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Artigo 47.o - Direito à acção e a um tribunal imparcial

Artigo 47.o - Direito à acção e a um tribunal imparcial

Toda a pessoa cujos direitos e liberdades garantidos pelo direito da União tenham sido violados tem direito a uma acção perante um tribunal nos termos previstos no presente artigo. Toda a pessoa tem direito a que a sua causa seja julgada de forma equitativa, publicamente e num prazo razoável, por um tribunal independente e imparcial, previamente estabelecido por lei. Toda a pessoa tem a possibilidade de se fazer aconselhar, defender e representar em juízo. É concedida assistência judiciária a quem não disponha de recursos suficientes, na medida em que essa assistência seja necessária para garantir a efectividade do acesso à justiça.

    Text:

    O primeiro parágrafo baseia-se no artigo 13.o da CEDH:

    `Qualquer pessoa cujos direitos e liberdades reconhecidos na presente Convenção tiverem sido violados tem direito a recurso perante uma instância nacional, mesmo quando a violação tiver sido cometida por pessoas que actuarem no exercício das suas funções oficiais.`

    Porém, no direito da União, a protecção é mais alargada, dado que garante um direito a acção em tribunal. O Tribunal de Justiça consagrou este direito como princípio geral do direito da União no seu acórdão de 15 de Maio de 1986 (processo 222/84, Johnston, Colect. 1986, p. 1651; ver também os acórdãos de 15 de Outubro de 1987, processo 222/86, Heylens, Colect. 1987, p. 4097, e de 3 de Dezembro de 1992, processo C-97/91, Borelli, Colect. 1992, p. I-6313). Segundo o Tribunal de Justiça, este princípio geral do direito da União aplica-se também aos Estados-Membros quando estes aplicam o direito da União. A inclusão desta jurisprudência na Carta não teve por objectivo modificar o sistema de controlo jurisdicional previsto pelos Tratados e, nomeadamente, as regras relativas à admissibilidade de acções interpostas directamente no Tribunal de Justiça da União Europeia. A Convenção Europeia estudou o sistema de controlo jurisdicional da União, incluindo as regras relativas à admissibilidade, tendo-os confirmado, alterando embora alguns dos seus aspectos, tal como ficou expresso nos artigos 251.o a 281.o do Tratado sobre o Funcionamento da União Europeia e, em especial, no quarto parágrafo do artigo 263.o No que respeita à totalidade dos direitos garantidos pelo direito da União, o artigo 47.o aplica-se às instituições da União e aos Estados-Membros sempre que estes dêem execução ao direito da União.
    O segundo parágrafo corresponde ao n.o 1 do artigo 6.o da CEDH, que tem a seguinte redacção:
    `Qualquer pessoa tem direito a que a sua causa seja examinada, equitativa e publicamente, num prazo razoável por um tribunal independente e imparcial, estabelecido por lei, o qual decidirá, quer sobre a determinação dos seus direitos e obrigações de carácter civil, quer sobre o fundamento de qualquer acusação em matéria penal dirigida contra ela. O julgamento deve ser público, mas o acesso à sala de audiências pode ser proibido à imprensa ou ao público durante a totalidade ou parte do processo, quando a bem da moralidade, da ordem pública ou da segurança nacional numa sociedade democrática, quando os interesses de menores ou a protecção da vida privada das partes no processo o exigirem, ou, na medida julgada estritamente necessária pelo tribunal, quando, em circunstâncias especiais, a publicidade pudesse ser prejudicial para os interesses da justiça.`
    No direito da União, o direito a julgamento imparcial não se aplica apenas a litígios relativos a direitos e obrigações do foro civil. É uma das consequências do facto de a União ser uma comunidade de direito, tal como estabelecido pelo Tribunal de Justiça no processo 294/83, Os Verdes contra Parlamento Europeu (acórdão de 23 de Abril de 1986, Colect. 1986, p. 1339). Porém, com excepção do seu âmbito de aplicação, as garantias dadas pela CEDH são aplicadas de modo similar na União.

