1. Qualquer pessoa tem direito à liberdade de expressão. Este direito compreende a liberdade de opinião e a liberdade de receber e de transmitir informações ou ideias, sem que possa haver ingerência de quaisquer poderes públicos e sem consideração de fronteiras.
2. São respeitados a liberdade e o pluralismo dos meios de comunicação social.
1. O artigo 11.o corresponde ao artigo 10.o da CEDH, que tem a seguinte redacção: `1. Qualquer pessoa tem direito à liberdade de expressão. Este direito compreende a liberdade de opinião e a liberdade de receber ou de transmitir informações ou ideias sem que possa haver ingerência de quaisquer autoridades públicas e sem considerações de fronteiras. O presente artigo não impede que os Estados submetam as empresas de radiodifusão, de cinematografia ou de televisão a um regime de autorização prévia. 2. O exercício destas liberdades, porquanto implica deveres e responsabilidades, pode ser submetido a certas formalidades, condições, restrições ou sanções, previstas pela lei, que constituam providências necessárias, numa sociedade democrática, para a segurança nacional, a integridade territorial ou a segurança pública, a defesa da ordem e a prevenção do crime, a protecção da saúde ou da moral, a protecção da honra ou dos direitos de outrem, para impedir a divulgação de informações confidenciais, ou para garantir a autoridade e a imparcialidade do poder judicial.` Em aplicação do n.o 3 do artigo 52.o da Carta, este direito tem um sentido e um âmbito iguais aos do direito garantido pela CEDH. As restrições a que esse direito possa ficar sujeito não podem, por conseguinte, exceder as que estão previstas no n.o 2 do artigo 10.o da Convenção, sem prejuízo das restrições que o direito da concorrência da União possa impor à faculdade dos Estados-Membros de instituírem os regimes de autorização prévia referidos no terceiro período do n.o 1 do artigo 10.o da CEDH. 2. O n.o 2 deste artigo explicita as consequências do n.o 1 no tocante à liberdade dos meios de comunicação social, baseando-se, designadamente, na jurisprudência do Tribunal de Justiça sobre televisão, nomeadamente no processo C-288/89 (acórdão de 25 de Julho de 1991, Stichting Collectieve Antennevoorziening Gouda e outros, Colect. 1991, p. I-4007) e no Protocolo relativo ao Serviço Público de Radiodifusão nos Estados-Membros, anexo ao Tratado CE, e agora aos Tratados, bem como na Directiva 89/552/CEE do Conselho (designadamente no seu considerando 17).
Article 17 (1) The freedom of expression and the right to information are guaranteed. (2) Everyone has the right to express her opinion in speech, in writing, in the press, in pictures, or in any other form, as well as freely to seek, receive, and disseminate ideas and information irrespective of the frontiers of the State. (3) Censorship is not permitted. (4) The freedom of expression and the right to seek and disseminate information may be limited by law in the case of measures necessary in a democratic society for protecting the rights and freedoms of others, the security of the State, public security, public health, and morals. (5) State bodies and territorial self-governing bodies are obliged, in an appropriate manner, to provide information on their activities. Conditions therefore and the implementation thereof shall be provided for by law.
Článek 17 (1) Svoboda projevu a právo na informace jsou zaručeny. (2) Každý má právo vyjadřovat své názory slovem, písmem, tiskem, obrazem nebo jiným způsobem, jakož i svobodně vyhledávat, přijímat a rozšiřovat ideje a informace bez ohledu na hranice státu. (3) Cenzura je nepřípustná. (4) Svobodu projevu a právo vyhledávat a šířit informace lze omezit zákonem, jde-li o opatření v demokratické společnosti nezbytná pro ochranu práv a svobod druhých, bezpečnost státu, veřejnou bezpečnost, ochranu veřejného zdraví a mravnosti. (5) Státní orgány a orgány územní samosprávy jsou povinny přiměřeným způsobem poskytovat informace o své činnosti. Podmínky a provedení stanoví zákon.
Section 1 General right of access to information held by public authorities.
(1)Any person making a request for information to a public authority is entitled—
(a)to be informed in writing by the public authority whether it holds information of the description specified in the request, and
(b)if that is the case, to have that information communicated to him.
(2)Subsection (1) has effect subject to the following provisions of this section and to the provisions of sections 2, 9, 12 and 14.
