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49. pants - Noziedzīgu nodarījumu un sodu likumības un samērīguma principi

49. pants - Noziedzīgu nodarījumu un sodu likumības un samērīguma principi

1. Nevienu nevar atzīt par vainīgu nodarījumā, kas ir darbība vai bezdarbība un ko tā izdarīšanas brīdī saskaņā ar attiecīgās valsts tiesībām vai starptautiskajām tiesībām neuzskata par noziedzīgu nodarījumu. Tāpat nevar piemērot bargāku sodu par to, kas bijis spēkā noziedzīgā nodarījuma izdarīšanas brīdī. Ja pēc noziedzīgā nodarījuma izdarīšanas tiesību aktos ir paredzēts vieglāks sods, piemēro šo sodu. 2. Šis pants neliedz tiesāt un sodīt jebkuru personu par jebkuru darbību vai bezdarbību, kura tās izdarīšanas brīdī tikusi uzskatīta par noziedzīgu nodarījumu saskaņā ar valstu kopienas atzītiem vispārējiem principiem. 3. Sodu smagums nedrīkst būt nesamērīgs ar noziedzīgā nodarījuma smagumu.

    Text:

    Šajā pantā ir ievērots tradicionālais princips, kas paredz, ka tiesību aktiem un sodiem nav atpakaļejoša spēka. Tas papildināts ar noteikumu par to, ka krimināllikumam, kas paredz vieglāku sodu, ir atpakaļejošs spēks, un šis noteikums pastāv vairākās dalībvalstīs un kas ir ietverts 15. pantā Paktā par pilsoņu tiesībām un politiskajām tiesībām.

    ECK 7. pants ir šāds:

    `1. Nevienu nevar uzskatīt par vainīgu noziedzīgā nodarījumā, kura cēlonis ir darbība vai bezdarbība, kas tā izdarīšanas brīdī saskaņā ar valsts tiesību aktiem vai starptautiskajām tiesībām nav bijis noziedzīgs nodarījums. Tāpat nevar piemērot bargāku sodu par to, kas bijis spēkā noziedzīgā nodarījuma izdarīšanas brīdī.

    2. Šis pants neliedz tiesāt un sodīt jebkuru personu par jebkuru darbību vai bezdarbību, kura tās izdarīšanas brīdī tikusi uzskatīta par noziedzīgu nodarījumu saskaņā ar civilizētu valstu atzītiem vispārējiem principiem.`.

    Panta 2. punktā ir svītrota atsauce uz `civilizētām` valstīm; tas negroza šā punkta nozīmi, īpaši attiecībā uz noziegumiem pret cilvēci. Saskaņā ar 52. panta 3. punktu šajā punktā garantēto tiesību nozīme un darbības joma ir tāda pati kā ECK garantētajām tiesībām.

    Panta 3. punktā noteikts vispārējais princips par sodu un noziedzīgu nodarījumu samērīgumu, kas noteikts dalībvalstu kopējās konstitucionālās tradīcijās un Kopienu Tiesas judikatūrā.

    Source:
    Eiropas Savienības Oficiālais Vēstnesis C 303/17 - 14.12.2007

    Preamble - Explanations relating to the Charter of Fundamental Rights:
    Šie paskaidrojumi ir sagatavoti Eiropas Savienības Pamattiesību hartu izstrādājušā Konventa prezidija vadībā. Tie ir atjaunināti Eiropas Konventa prezidija vadībā, ņemot vērā Konventa izdarītos Hartas teksta (jo īpaši 51. un 52. panta) precizējumus un Savienības tiesību turpmāku attīstību. Kaut arī šiem paskaidrojumiem nav juridiska spēka, tie ir vērtīgi interpretācijas līdzekļi, kas paredzēti Hartas noteikumu izskaidrošanai.

55 results found

  • Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms

    URL:
    Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms
    Country:
    Czechia

    Article 39 Only a law may designate which acts constitute a crime and what penalties, or other detriments to rights or property, may be imposed for committing them. Article 40 (1) Only a court may decide on guilt and on the punishment for criminal offences. (...) (6) The question whether an act is punishable or not shall be considered, and penalties shall be imposed, in accordance with the law in effect at the time the act was committed. A subsequent law shall be applied if it is more favorable for the offender.