    No que respeita ao terceiro parágrafo, é de notar que, segundo a jurisprudência do Tribunal Europeu dos Direitos do Homem, deve ser concedido apoio judiciário quando a falta de tal apoio torne impossível garantir uma acção judicial efectiva (acórdão TEDH de 9.10.1979, Airey, série A, volume 32, p. 11). Existe igualmente um sistema de apoio judiciário perante o Tribunal de Justiça da União Europeia.

    Source:
    Jornal Oficial da União Europeia C 303/17 - 14.12.2007

    Preamble - Explanations relating to the Charter of Fundamental Rights:
    As presentes anotações, inicialmente elaboradas sob a responsabilidade do Praesidium da Convenção que redigiu a Carta dos Direitos Fundamentais da União Europeia, foram actualizadas sob a responsabilidade do Praesidium da Convenção Europeia, à luz das adaptações ao texto (nomeadamente aos artigos 51.o e 52.o) da Carta introduzidas pela Convenção Europeia e da evolução do direito da União. Embora não tenham em si força de lei, constituem um valioso instrumento de interpretação destinado a clarificar as disposições da Carta.

61 results found

  • Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms
    URL:
    Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms
    Country:
    Czechia

    Article 36 (1) Everyone may assert, through the prescribed procedure, her rights before an independent and impartial court or, in specified cases, before another body. (2) Unless a law provides otherwise, a person who claims that her rights were curtailed by a decision of a public administrative authority may turn to a court for review of the legality of that decision. However, judicial review of decisions affecting the fundamental rights and freedoms listed in this Charter may not be removed from the jurisdiction of courts. (3) Everybody is entitled to compensation for damage caused her by an unlawful decision of a court, other State bodies, or public administrative authorities, or as the result of an incorrect official procedure. (4) Conditions therefor and detailed provisions shall be set by law. Article 37 (1) Everyone has the right to refuse to give testimony if she would thereby incriminate herself or a person close to her. (2) In proceedings before courts, other State bodies, or public administrative authorities, everyone shall have the right to legal assistance from the very beginning of such proceedings. (3) All parties to such proceedings are equal. (4) Anyone who declares that she does not speak the language in which a proceeding is being conducted has the right to the services of an interpreter. Article 38 (1) No one may be removed from the jurisdiction of her lawful judge. The jurisdiction of courts and the competence of judges shall be provided for by law. (2) Everyone has the right to have her case considered in public, without unnecessary delay, and in her presence, as well as to express her opinion on all of the admitted evidence. The public may be excluded only in cases specified by law.

  • Listina základních práv a svobod
    URL:
    Listina základních práv a svobod
    Country:
    Czechia

    Článek 36 (1) Každý se může domáhat stanoveným postupem svého práva u nezávislého a nestranného soudu a ve stanovených případech u jiného orgánu. (2) Kdo tvrdí, že byl na svých právech zkrácen rozhodnutím orgánu veřejné správy, může se obrátit na soud, aby přezkoumal zákonnost takového rozhodnutí, nestanoví-li zákon jinak. Z pravomoci soudu však nesmí být vyloučeno přezkoumávání rozhodnutí týkajících se základních práv a svobod podle Listiny. (3) Každý má právo na náhradu škody způsobené mu nezákonným rozhodnutím soudu, jiného státního orgánu či orgánu veřejné správy nebo nesprávným úředním postupem. (4) Podmínky a podrobnosti upravuje zákon. Článek 37 (1) Každý má právo odepřít výpověď, jestliže by jí způsobil nebezpečí trestního stíhání sobě nebo osobě blízké. (2) Každý má právo na právní pomoc v řízení před soudy, jinými státními orgány či orgány veřejné správy, a to od počátku řízení. (3) Všichni účastníci jsou si v řízení rovni. (4) Kdo prohlásí, že neovládá jazyk, jímž se vede jednání, má právo na tlumočníka. Článek 38 (1) Nikdo nesmí být odňat svému zákonnému soudci. Příslušnost soudu i soudce stanoví zákon (2) Každý má právo, aby jeho věc byla projednána veřejně, bez zbytečných průtahů a v jeho přítomnosti a aby se mohl vyjádřit ke všem prováděným důkazům. Veřejnost může být vyloučena jen v případech stanovených zákonem.