(3)Where a public authority—
(a)reasonably requires further information in order to identify and locate the information requested, and
(b)has informed the applicant of that requirement,the authority is not obliged to comply with subsection (1) unless it is supplied with that further information.
(a)in respect of which the applicant is to be informed under subsection (1)(a), or
(b)which is to be communicated under subsection (1)(b),is the information in question held at the time when the request is received, except that account may be taken of any amendment or deletion made between that time and the time when the information is to be communicated under subsection (1)(b), being an amendment or deletion that would have been made regardless of the receipt of the request.
(5)A public authority is to be taken to have complied with subsection (1)(a) in relation to any information if it has communicated the information to the applicant in accordance with subsection (1)(b).
(6)In this Act, the duty of a public authority to comply with subsection (1)(a) is referred to as “the duty to confirm or deny”.
Section 12 Freedom of expression (1) This section applies if a court is considering whether to grant any relief which, if granted, might affect the exercise of the Convention right to freedom of expression. (2) If the person against whom the application for relief is made (“the respondent”) is neither present nor represented, no such relief is to be granted unless the court is satisfied— (a) that the applicant has taken all practicable steps to notify the respondent; or (b) that there are compelling reasons why the respondent should not be notified. (3) No such relief is to be granted so as to restrain publication before trial unless the court is satisfied that the applicant is likely to establish that publication should not be allowed. (4) The court must have particular regard to the importance of the Convention right to freedom of expression and, where the proceedings relate to material which the respondent claims, or which appears to the court, to be journalistic, literary or artistic material (or to conduct connected with such material), to— (a) the extent to which— (i) the material has, or is about to, become available to the public; or (ii) it is, or would be, in the public interest for the material to be published; (b) any relevant privacy code. (5) In this section— “court” includes a tribunal; and “relief” includes any remedy or order (other than in criminal proceedings).
See ECHR provisions of Article 10 which have been incorporated into UK law by the Human Rights Act 1998. Schedule 1 Article 10 Freedom of expression
1Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. This Article shall not prevent States from requiring the licensing of broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises.
2The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries with it duties and responsibilities, may be subject to such formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society, in the interests of national security, territorial integrity or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, for the protection of the reputation or rights of others, for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, or for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary.
Part 1 Regulation of biometric dataPart 5 Chapter 2 Criminal recordsPart 6 Freedom of information and data protection
Chapter 1 - Basic provisions: Article 1 Every Swedish citizen is guaranteed the right under this Fundamental Law, vis-à-vis the public institutions, publicly to express his or her thoughts, opinions and sentiments, and in general to communicate information on any subject whatsoever on sound radio, television and certain similar transmissions, through public playback of material from a database, and in films, video recordings, sound recordings and other technical recordings. The purpose of freedom of expression under this Fundamental Law is to secure the free exchange of opinion, free and comprehensive information, and freedom of artistic creation. No restriction of this freedom shall be permitted other than such as follows from this Fundamental Law. (...); Article 2 Every Swedish citizen is guaranteed the right to communicate information on any subject whatsoever to authors and other originators, as well as to editors, editorial offices, news agencies and enterprises for the production of technical recordings for publication in radio programmes or such recordings. He or she also has the right to procure information on any subject whatsoever for such communication or publication. No restriction of these rights shall be permitted other than such as follows from this Fundamental Law; 3§ There shall be no prior scrutiny by a public authority or other public body of a matter which is intended for release in a radio programme or technical recording. Nor is it permitted for public authorities or other public bodies to prohibit or prevent the release or dissemination to the general public of a radio programme or technical recording on grounds of its known or expected content, except by virtue of this Fundamental Law.(...)
Chapter 2 - Fundamental rights and freedoms: Article 1 Everyone shall be guaranteed the following rights and freedoms in his or her relations with the public institutions: 1. freedom of expression: that is, the freedom to communicate information and express thoughts, opinions and sentiments, whether orally, pictorially, in writing, or in any other way; 2. freedom of information: that is, the freedom to procure and receive information and otherwise acquaint oneself with the utterances of others; 3. freedom of assembly: that is, the freedom to organise or attend meetings for the purposes of information or the expression of opinion or for any other similar purpose, or for the purpose of presenting artistic work; 4. freedom to demonstrate: that is, the freedom to organise or take part in demonstrations in a public place; 5. freedom of association: that is, the freedom to associate with others for public or private purposes (...); Article 2 No one shall in his or her relations with the public institutions be coerced to divulge an opinion in a political, religious, cultural or other such connection. Nor may anyone in his or her relations with the public institutions be coerced to participate in a meeting for the shaping of opinion or a demonstration or other manifestation of opinion, or to belong to a political association, religious community or other association for opinion
referred to in sentence one; Article 3 No record in a public register concerning a Swedish citizen may be based without his or her consent solely on his or her political opinions.
