights - Scope, impact assessments and accountability

Non-discrimination, data protection and access to justice: Three horizontal themes

Country research

These documents constitute background material for a comparative analysis for the project “Artificial Intelligence, Big Data and Fundamental Rights”. The country research was commissioned under contract D-SE-19-T02. The information and views contained in the documents do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA. The documents are made available for transparency and information purposes only and do not constitute legal advice or legal opinion.


Estonia flagEstonia

EN (pdf 2 MB)

Finland flagFinland

EN (pdf 2.8 MB)

France flagFrance

EN (pdf 3.3 MB)

Netherlands flagNetherlands

EN (pdf 3 MB)

Spain flagSpain

EN (pdf 2.9 MB)