  • Listina základních práv a svobod
    URL:
    Listina základních práv a svobod
    Country:
    Czechia

    Článek 36 (1) Každý se může domáhat stanoveným postupem svého práva u nezávislého a nestranného soudu a ve stanovených případech u jiného orgánu. (2) Kdo tvrdí, že byl na svých právech zkrácen rozhodnutím orgánu veřejné správy, může se obrátit na soud, aby přezkoumal zákonnost takového rozhodnutí, nestanoví-li zákon jinak. Z pravomoci soudu však nesmí být vyloučeno přezkoumávání rozhodnutí týkajících se základních práv a svobod podle Listiny. (3) Každý má právo na náhradu škody způsobené mu nezákonným rozhodnutím soudu, jiného státního orgánu či orgánu veřejné správy nebo nesprávným úředním postupem. (4) Podmínky a podrobnosti upravuje zákon. Článek 37 (1) Každý má právo odepřít výpověď, jestliže by jí způsobil nebezpečí trestního stíhání sobě nebo osobě blízké. (2) Každý má právo na právní pomoc v řízení před soudy, jinými státními orgány či orgány veřejné správy, a to od počátku řízení. (3) Všichni účastníci jsou si v řízení rovni. (4) Kdo prohlásí, že neovládá jazyk, jímž se vede jednání, má právo na tlumočníka. Článek 38 (1) Nikdo nesmí být odňat svému zákonnému soudci. Příslušnost soudu i soudce stanoví zákon. (2) Každý má právo, aby jeho věc byla projednána veřejně, bez zbytečných průtahů a v jeho přítomnosti a aby se mohl vyjádřit ke všem prováděným důkazům. Veřejnost může být vyloučena jen v případech stanovených zákonem.

  • Human Rights Act 1998
    URL:
    Human Rights Act 1998
    Country:
    United Kingdom

    See ECHR provisions of Article 6 which have been incorporated into UK law by the Human Rights Act 1998.. Schdule 1, Article 6 Right to a fair trial 1 In the determination of his civil rights and obligations or of any criminal charge against him, everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law. Judgment shall be pronounced publicly but the press and public may be excluded from all or part of the trial in the interest of morals, public order or national security in a democratic society, where the interests of juveniles or the protection of the private life of the parties so require, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice. 2 Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law. 3 Everyone charged with a criminal offence has the following minimum rights: (a)to be informed promptly, in a language which he understands and in detail, of the nature and cause of the accusation against him; (b)to have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence; (c)to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing or, if he has not sufficient means to pay for legal assistance, to be given it free when the interests of justice so require; (d)to examine or have examined witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him; (e)to have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language used in court.

  • Human Rights Act 1998
    URL:
    Human Rights Act 1998
    Country:
    United Kingdom

    See ECHR provisions of Article 6 which have been incorporated into UK law by the Human Rights Act 1998.. Schdule 1, Article 6 Right to a fair trial 1 In the determination of his civil rights and obligations or of any criminal charge against him, everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law. Judgment shall be pronounced publicly but the press and public may be excluded from all or part of the trial in the interest of morals, public order or national security in a democratic society, where the interests of juveniles or the protection of the private life of the parties so require, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice. 2 Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law. 3 Everyone charged with a criminal offence has the following minimum rights: (a)to be informed promptly, in a language which he understands and in detail, of the nature and cause of the accusation against him; (b)to have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence; (c)to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing or, if he has not sufficient means to pay for legal assistance, to be given it free when the interests of justice so require; (d)to examine or have examined witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him; (e)to have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language used in court.

  • Instrument of Government
    URL:
    Instrument of Government
    Country:
    Sweden