2 kapitlet - Grundläggande fri- och rättigheter: 1 § Var och en är gentemot det allmänna tillförsäkrad 1. yttrandefrihet: frihet att i tal, skrift eller bild eller på annat sätt meddela upplysningar samt uttrycka tankar, åsikter och känslor; 2. informationsfrihet: frihet att inhämta och ta emot upplysningar samt att i övrigt ta del av andras yttranden; 3. mötesfrihet: frihet att anordna och delta i sammankomster för upplysning, meningsyttring eller annat liknande syfte eller för framförande av konstnärligt verk; 4. demonstrationsfrihet: frihet att anordna och delta i demonstrationer på allmän plats; 5. föreningsfrihet: frihet att sammansluta sig med andra för allmänna eller enskilda syften (...); 2 § Ingen får av det allmänna tvingas att ge till känna sin åskådning i politiskt, religiöst, kulturellt eller annat sådant hänseende. Inte heller får någon av det allmänna tvingas att delta i sammankomst för opinionsbildning eller i demonstration eller annan meningsyttring eller att tillhöra politisk sammanslutning, trossamfund eller annan sammanslutning för åskådning som avses i första meningen; 3 § Ingen svensk medborgare får utan samtycke antecknas i ett allmänt register enbart på grund av sin politiska åskådning. Lag (2010:1408).
Chapter 1 - On the freedom of press: Article 1 The freedom of the press is understood to mean the right of every Swedish citizen to publish written matter, without prior hindrance by a public authority or other public body, and not to be prosecuted thereafter on grounds of its content other than before a lawful court, or punished
therefore other than because the content contravenes an express provision of law, enacted to preserve public order without suppressing information to the public. (...); Article 2 No written matter shall be scrutinised prior to printing, nor shall it be permitted to prohibit the printing thereof. Nor shall it be permitted for a public authority or other public body to take any action not authorised under this Act to prevent the printing or publication of written matter, or its dissemination among the general public, on grounds of its content; Article 3 No person may be prosecuted, held liable under penal law, or held liable for damages, on account of an abuse of the freedom of the press or complicity therein, nor may the publication be confiscated or impounded other than as prescribed and in the cases specified in this Act.
1 kapitlet - Om tryckfrihet 1 § Med tryckfrihet förstås varje svensk medborgares rätt att, utan några av myndighet eller annat allmänt organ i förväg lagda hinder, utgiva skrifter, att sedermera endast inför laglig domstol kunna tilltalas för deras innehåll, och att icke i annat fall kunna straffas därför, än om detta innehåll strider mot tydlig lag, given att bevara allmänt lugn, utan att återhålla allmän upplysning. I överensstämmelse med de i första stycket angivna grunderna för en allmän tryckfrihet och till säkerställande av ett fritt meningsutbyte och en allsidig upplysning skall det stå varje svensk medborgare fritt att, med iakttagande av de bestämmelser som äro i denna förordning meddelade till skydd för enskild rätt och allmän säkerhet, i tryckt skrift yttra sina tankar och åsikter, offentliggöra allmänna handlingar samt meddela uppgifter och underrättelser i vad ämne som helst. (...); 2 § Någon tryckningen föregående granskning av skrift eller något förbud mot tryckning därav må ej förekomma. Ej heller vare tillåtet för myndighet eller annat allmänt organ att på grund av skrifts innehåll, genom åtgärd som icke äger stöd i denna förordning, hindra tryckning eller utgivning av skriften eller dess spridning bland allmänheten; 3 § För missbruk av tryckfriheten eller medverkan däri må ej någon i annan ordning eller i annat fall än denna förordning bestämmer kunna tilltalas eller dömas till ansvar eller ersättningsskyldighet eller skriften konfiskeras eller läggas under beslag.
