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- Publication date:
- 21 January 2019
Koostöö romadega: kohalike kogukondade osalemine ja nende võimestamine - Kokkuvõte
Käesolevas koondaruandes esitatakse välitööde põhitulemused ja nendel põhinevad FRA arvamused.
Inimväärikus on puutumatu. Seda tuleb austada ja kaitsta.
Inimväärikus ei ole mitte ainult põhiõigus iseenesest, vaid moodustab põhiõiguste tegeliku aluse. 1948. aasta inimõiguste ülddeklaratsioon sätestas inimväärikuse oma preambulis: `Pidades silmas, et inimkonna kõigi liikmete väärikuse, nende võrdsuse ning võõrandamatute õiguste tunnustamine on vabaduse, õigluse ja üldise rahu alus.` Oma 9. oktoobri 2001. aasta otsusega kohtuasjas C377/98: Madalmaad v. Euroopa Parlament ja nõukogu, EKL 2001, lk I-7079, punktid 70–77, kinnitas Euroopa Kohus, et põhiõigus inimväärikusele moodustab osa liidu õigusest.
Sellest tuleneb, et mitte ühtegi hartas sätestatud õigust ei tohi kasutada teise inimese väärikuse riivamiseks ning et inimese väärikus on osa käesolevas hartas sätestatud õiguste põhiolemusest. Seega tuleb inimväärikust austada, isegi kui seda tehes piiratakse mingit muud õigust.
Article 1 All people are free and equal in their dignity and rights. Their fundamental rights and freedoms are inherent, inalienable, non-prescriptible, and irrepealable. Article 10 (1) Everyone has the right to demand that her human dignity, personal honour, and good reputation be respected, and that her name be protected.
Preamble We, the citizens of the Czech Republic (…) Resolved to build, safeguard, and develop the Czech Republic in the spirit of the sanctity of human dignity and liberty, As the homeland of free citizens enjoying equal rights, conscious of their duties towards others and their responsibility towards the community, As a free and democratic state founded on respect for human rights and on the principles of civic society, As a part of the family of democracies in Europe and around the world, Resolved to guard and develop together the natural and cultural, material and spiritual wealth handed down to us, Resolved to abide by all proven principles of a state governed by the rule of law (…)
Článek 1 Lidé jsou svobodní a rovní v důstojnosti i v právech. Základní práva a svobody jsou nezadatelné, nezcizitelné, nepromlčitelné a nezrušitelné. Článek 10 (1) Každý má právo, aby byla zachována jeho lidská důstojnost, osobní čest, dobrá pověst a chráněno jeho jméno.
My, občané České republiky (...) odhodláni budovat, chránit a rozvíjet Českou republiku v duchu nedotknutelných hodnot lidské důstojnosti a svobody jako vlast rovnoprávných, svobodných občanů, kteří jsou si vědomi svých povinností vůči druhým a zodpovědnosti vůči celku, jako svobodný a demokratický stát, založený na úctě k lidským právům a na zásadách občanské společnosti, jako součást rodiny evropských a světových demokracií, odhodláni společně střežit a rozvíjet zděděné přírodní a kulturní, hmotné a duchovní bohatství, odhodláni řídit se všemi osvědčenými principy právního státu (...)
Part 7 Trafficking people for exploitation
Chapter 1 - Basic principles of the form of government: Article 2 Public power shall be exercised with respect for the equal worth of all and the liberty and dignity of the individual. (…)
1 kapitlet - Statsskickets grunder: 2 § Den offentliga makten ska utövas med respekt för alla människors lika värde och för den enskilda människans frihet och värdighet. (…)
PreambleLa Nación española, (...) proclama su voluntad de: (...) Promover el progreso de la cultura y de la economía para asegurar a todos una digna calidad de vida.(...)Artículo 101. La dignidad de la persona, los derechos inviolables que le son inherentes, el libre desarrollo de la personalidad, el respeto a la ley y a los derechos de los demás son fundamento del orden político y de la paz social. (...)
Preamble The Spanish Nation, (...) proclaims its will to: (...) Promote the progress of culture and of the economy to ensure a dignified quality of life for all. (...) Article 101. The dignity of the person, the inviolable rights which are inherent, the free development of the personality, the respect for the law and for the rights of others are the foundation of political order and social peace. (...)
article 21 Respect for human personality and dignity shall be guaranteed in criminal and in all other legal proceedings, as well as during the deprivation of liberty and enforcement of punitive sanctions. Violence of any form against any person whose liberty has been restricted in any way is prohibited, as is the use of any form of coercion in obtaining confessions and statements. Article 34 Everyone has the right to personal dignity and safety.