  • Listina základních práv a svobod

    URL:
    Listina základních práv a svobod
    Country:
    Czechia

    Článek 39 Jen zákon stanoví, které jednání je trestným činem a jaký trest, jakož i jaké jiné újmy na právech nebo majetku, ze za jeho spáchání uložit. Článek 40 (1) Jen soud rozhoduje o vině a trestu za trestné činy. (...) (6) Trestnost činu se posuzuje a trest se ukládá podle zákona účinného v době, kdy byl čin spáchán. Pozdějšího zákona se použije, jestliže je to pro pachatele příznivější.

  • Human Rights Act 1998

    URL:
    Human Rights Act 1998
    Country:
    United Kingdom

    See ECHR provisions of Article 7 which have been incorporated into UK law by the Human Rights Act 1998.. Schdule 1, Article 7 No punishment without law 1 No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under national or international law at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the criminal offence was committed. 2 This Article shall not prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles of law recognised by civilised nations.

  • Instrument of Government

    URL:
    Instrument of Government
    Country:
    Sweden

    Chapter 2 - Fundamental rights and freedoms: Article 10 No one may be sentenced to a penalty or penal sanction for an act which was not subject to a penal sanction at the time it was committed. Nor may anyone be sentenced to a penal sanction which is more severe than that which was in force when the act was committed. The provisions laid down here with respect to penal sanctions also apply to forfeiture and other special legal effects of crime (...) Article 11 No court of law may be established on account of an act already committed, or for a particular dispute or otherwise for a particular case. Legal proceedings shall be carried out fairly and within a reasonable period of time. Proceedings in courts of law shall be open to the public.

  • Kungörelse (1974:152) om beslutad ny regeringsform

    URL:
    Kungörelse (1974:152) om beslutad ny regeringsform
    Country:
    Sweden

    2 kapitlet - Grundläggande fri- och rättigheter: 10 § Straff eller annan brottspåföljd får icke åläggas för gärning som icke var belagd med brottspåföljd, när den förövades. Ej heller får svårare brottspåföljd åläggas för gärningen än den som var föreskriven då. Vad nu sagts om brottspåföljd gäller även förverkande och annan särskild rättsverkan av brott.(...); 11 § Domstol får icke inrättas för redan begången gärning och ej heller för viss tvist eller i övrigt för visst mål. Förhandling vid domstol skall vara offentlig.

  • Constitutión Española

    URL:
    Constitutión Española
    Country:
    Spain

    Artículo 9 (…) 3. La Constitución garantiza el principio de legalidad, la jerarquía normativa, la publicidad de las normas, la irretroactividad de las disposiciones sancionadoras no favorables o restrictivas de derechos individuales, la seguridad jurídica, la responsabilidad y la interdicción de la arbitrariedad de los poderes públicos. Artículo 25 1. Nadie puede ser condenado o sancionado por acciones u omisiones que en el momento de producirse no constituyan delito, falta o infracción administrativa, según la legislación vigente en aquel momento. 2. Las penas privativas de libertad y las medidas de seguridad estarán orientadas hacia la reeducación y reinserción social y no podrán consistir en trabajos forzados. El condenado a pena de prisión que estuviere cumpliendo la misma gozará de los derechos fundamentales de este Capítulo, a excepción de los que se vean expresamente limitados por el contenido del fallo condenatorio, el sentido de la pena y la ley penitenciaria. En todo caso, tendrá derecho a un trabajo remunerado y a los beneficios correspondientes de la Seguridad Social, así como al acceso a la cultura y al desarrollo integral de su personalidad. 3. La Administración civil no podrá imponer sanciones que, directa o subsidiariamente, impliquen privación de libertad.

  • Constitution of the Kingdom of Spain

    URL:
    Constitution of the Kingdom of Spain
    Country:
    Spain

    Section 9 (...) (3) The Constitution guarantees the principle of legality, the hierarchy of legal provisions, the publicity of legal statutes, the non-retroactivity of punitive provisions that are not favourable to or restrictive of individual rights, the certainty that the rule of law shall prevail, the accountability of public authorities, and the prohibition of arbitrary action of public authorities. Section 25(1) No one may be convicted or sentenced for actions or omissions which when committed did not constitute a criminal offence, misdemeanour or administrative offence under the law then in force. (2) Punishments entailing imprisonment and security measures shall be aimed at reeducation and social rehabilitation and may not involve forced labour. The person sentenced to prison shall enjoy, during the imprisonment, the fundamental rights contained in this Chapter except those expressly restricted by the content of the sentence, the purpose of the punishment and the penitentiary law. In any case, he or she shall be entitled to paid work and to the appropriate Social Security benefits, as well as to access to cultural opportunities and the overall development of his or her personality. (3) The Civil Administration may not impose penalties which directly of indirectly imply deprivation of freedom.

  • Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia

    URL:
    Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia
    Country:
    Slovenia

    Article 28 (Principle of Legality in Criminal Law) No one may be punished for an act which had not been declared a criminal offence under law, or for which a penalty had not been prescribed, at the time the act was performed. Acts that are criminal shall be established and the resulting penalties pronounced according to the law that was in force at the time the act was performed, save where a more recent law adopted is more lenient towards the offender.

  • Ustava Republike Slovenije

    URL:
    Ustava Republike Slovenije
    Country:
    Slovenia

    28. člen (načelo zakonitosti v kazenskem pravu)Nihče ne sme biti kaznovan za dejanje, za katero ni zakon določil, da je kaznivo, in ni zanj predpisal kazni, še preden je bilo dejanje storjeno. Dejanja, ki so kazniva, se ugotavljajo in kazni zanje izrekajo po zakonu, ki je veljal ob storitvi dejanja, razen če je novi zakon za storilca milejši.

  • Constitution of the Slovak Republic

    URL:
    Constitution of the Slovak Republic
    Country:
    Slovakia

    Article 49 Only the law shall lay down which conduct constitutes a criminal act, and what punishment, or other forms of deprivation of rights, or property, may be imposed for its commitment. Article 50 (...) (6) Whether any act is criminal is assessed, and punishment is determined, in accordance with the law valid at the time when the act was committed. A more recent law is applied, if it is more favorable for the perpetrator.

  • Ústava Slovenskej republiky

    URL:
    Ústava Slovenskej republiky
    Country:
    Slovakia

    Čl. 49 Len zákon ustanoví, ktoré konanie je trestným činom a aký trest, prípadne iné ujmy na právach alebo majetku možno uložiť za jeho spáchanie. Čl. 50(...) (6) Trestnosť činu sa posudzuje a trest sa ukladá podľa zákona účinného v čase, keď bol čin spáchaný. Neskorší zákon sa použije, ak je to pre páchateľa priaznivejšie.

  • Constituția României

    URL:
    Constituția României
    Country:
    Romania

    Articolul 23(12) Nici o pedeapsa nu poate fi stabilita sau aplicata decât în conditiile si în temeiul legii.

  • Constitution of Romania

    URL:
    Constitution of Romania
    Country:
    Romania

    Article 23(12) Penalties shall be established or applied only in accordance with and on the grounds of the law.

  • Constituição da República Portuguesa

    URL:
    Constituição da República Portuguesa
    Country:
    Portugal

    Artigo 29.º (Aplicação da lei criminal) 1. Ninguém pode ser sentenciado criminalmente senão em virtude de lei anterior que declare punível a acção ou a omissão, nem sofrer medida de segurança cujos pressupostos não estejam fixados em lei anterior. 2. O disposto no número anterior não impede a punição, nos limites da lei interna, por acção ou omissão que no momento da sua prática seja considerada criminosa segundo os princípios gerais de direito internacional comummente reconhecidos. 3. Não podem ser aplicadas penas ou medidas de segurança que não estejam expressamente cominadas em lei anterior. 4. Ninguém pode sofrer pena ou medida de segurança mais graves do que as previstas no momento da correspondente conduta ou da verificação dos respectivos pressupostos, aplicando-se retroactivamente as leis penais de conteúdo mais favorável ao arguido. 5. Ninguém pode ser julgado mais do que uma vez pela prática do mesmo crime. 6. Os cidadãos injustamente condenados têm direito, nas condições que a lei prescrever, à revisão da sentença e à indemnização pelos danos sofridos. Artigo 30.º (Limites das penas e das medidas de segurança) 1. Não pode haver penas nem medidas de segurança privativas ou restritivas da liberdade com carácter perpétuo ou de duração ilimitada ou indefinida. 2. Em caso de perigosidade baseada em grave anomalia psíquica, e na impossibilidade de terapêutica em meio aberto, poderão as medidas de segurança privativas ou restritivas da liberdade ser prorrogadas sucessivamente enquanto tal estado se mantiver, mas sempre mediante decisão judicial. 3. A responsabilidade penal é insusceptível de transmissão. 4. Nenhuma pena envolve como efeito necessário a perda de quaisquer direitos civis, profissionais ou políticos. 5. Os condenados a quem sejam aplicadas pena ou medida de segurança privativas da liberdade mantêm a titularidade dos direitos fundamentais, salvas as limitações inerentes ao sentido da condenação e às exigências próprias da respectiva execução.