1 kapitlet - Grundläggande bestämmelser: 1 § Varje svensk medborgare är gentemot det allmänna tillförsäkrad rätt enligt denna grundlag att i ljudradio, television och vissa liknande överföringar, offentliga uppspelningar ur en databas samt filmer, videogram, ljudupptagningar och andra tekniska upptagningar offentligen uttrycka tankar, åsikter och känslor och i övrigt lämna uppgifter i vilket ämne som helst. Yttrandefriheten enligt denna grundlag har till ändamål att säkra ett fritt meningsutbyte, en fri och allsidig upplysning och ett fritt konstnärligt skapande. I den får inga andra begränsningar göras än de som följer av denna grundlag. (...); 2 § Varje svensk medborgare är tillförsäkrad rätt att till författare och andra upphovsmän samt till utgivare, redaktioner, nyhetsbyråer och företag för framställning av tekniska upptagningar lämna uppgifter i vilket ämne som helst för offentliggörande i radioprogram och sådana upptagningar. Han har också rätt att anskaffa uppgifter i vilket ämne som helst för sådant uppgiftslämnande eller offentliggörande. I dessa rättigheter får inga andra begränsningar göras än de som följer av denna grundlag; 3 § Det får inte förekomma att något som är avsett att framföras i ett radioprogram eller en teknisk upptagning först måste granskas av en myndighet eller något annat allmänt organ. Inte heller är det tillåtet för myndigheter och andra allmänna organ att utan stöd i denna grundlag, på grund av det kända eller väntade innehållet i ett radioprogram eller en teknisk upptagning, förbjuda eller hindra dess offentliggörande eller spridning bland allmänheten.(...)
Artículo 20 1. Se reconocen y protegen los derechos: a) A expresar y difundir libremente los pensamientos, ideas y opiniones mediante la palabra, el escrito o cualquier otro medio de reproducción. b) A la producción y creación literaria, artística, científica y técnica.c) A la libertad de cátedra. d) A comunicar o recibir libremente información veraz por cualquier medio de difusión. La ley regulará el derecho a la cláusula de conciencia y al secreto profesional en el ejercicio de estas libertades. 2. El ejercicio de estos derechos no puede restringirse mediante ningún tipo de censura previa. 3. La ley regulará la organización y el control parlamentario de los medios de comunicación social dependientes del Estado o de cualquier ente público y garantizará el acceso a dichos medios de los grupos sociales y políticos significativos, respetando el pluralismo de la sociedad y de las diversas lenguas de España. 4. Estas libertades tienen su límite en el respeto a los derechos reconocidos en este Título, en los preceptos de las leyes que lo desarrollan y, especialmente, en el derecho al honor, a la intimidad, a la propia imagen y a la protección de la juventud y de la infancia. 5. Sólo podrá acordarse el secuestro de publicaciones, grabaciones y otros medios de información en virtud de resolución judicial.
Article 201. The following rights are recognized and protected: a) the right to freely express and spread thoughts, ideas and opinions through words, in writing or by any other means of reproduction; b) the right to literary, artistic, scientific and technical production and creation; c) the right to academic freedom; d) the right to freely communicate or receive truthful information by any means of dissemination whatsoever. The law shall regulate the right to the clause of conscience and professional secrecy in the exercise of these freedoms. 2. The exercise of these rights may not be restricted by any form of prior censorship. 3.The law shall regulate the organization and parliamentary control of the masscommunication means under the control of the State or any public agency and shall guarantee access to such means by the significant social and political groups, respecting the pluralism of society and of the various languages of Spain. 4. These freedoms are limited by respect for the rights recognized in this Part, by the legal provisions implementing it, and especially by the right to honour, to privacy, to the own image and to the protection of youth and childhood. 5. The seizure of publications, recordings and other means of information may only be carried out by means of a court order.
Article 39 Freedom of expression of thought, freedom of speech and public appearance, of the press and other forms of public communication and expression shall be guaranteed. Everyone may freely collect, receive and disseminate information and opinions. Except in such cases as are provided by law, everyone has the right to obtain information of a public nature in which he has a well founded legal interest under law.
Article 40 The right to correct published information which has damaged a right or interest of an individual, organisation or body shall be guaranteed, as shall be the right to reply to such published information.
39. člen Zagotovljena je svoboda izražanja misli, govora in javnega nastopanja, tiska in drugih oblik javnega obveščanja in izražanja. Vsakdo lahko svobodno zbira, sprejema in širi vesti in mnenja. Vsakdo ima pravico dobiti informacijo javnega značaja, za katero ima v zakonu utemeljen pravni interes, razen v primerih, ki jih določa zakon.
