Being Black in the EU - Summary

Across the EU, people of African descent face widespread and entrenched prejudice and exclusion. Racial discrimination and harassment are commonplace. Experiences with racist violence vary, but reach as high as 14 %. Discriminatory profiling by the police is a common reality. Hurdles to inclusion are multi-faceted, particularly when it comes to looking for jobs and housing.

These are just some of the findings from FRA’s second large-scale EU-wide survey on migrants and minorities (EU-MIDIS II), which, among others, examined the experiences of almost 6,000 people of African descent in 12 EU Member States. This summary presents the main results of that effort.

People of African descent have been an integral part of the social fabric of European Union (EU) countries for generations. Since 2000, the Union has enacted legislation to combat racial discrimination and racist crime, and diverse policy efforts have sought to address racism at EU level.

Both EU-MIDIS II and the first wave of FRA’s EU Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS I) draw the attention of policymakers in the EU and its Member States to gaps in the implementation of relevant EU law. The presented evidence and opinions can help them develop targeted legal and policy responses. Member States can also draw on the evidence to assess progress with respect to their commitments under the International Decade for People of African Descent. In addition, they can use the data for reporting on progress made in reaching the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially SDG 10 on reducing inequalities within and among countries, and SDG 16 on peace, justice and strong institutions.