  • Constituição da República Portuguesa

    URL:
    Constituição da República Portuguesa
    Country:
    Portugal

    Artigo 29.º (Aplicação da lei criminal) 1. Ninguém pode ser sentenciado criminalmente senão em virtude de lei anterior que declare punível a acção ou a omissão, nem sofrer medida de segurança cujos pressupostos não estejam fixados em lei anterior. 2. O disposto no número anterior não impede a punição, nos limites da lei interna, por acção ou omissão que no momento da sua prática seja considerada criminosa segundo os princípios gerais de direito internacional comummente reconhecidos. 3. Não podem ser aplicadas penas ou medidas de segurança que não estejam expressamente cominadas em lei anterior. 4. Ninguém pode sofrer pena ou medida de segurança mais graves do que as previstas no momento da correspondente conduta ou da verificação dos respectivos pressupostos, aplicando-se retroactivamente as leis penais de conteúdo mais favorável ao arguido. 5. Ninguém pode ser julgado mais do que uma vez pela prática do mesmo crime. 6. Os cidadãos injustamente condenados têm direito, nas condições que a lei prescrever, à revisão da sentença e à indemnização pelos danos sofridos. Artigo 30.º (Limites das penas e das medidas de segurança) 1. Não pode haver penas nem medidas de segurança privativas ou restritivas da liberdade com carácter perpétuo ou de duração ilimitada ou indefinida. 2. Em caso de perigosidade baseada em grave anomalia psíquica, e na impossibilidade de terapêutica em meio aberto, poderão as medidas de segurança privativas ou restritivas da liberdade ser prorrogadas sucessivamente enquanto tal estado se mantiver, mas sempre mediante decisão judicial. 3. A responsabilidade penal é insusceptível de transmissão. 4. Nenhuma pena envolve como efeito necessário a perda de quaisquer direitos civis, profissionais ou políticos. 5. Os condenados a quem sejam aplicadas pena ou medida de segurança privativas da liberdade mantêm a titularidade dos direitos fundamentais, salvas as limitações inerentes ao sentido da condenação e às exigências próprias da respectiva execução.

  • Constitution of the Portuguese Republic

    URL:
    Constitution of the Portuguese Republic
    Country:
    Portugal

    Article 29 (Application of criminal law) (1) No one may be sentenced under the criminal law unless the action or omission in question is punishable under a pre-existing law, nor may any person be the object of a security measure unless the prerequisites therefore are laid down by a pre-existing law. (2) The provisions of the previous paragraph do not preclude the punishment up to the limits laid down by internal Portuguese law of an action or omission which was deemed criminal under the general principles of international law that were commonly recognised at the moment of its commission. (3) No sentence or security measure may be applied unless it is expressly sanctioned by a pre-existing law. (4) No one may be the object of a sentence or security measure that is more severe than those provided for at the moment of the conduct in question, or at that at which the prerequisites for the application of such a measure were fulfilled, while criminal laws whose content is more favourable to the accused person shall be applied retroactively. (5) No one may be tried more than once for commission of the same crime. (6) Citizens who are unjustly convicted have the right to the review of their sentences and to compensation for the damages they have suffered, as laid down by law. Article 30 (Limits on sentences and security measures) (1) No sentence or security measure that deprives or restricts freedom may be perpetual in nature or have an unlimited or undefined duration. (2) In cases of danger based on a serious psychic abnormality in which therapy in an open environment is impossible, security measures that deprive or restrict freedom may be successively extended for as long as the psychic state in question is maintained, but always by judicial decision. (3) Criminal liability is not transferable. (4) No sentence shall automatically involve the loss of any civil, professional or political right. (5) Convicted persons who are the object of a sentence or security measure that deprives them of their freedom retain their fundamental rights, save for the limitations that are inherent to the purpose of their convictions and to the specific requirements imposed by the execution of the respective sentences.