40. člen Zagotovljena je pravica do popravka objavljenega obvestila, s katerim sta prizadeta pravica ali interes posameznika, organizacije ali organa, in prav tako je zagotovljena pravica do odgovora na objavljeno informacijo.
§1 Subject of the ActThis act shall regulate the terms, procedure and scope of free access to information.
Article 26(1) The freedom of expression and the right to information are guaranteed. (2) Everyone has the right to express his opinion in words, writing, print, images or by other means as well as the right to seek, receive and disseminate ideas and information freely, regardless of the state borders. No approval process is required for press publishing. Entrepreneurial activity in the field of radio and television broadcasting may be subject to permission from the State. The conditions shall be laid down by law. (3) Censorship is prohibited. (4) The freedom of expression and the right to seek and disseminate information may be restricted by law only if such measures is necessary in a democratic society to protect the rights and freedoms of others, State security, public order, protection of health and morals. (5) Public authority bodies are obliged to provide information about their activities in an appropriate manner and in the State language. The conditions and manner of exection shall be laid down by law.
Čl. 26 (1) Sloboda prejavu a právo na informácie sú zaručené. (2) Každý má právo vyjadrovať svoje názory slovom, písmom, tlačou, obrazom alebo iným spôsobom, ako aj slobodne vyhľadávať, prijímať a rozširovať idey a informácie bez ohľadu na hranice štátu. Vydávanie tlače nepodlieha povoľovaciemu konaniu. Podnikanie v odbore rozhlasu a televízie sa môže viazať na povolenie štátu. Podmienky ustanoví zákon. (3) Cenzúra sa zakazuje. (4) Slobodu prejavu a právo vyhľadávať a šíriť informácie možno obmedziť zákonom, ak ide o opatrenia v demokratickej spoločnosti nevyhnutné na ochranu práv a slobôd iných, bezpečnosť štátu, verejného poriadku, ochranu verejného zdravia a mravnosti. (5) Orgány verejnej moci majú povinnosť primeraným spôsobom poskytovať informácie o svojej činnosti v štátnom jazyku. Podmienky a spôsob vykonania ustanoví zákon.
§ 1 Predmet úpravy - Tento zákon upravuje podmienky, postup a rozsah slobodného prístupu k informáciám.
‘14. The right to freedom of expression includes freedom to seek and receive information. It is a key component of democratic governance as the promotion of participatory decision-making processes is unattainable without adequate access to information. For example the exposure of human rights violations may, in some circumstances, be assisted by the disclosure of information held by State entities. Ensuring access to information can serve to promote justice and reparation, in particular after periods of grave violations of human rights. The UN Human Rights Council has emphasized that the public and individuals are entitled to have access, to the fullest extent practicable, to information regarding the actions and decision-making processes of their Government‘
‘15. Every individual should have the right to ascertain in an intelligible form, whether, and if so what, personal data is held and stored about them and for what purposes. Every individual should also be able to ascertain which public authorities or private individuals or bodies control or may take decisions affecting the processing of his or her personal data kept in electronic or manual files. If such files contain incorrect personal data or data that have been collected or processed contrary to the provisions of the law, every individual should have the right to have his or her records rectified and in certain circumstances erased. States should make every effort to ensure easy, prompt, effective and practical access to such information. It is recognised that it can be relevant to consider data protection in the context of freedom of expression.‘
‘16.The Internet and digital technologies have expanded the possibilities of individuals and media to exercise the right to freedom of expression and freely access online information. Any restriction that prevents the flow of information offline or online must be in line with permissible limitations as set out in international human rights law.‘
Article 1 - Subject matter and scope
‘2. This Directive shall not affect:
(a) the exercise of the right to freedom of expression and information as set out in the Charter, including respect for the freedom and pluralism of the media;‘
Article 5 - Exceptions
‘Member States shall ensure that an application for the measures, procedures and remedies provided for in this Directive is dismissed where the alleged acquisition, use or disclosure of the trade secret was carried out in any of the following cases:
(a) for exercising the right to freedom of expression and information as set out in the Charter, including respect for the freedom and pluralism of the media;‘
Article 3 - Safeguarding of open internet access
‘1. End-users shall have the right to access and distribute information and content, use and provide applications and services, and use terminal equipment of their choice, irrespective of the end-user’s or provider’s location or the location, origin or destination of the information, content, application or service, via their internet access service.