21. člen Zagotovljeno je spoštovanje človekove osebnosti in njegovega dostojanstva v kazenskem in v vseh drugih pravdnih postopkih, in prav tako med odvzemom prostosti in izvrševanjem kazni. Prepovedano je vsakršno nasilje nad osebami, ki jim je prostost kakorkoli omejena, ter vsakršno izsiljevanje priznanj in izjav. 34. člen Vsakdo ima pravico do osebnega dostojanstva in varnosti.
Article 12(1) People are free and equal in dignity and in rights. Basic rights and freedoms are inviolable, inalienable, imprescriptible, and indefeasible. (...) Article 19(1) Everyone has the right to the preservation of human dignity, personal honour, reputation and the protection of good name. (...)
Čl. 12(1) Ľudia sú slobodní a rovní v dôstojnosti i v právach. Základné práva a slobody sú neodňateľné, nescudziteľné, nepremlčateľné a nezrušiteľné. (...) Čl. 19(1) Každý má právo na zachovanie ľudskej dôstojnosti, osobnej cti, dobrej povesti a na ochranu mena. (...)
Articolul 1(...) (3) România este stat de drept, democratic si social, în care demnitatea omului, drepturile si libertatile cetatenilor, libera dezvoltare a personalitatii umane, dreptatea si pluralismul politic reprezinta valori supreme, în spiritul traditiilor democratice ale poporului român si idealurilor Revolutiei din decembrie 1989, si sunt garantate. (...) Articolul 30(...) (6) Libertatea de exprimare nu poate prejudicia demnitatea, onoarea, viata particulara a persoanei si nici dreptul la propria imagine. (...)
Article 1(...) (3) Romania is a democratic and social state, governed by the rule of law, in which human dignity, the citizens' rights and freedoms, the free development of human personality, justice and political pluralism represent supreme values, in the spirit of the democratic traditions of the Romanian people and the ideals of the Revolution of December 1989, and shall be guaranteed. (...) Article 30(...) … (6) Freedom of expression shall not be prejudicial to the dignity, honour, privacy of a person, and to the right to one's own image. (...)
Artigo 1.º (República Portuguesa) Portugal é uma República soberana, baseada na dignidade da pessoa humana e na vontade popular e empenhada na construção de uma sociedade livre, justa e solidária. Artigo 13.º (Princípio da igualdade) 1. Todos os cidadãos têm a mesma dignidade social e são iguais perante a lei. Artigo 26.º (Outros direitos pessoais) 2. A lei estabelecerá garantias efectivas contra a utilização abusiva, ou contrária à dignidade humana, de informações relativas às pessoas e famílias. 3. A lei garantirá a dignidade pessoal e a identidade genética do ser humano, nomeadamente na criação, desenvolvimento e utilização das tecnologias e na experimentação científica. Artigo 59.º (Direitos dos trabalhadores) 1. Todos os trabalhadores, sem distinção de idade, sexo, raça, cidadania, território de origem, religião, convicções políticas ou ideológicas, têm direito: b) À organização do trabalho em condições socialmente dignificantes, de forma a facultar a realização pessoal e a permitir a conciliação da actividade profissional com a vida familiar. Artigo 67.º (Família) 2. Incumbe, designadamente, ao Estado para proteção da família: e) Regulamentar a procriação assistida, em termos que salvaguardem a dignidade da pessoa humana. Artigo 206.º (Audiências dos tribunais) As audiências dos tribunais são públicas, salvo quando o próprio tribunal decidir o contrário, em despacho fundamentado, para salvaguarda da dignidade das pessoas e da moral pública ou para garantir o seu normal funcionamento.
Article 1 (Portuguese Republic) Portugal is a sovereign Republic, based on the dignity of the human person and the will of the people and committed to building a free, just and solidary society. Article 13 (Principle of equality) (1) All citizens have the same social dignity and are equal before the law. Article 26 (Other personal rights) (2) The law shall lay down effective guarantees against the improper procurement and misuse of information concerning persons and families and its procurement or use contrary to human dignity. (3) The law shall guarantee the personal dignity and genetic identity of the human person, particularly in the creation, development and use of technologies and in scientific experimentation. Article 59 (Workers' rights) (1) Regardless of age, sex, race, citizenship, place of origin, religion and political or ideological convictions, every worker has the right: (b) That the work be organised under conditions of social dignity and in such a way as to provide personal fulfilment and to make it possible to reconcile work and family life. Article 67 (Family) (2) In order to protect the family, the state is particularly charged with: (e) Regulating assisted procreation in such a way as to safeguard the dignity of the human person. Article 206 (Court hearings) Court hearings are public, save when, in order to safeguard personal dignity or public moral, or to insure its normal operation, the court itself decides otherwise in a written order that sets out the grounds of its decision.