  • Constitution of the Portuguese Republic

    URL:
    Constitution of the Portuguese Republic
    Country:
    Portugal

    Article 29 (Application of criminal law) (1) No one may be sentenced under the criminal law unless the action or omission in question is punishable under a pre-existing law, nor may any person be the object of a security measure unless the prerequisites therefore are laid down by a pre-existing law. (2) The provisions of the previous paragraph do not preclude the punishment up to the limits laid down by internal Portuguese law of an action or omission which was deemed criminal under the general principles of international law that were commonly recognised at the moment of its commission. (3) No sentence or security measure may be applied unless it is expressly sanctioned by a pre-existing law. (4) No one may be the object of a sentence or security measure that is more severe than those provided for at the moment of the conduct in question, or at that at which the prerequisites for the application of such a measure were fulfilled, while criminal laws whose content is more favourable to the accused person shall be applied retroactively. (5) No one may be tried more than once for commission of the same crime. (6) Citizens who are unjustly convicted have the right to the review of their sentences and to compensation for the damages they have suffered, as laid down by law. Article 30 (Limits on sentences and security measures) (1) No sentence or security measure that deprives or restricts freedom may be perpetual in nature or have an unlimited or undefined duration. (2) In cases of danger based on a serious psychic abnormality in which therapy in an open environment is impossible, security measures that deprive or restrict freedom may be successively extended for as long as the psychic state in question is maintained, but always by judicial decision. (3) Criminal liability is not transferable. (4) No sentence shall automatically involve the loss of any civil, professional or political right. (5) Convicted persons who are the object of a sentence or security measure that deprives them of their freedom retain their fundamental rights, save for the limitations that are inherent to the purpose of their convictions and to the specific requirements imposed by the execution of the respective sentences.

  • Constitution of the Republic of Poland

    URL:
    Constitution of the Republic of Poland
    Country:
    Poland

    Article 421. Only a person who has committed an act prohibited by a statute in force at the moment of commission thereof, and which is subject to a penalty, shall be held criminally responsible. This principle shall not prevent punishment of any act which, at the moment of its commission, constituted an offence within the meaning of international law.

  • Constitution of the Republic of Poland

    URL:
    Constitution of the Republic of Poland
    Country:
    Poland

    Article 42.1. Only a person who has committed an act prohibited by a statute in force at the moment of commission thereof, and which is subject to a penalty, shall be held criminally responsible. This principle shall not prevent punishment of any act which, at the moment of its commission, constituted an offence within the meaning of international law.

  • Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej

    URL:
    Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej
    Country:
    Poland

    Art. 42.1. Odpowiedzialności karnej podlega ten tylko, kto dopuścił się czynu zabronionego pod groźbą kary przez ustawę obowiązującą w czasie jego popełnienia. Zasada ta nie stoi na przeszkodzie ukaraniu za czyn, który w czasie jego popełnienia stanowił przestępstwo w myśl prawa międzynarodowego.

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3 results found

  • Directive (EU) 2016/680 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data by competent authorities for the purposes of the prevention, investigation, detec...

    URL:
    Directive on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data by competent authorities and on the free movement of such data

    Article 57. Penalties: Member States shall lay down the rules on penalties applicable to infringements of the provisions adopted pursuant to this Directive and shall take all measures necessary to ensure that they are implemented. The penalties provided for shall be effective, proportionate and dissuasive.

  • Directive (EU) 2016/800 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 May 2016 on procedural safeguards for children who are suspects or accused persons in criminal proceedings

    URL:
    (Directive on criminal procedural safeguards for children)

    ‘(35) Children who are suspects or accused persons in criminal proceedings should have the right to an individual assessment to identify their specific needs in terms of protection, education, training and social integration, to determine if and to what extent they would need special measures during the criminal proceedings, the extent of their criminal responsibility and the appropriateness of a particular penalty or educative measure.‘

  • Directive 2014/42/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 April 2014 on the freezing and confiscation of instrumentalities and proceeds of crime in the European Union

    URL:
    (Directive on the freezing and confiscation of instrumentalities and proceeds of crime in the European Union)

    Article 4 - Confiscation ‘1. Member States shall take the necessary measures to enable the confiscation, either in whole or in part, of instrumentalities and proceeds or property the value of which corresponds to such instrumentalities or proceeds, subject to a final conviction for a criminal offence, which may also result from proceedings in absentia. 2. Where confiscation on the basis of paragraph 1 is not possible, at least where such impossibility is the result of illness or absconding of the suspected or accused person, Member States shall take the necessary measures to enable the confiscation of instrumentalities and proceeds in cases where criminal proceedings have been initiated regarding a criminal offence which is liable to give rise, directly or indirectly, to economic benefit, and such proceedings could have led to a criminal conviction if the suspected or accused person had been able to stand trial.‘ Article 5 - Extended confiscation ‘1. Member States shall adopt the necessary measures to enable the confiscation, either in whole or in part, of property belonging to a person convicted of a criminal offence which is liable to give rise, directly or indirectly, to economic benefit, where a court, on the basis of the circumstances of the case, including the specific facts and available evidence, such as that the value of the property is disproportionate to the lawful income of the convicted person, is satisfied that the property in question is derived from criminal conduct.‘