This paragraph is without prejudice to Union law, or national law that complies with Union law, related to the lawfulness of the content, applications or services.‘
‘3. Providers of internet access services shall not engage in traffic management measures going beyond those set out in the second subparagraph, and in particular shall not block, slow down, alter, restrict, interfere with, degrade or discriminate between specific content, applications or services, or specific categories thereof, except as necessary, and only for as long as necessary, in order to:
(a) comply with Union legislative acts, or national legislation that complies with Union law, to which the provider of internet access services is subject, or with measures that comply with Union law giving effect to such Union legislative acts or national legislation, including with orders by courts or public authorities vested with relevant powers;
(b) preserve the integrity and security of the network, of services provided via that network, and of the terminal equipment of end-users;
(c) prevent impending network congestion and mitigate the effects of exceptional or temporary network congestion, provided that equivalent categories of traffic are treated equally.‘
Article 1 - Subject matter and scope
‘1. This Regulation introduces a common approach in the Union to the cross-border portability of online content services, by ensuring that subscribers to portable online content services which are lawfully provided in their Member State of residence can access and use those services when temporarily present in a Member State other than their Member State of residence.‘
Article 3 - Obligation to enable cross-border portability of online content services
‘1. The provider of an online content service provided against payment of money shall enable a subscriber who is temporarily present in a Member State to access and use the online content service in the same manner as in the Member State of residence, including by providing access to the same content, on the same range and number of devices, for the same number of users and with the same range of functionalities.‘
‘2. [...] The guidelines and principles set out in this Communication therefore do not only target the detection and removal of illegal content; they also seek to address concerns in relation to removal of legal content, sometimes called ‘over-removal’, which in turn impacts freedom of expression and media pluralism. Adequate safeguards should therefore be foreseen, and adapted to the specific type of illegal content concerned.‘
‘4.2.1 Online platforms should disclose their detailed content policies in their terms of service and clearly communicate this to their users. These terms should not only define the policy for removing or disabling access to content, but also spell out the safeguards that ensure that content-related measures do not lead to over-removal. In particular, online platforms' terms of service should clearly spell out any possibility for the users to contest removal decisions as part of an enhanced transparency of the platforms' general removal policies. This should help reduce the potential negative effect on the users' fundamental right to freedom of expression and information‘
‘1.1. States have an obligation to guarantee to everyone within their jurisdiction the right to freedom of expression and the right to freedom of assembly and association, in full compliance with Articles 10 and 11 of the ECHR, which apply equally to the Internet. These rights and freedoms must be guaranteed without discrimination on any ground such as gender, sexual orientation, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status.‘
‘1.2. States should protect and promote the global free flow of information on the Internet. They should ensure that interferences with Internet traffic within their territory pursue the legitimate aims set out in Article 10 of the ECHR and other relevant international agreements and do not have an unnecessary or disproportionate impact on the transboundary flow of information on the Internet.‘
‘Freedom of opinion
9. Paragraph 1 of article 19 requires protection of the right to hold opinions without interference. This is a right to which the Covenant permits no exception or restriction. Freedom of opinion extends to the right to change an opinion whenever and for whatever reason a person so freely chooses. No person may be subject to the impairment of any rights under the Covenant on the basis of his or her actual, perceived or supposed opinions. All forms of opinion are protected, including opinions of a political, scientific, historic, moral or religious nature. It is incompatible with paragraph 1 to criminalize the holding of an opinion. The harassment, intimidation or stigmatization of a person, including arrest, detention, trial or imprisonment for reasons of the opinions they may hold, constitutes a violation of article 19, paragraph 1.
10. Any form of effort to coerce the holding or not holding of any opinion is prohibited. Freedom to express one’s opinion necessarily includes freedom not to express one’s opinion.
Freedom of expression
11. Paragraph 2 requires States parties to guarantee the right to freedom of expression, including the right to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds regardless of frontiers. This right includes the expression and receipt of communications of every form of idea and opinion capable of transmission to others, subject to the provisions in article 19, paragraph 3, and article 20. It includes political discourse, commentary on one’s own and on public affairs, canvassing, discussion of human rights, journalism, cultural and artistic expression, teaching, and religious discourse. It may also include commercial advertising. The scope of paragraph 2 embraces even expression that may be regarded as deeply offensive, 22 although such expression may be restricted in accordance with the provisions of article 19, paragraph 3 and article 20.