Preamble(...) We, the Polish Nation - all citizens of the Republic, ... (...) call upon all those who will apply this Constitution for the good of the Third Republic to do so paying respect to the inherent dignity of the person, his or her right to freedom, the obligation of solidarity with others, and respect for these principles as the unshakeable foundation of the Republic of Poland.Article 30 The inherent and inalienable dignity of the person shall constitute a source of freedoms and rights of persons and citizens. It shall be inviolable. The respect and protection thereof shall be the obligation of public authorities.
Preambuła(...) my, Naród Polski - wszyscy obywatele Rzeczypospolitej, (...) Wszystkich, którzy dla dobra Trzeciej Rzeczypospolitej tę Konstytucję będą stosowali, wzywamy, aby czynili to, dbając o zachowanie przyrodzonej godności człowieka, jego prawa do wolności i obowiązku solidarności z innymi, a poszanowanie tych zasad mieli za niewzruszoną podstawę Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej.Art. 30 Przyrodzona i niezbywalna godność człowieka stanowi źródło wolności i praw człowieka i obywatela. Jest ona nienaruszalna, a jej poszanowanie i ochrona jest obowiązkiem władz publicznych.
Article 21. The human person shall be inviolable. Human dignity shall be protected by law.(…)
Preamble: ‘[...] Considering that the trafficking in human organs violates human dignity and the right to life and constitutes a serious threat to public health;’
Preamble: ‘[...] Recognizing that the prohibition of forced or compulsory labour forms part of the body of fundamental rights, and that forced or compulsory labour violates the human rights and dignity of millions of women and men, girls and boys, contributes to the perpetuation of poverty and stands in the way of the achievement of decent work for all, [...].‘
Rule 1 ‘All prisoners shall be treated with the respect due to their inherent dignity and value as human beings. No prisoner shall be subjected to, and all prisoners shall be protected from, torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, for which no circumstances whatsoever may be invoked as a justification. The safety and security of prisoners, staff, service providers and visitors shall be ensured at all times.‘ Rule 5 ‘1. The prison regime should seek to minimize any differences between prison life and life at liberty that tend to lessen the responsibility of the prisoners or the respect due to their dignity as human beings.‘ Rule 50 ‘The laws and regulations governing searches of prisoners and cells shall be in accordance with obligations under international law and shall take into account international standards and norms, keeping in mind the need to ensure security in the prison. Searches shall be conducted in a manner that is respectful of the inherent human dignity and privacy of the individual being searched, as well as the principles of proportionality, legality and necessity.‘
Preamble: ‘(1) The Union is founded on the universal values of human dignity, freedom, equality and solidarity, and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It is based on the principles of democracy and the rule of law, which are common to the Member States.’ ‘(2) Acts of terrorism constitute one of the most serious violations of the universal values of human dignity, freedom, equality and solidarity, and enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms on which the Union is founded. They also represent one of the most serious attacks on democracy and the rule of law, principles which are common to the Member States and on which the Union is based. [...]’ Article 25 - Protection of victims of terrorism ‘Member States shall ensure that measures are available to protect victims of terrorism and their family members, in accordance with Directive 2012/29/EU. When determining whether and to what extent they should benefit from protection measures in the course of criminal proceedings, particular attention shall be paid to the risk of intimidation and retaliation and to the need to protect the dignity and physical integrity of victims of terrorism, including during questioning and when testifying.’
Preamble: ‘(16) Victims of terrorism have suffered attacks that are intended ultimately to harm society. They may therefore need special attention, support and protection due to the particular nature of the crime that has been committed against them. Victims of terrorism can be under significant public scrutiny and often need social recognition and respectful treatment by society. Member States should therefore take particular account of the needs of victims of terrorism, and should seek to protect their dignity and security.’ ‘(38) [...] A main task of these services and their staff, which play an important role in supporting the victim to recover from and overcome potential harm or trauma as a result of a criminal offence, should be to inform victims about the rights set out in this Directive so that they can take decisions in a supportive environment that treats them with dignity, respect and sensitivity. The types of support that such specialist support services should offer could include providing shelter and safe accommodation, immediate medical support, referral to medical and forensic examination for evidence in cases of rape or sexual assault, short and long-term psychological counselling, trauma care, legal advice, advocacy and specific services for children as direct or indirect victims.’ ‘(52) Measures should be available to protect the safety and dignity of victims and their family members from secondary and repeat victimisation, from intimidation and from retaliation, such as interim injunctions or protection or restraining orders.’ Article 18 - Right to protection ‘Without prejudice to the rights of the defence, Member States shall ensure that measures are available to protect victims and their family members from secondary and repeat victimisation, from intimidation and from retaliation, including against the risk of emotional or psychological harm, and to protect the dignity of victims during questioning and when testifying. When necessary, such measures shall also include procedures established under national law for the physical protection of victims and their family members.’
Preamble: ‘(60) This Directive respects the fundamental rights and observes the principles recognised by the Charter. In particular, this Directive seeks to ensure full respect for human dignity and to promote the application of Articles 1, 4, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, and 47 of the Charter and has to be implemented accordingly.’ Article 13 - Obligations of the applicants ‘(2) In particular, Member States may provide that: [...] (d) the competent authorities may search the applicant and the items which he or she is carrying. Without prejudice to any search carried out for security reasons, a search of the applicant’s person under this Directive shall be carried out by a person of the same sex with full respect for the principles of human dignity and of physical and psychological integrity; ’ Article 25 - Guarantees for unaccompanied minors ‘(5) [...] Any medical examination shall be performed with full respect for the individual’s dignity, shall be the least invasive examination and shall be carried out by qualified medical professionals allowing, to the extent possible, for a reliable result.’
Preamble: ‘(18) Applicants who are in detention should be treated with full respect for human dignity and their reception should be specifically designed to meet their needs in that situation. In particular, Member States should ensure that Article 37 of the 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is applied. [...]’ ‘(35) This Directive respects the fundamental rights and observes the principles recognised in particular by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. In particular, this Directive seeks to ensure full respect for human dignity and to promote the application of Articles 1, 4, 6, 7, 18, 21, 24 and 47 of the Charter and has to be implemented accordingly.’
Preamble: ‘(2) Article 31(1) of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union provides that every worker has the right to working conditions which respect his or her health, safety and dignity.’
Preamble: ‘(7) Border checks should be carried out in such a way as to fully respect human dignity. Border control should be carried out in a professional and respectful manner and be proportionate to the objectives pursued.’ Article 7 - Conduct of border checks ‘(1) Border guards shall, in the performance of their duties, fully respect human dignity, in particular in cases involving vulnerable persons.’
‘(1) In a clinical trial the rights, safety, dignity and well-being of subjects should be protected and the data generated should be reliable and robust. The interests of the subjects should always take priority over all other interests.’ ‘(27) Human dignity and the right to the integrity of the person are recognised in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (the ‘Charter’). In particular, the Charter requires that any intervention in the field of biology and medicine cannot be performed without free and informed consent of the person concerned. Directive 2001/20/EC contains an extensive set of rules for the protection of subjects. These rules should be upheld. Regarding the rules concerning the determination of the legally designated representatives of incapacitated persons and minors, those rules diverge in Member States. It should therefore be left to Member States to determine the legally designated representatives of incapacitated persons and minors. Incapacitated subjects, minors, pregnant women and breastfeeding women require specific protection measures.’ ‘(83) This Regulation respects the fundamental rights and observes the principles recognised in particular by the Charter and notably human dignity, the integrity of the person, the rights of the child, respect for private and family life, the protection of personal data and the freedom of art and science. This Regulation should be applied by the Member States in accordance with those rights and principles.’ Article 3 - General principle ‘A clinical trial may be conducted only if: (a) the rights, safety, dignity and well-being of subjects are protected and prevail over all other interests; and (b) it is designed to generate reliable and robust data.’
Preamble: ‘(24) In accordance with Commission Regulation (EC) No 1560/2003 (9), transfers to the Member State responsible for examining an application for international protection may be carried out on a voluntary basis, by supervised departure or under escort. Member States should promote voluntary transfers by providing adequate information to the applicant and should ensure that supervised or escorted transfers are undertaken in a humane manner, in full compliance with fundamental rights and respect for human dignity, as well as the best interests of the child and taking utmost account of developments in the relevant case law, in particular as regards transfers on humanitarian grounds.’ Article 29 - Modalities and time limits ‘(1) The transfer of the applicant or of another person as referred to in Article 18(1)(c) or (d) from the requesting Member State to the Member State responsible shall be carried out in accordance with the national law of the requesting Member State, after consultation between the Member States concerned, as soon as practically possible, and at the latest within six months of acceptance of the request by another Member State to take charge or to take back the person concerned or of the final decision on an appeal or review where there is a suspensive effect in accordance with Article 27(3). If transfers to the Member State responsible are carried out by supervised departure or under escort, Member States shall ensure that they are carried out in a humane manner and with full respect for fundamental rights and human dignity. [...]’
Käesolevas koondaruandes esitatakse välitööde põhitulemused ja nendel põhinevad FRA arvamused.
Naistevastane vägivald kahjustab naiste peamisi põhiõigusi, näiteks väärikust, õiguskaitse kättesaadavust ja soolist võrdõiguslikkust. Näiteks on iga kolmas naine kogenud alates 15. eluaastast füüsilist ja/või seksuaalset vägivalda; iga viies naine on kogenud jälitamist; iga teine naine on kogenud ühel või mitmel kujul seksuaalset ahistamist.
Käesoleval teabelehel on uuringutulemuste näited ja üldsoovitused, kuidas võiks toimuda naistevastase vägivalla vastu võitlemise edasine tegevus.