12. Paragraph 2 protects all forms of expression and the means of their dissemination. Such forms include spoken, written and sign language and such non-verbal expression as images and objects of art. Means of expression include books, newspapers, pamphlets, posters, banners, dress and legal submissions. They include all forms of audio-visual as well as electronic and internet-based modes of expression.‘
‘1.1. Internet users have the right to freedom of expression, including the right to receive and impart information, by using services, applications and devices of their choice, in full compliance with Article 10 of the Convention. These rights must be enjoyed without discrimination on any ground such as gender, sexual orientation, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status.‘
‘1.2. Internet users’ right to receive and impart information should not be restricted by means of blocking, slowing down, degrading or discriminating Internet traffic associated with particular content, services, applications or devices, or traffic associated with services provided on the basis of exclusive arrangements or tariffs.‘
‘1.3. Internet users should be entitled to an Internet connection with the characteristics defined in the contractual agreements that they have concluded with Internet access service providers on the basis of specific and adequate information that is provided to users with regard to all aspects which might affect their access to the Internet and their right to receive and impart information.‘
‘2. The right to freedom of expression and information, as guaranteed by Article 10 of the Convention, constitutes one of the essential foundations of a democratic society and one of the basic conditions for its progress and the development of every individual. Freedom of expression is applicable not only to “information” or “ideas” that are favourably received or regarded as inoffensive or as a matter of indifference, but also to those that offend, shock or disturb the State or any sector of the population. In this way, freedom of expression facilitates robust public debate, which is another prerequisite of a democratic society characterised by pluralism, tolerance and broadmindedness. Any interference with the right to freedom of expression of journalists and other media actors therefore has societal repercussions as it is also an interference with the right of others to receive information and ideas and an interference with public debate.‘
‘3. The exercise of the right to freedom of expression carries with it duties and responsibilities, as stated in Article 10, paragraph 2. In the context of journalism, relevant duties and responsibilities are understood as including acting in good faith in order to provide accurate and reliable information, in accordance with the ethics of journalism.‘
‘5. Moreover, some types of hate speech which incite violence or hatred fall under Article 17 of the Convention (prohibition of abuse of rights) and are therefore not afforded protection because their aim is to destroy some of the rights and freedoms set forth in the Convention.‘
‘6. All human rights are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated and there is important interplay between the right to freedom of expression and other human rights, such as the rights to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, the right to freedom of assembly and association and the right to vote in free and fair elections.‘
‘Recalling that the right to privacy is important for the exercise of freedom of expression, including the right to seek, receive and impart information, and contributes to the development of an individual’s ability to participate in political, economic, social and cultural life and that digital technology has a considerable impact on the enjoyment of these rights, ‘
‘Noting that, while metadata can provide benefits, certain types of metadata, when aggregated, can reveal personal information and can give an insightinto an individual’s behaviour, social relationships, private preferences and identity‘
‘Emphasizing that unlawful or arbitrary surveillance and/or interception of communications, as well as the unlawful or arbitrary collection of personal data, as highly intrusive acts, violate the right to privacy, can interfere with the right to freedom of expression and may contradict the tenets of a democratic society, including when undertaken on a mass scale‘
‘Acknowledging the important role of women journalists and women human rights defenders in the exercise, promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression and, in this context, expressing concern at the risks faced by these women in the exercise of their work, ‘
‘Affirms the fundamental role that freedom of opinion and expression plays in the ability of women to interact with society at large, in particular in the realms of economic and political participation, and reaffirmsthat the active participation of women, on equal terms with men, at all levels of decision-making, is essential to the achievement of equality, sustainable development, peace and democracy;‘
‘Noting also the importance of building confidence and trust in the Internet, not least with regard to freedom of expression, privacy and other human rights so that the potential of the Internet as, inter alia, an enabler for development and innovation can be realized, ‘
‘Affirms that the same rights that people have offline must also be protected online, in particular freedom of expression, which is applicable regardless of frontiers and through any media of one’s choice, in accordance with articles 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; ‘
‘Recognizing the crucial role of journalists and media workers in the context of elections, including to inform the public about candidates, their platforms and ongoing debates, and expressing serious concern that attacks against journalists and media workers increase during periods of elections, ‘
‘Bearing in mind that impunity for attacks and violence against journalists constitutes one of the greatest challenges to the safety of journalists, and that ensuring accountability for crimes committed against journalists is a key element in preventing future attacks ‘