    Chapter 2 - Fundamental rights and freedoms: Article 9 If a public authority other than a court of law has deprived an individual of his or her liberty on account of a criminal act or because he or she is suspected of having committed such an act, the individual shall be entitled to have the deprivation of liberty examined before a court of law without undue delay. This shall not, however, apply where the matter concerns the transfer to Sweden of responsibility for executing a penal sanction involving deprivation of liberty according to a sentence in another state. Also those who for reasons other than those specified in paragraph one, have been taken forcibly into custody, shall likewise be entitled to have the matter of custody examined before a court of law without undue delay (...) Also those who for reasons other than those specified in paragraph one, have been taken forcibly into custody, shall likewise be entitled to have the matter of custody examined before a court of law without undue delay. In such a case, examination before a tribunal shall be equated with examination before a court of law, provided the composition of the tribunal has been laid down in law and it is stipulated that the chair of the tribunal shall be currently, or shall have been previously, a permanent salaried judge (...); Article 10 No one may be sentenced to a penalty or penal sanction for an act which was not subject to a penal sanction at the time it was committed. Nor may anyone be sentenced to a penal sanction which is more severe than that which was in force when the act was committed. The provisions laid down here with respect to penal sanctions also apply to forfeiture and other special legal effects of crime (...); Article 11 No court of law may be established on account of an act already committed, or for a particular dispute or otherwise for a particular case. Legal proceedings shall be carried out fairly and within a reasonable period of time. Proceedings in courts of law shall be open to the public.

  • Kungörelse (1974:152) om beslutad ny regeringsform
    URL:
    Kungörelse (1974:152) om beslutad ny regeringsform
    Country:
    Sweden

    2 kapitlet - Grundläggande fri- och rättigheter: 9 § Om en annan myndighet än en domstol har berövat någon friheten med anledning av brott eller misstanke om brott, ska han eller hon kunna få frihetsberövandet prövat av domstol utan oskäligt dröjsmål. Detta gäller dock inte när det är fråga om att till Sverige flytta över verkställighet av en frihetsberövande påföljd enligt en dom i en annan stat. Även den som av någon annan anledning än som anges i första stycket har blivit omhändertagen tvångsvis, ska kunna få omhändertagandet prövat av domstol utan oskäligt dröjsmål. Med prövning av domstol likställs i sådant fall prövning av en nämnd, om nämndens sammansättning är bestämd i lag och ordföranden i nämnden ska vara eller ha varit ordinarie domare. Har prövningen inte uppdragits åt en myndighet som är behörig enligt första eller andra stycket, ska prövningen göras av allmän domstol; 10 § Ingen får dömas till straff eller annan brottspåföljd för en gärning som inte var belagd med brottspåföljd när den begicks. Inte heller får någon dömas till svårare brottspåföljd för gärningen än den som var föreskriven då. Vad som föreskrivs här om brottspåföljd gäller även förverkande och annan särskild rättsverkan av brott. (...); 11 § Domstol får inte inrättas för en redan begången gärning och inte heller för en viss tvist eller i övrigt för ett visst mål. En rättegång ska genomföras rättvist och inom skälig tid. Förhandling vid domstol ska vara offentlig.

  • Constitutión Española
    URL:
    Constitutión Española
    Country:
    Spain

    Artículo 24 1. Todas las personas tienen derecho a obtener la tutela efectiva de los jueces y tribunales en el ejercicio de sus derechos e intereses legítimos, sin que, en ningún caso, pueda producirse indefensión.2. Asimismo, todos tienen derecho al Juez ordinario predeterminado por la ley, a la defensa y a la asistencia de letrado, a ser informados de la acusación formulada contra ellos, a un proceso público sin dilaciones indebidas y con todas las garantías, a utilizar los medios de prueba pertinentes para su defensa, a no declarar contra sí mismos, a no confesarse culpables y a la presunción de inocencia. La ley regulará los casos en que, por razón de parentesco o de secreto profesional, no se estará obligado a declarar sobre hechos presuntamente delictivos.Artículo 54 Una ley orgánica regulará la institución del Defensor del Pueblo, como alto comisionado de las Cortes Generales, designado por éstas para la defensa de los derechos comprendidos en este Título, a cuyo efecto podrá supervisar la actividad de la Administración, dando cuenta a las Cortes Generales.Artículo 117 1. La justicia emana del pueblo y se administra en nombre del Rey por Jueces y Magistrados integrantes del poder judicial, independientes, inamovibles, responsables y sometidos únicamente al imperio de la ley. 2. Los Jueces y Magistrados no podrán ser separados, suspendidos, trasladados ni jubilados, sino por alguna de las causas y con las garantías previstas en la ley. 3. El ejercicio de la potestad jurisdiccional en todo tipo de procesos, juzgando y haciendo ejecutar lo juzgado, corresponde exclusivamente a los Juzgados y Tribunales determinados por las leyes, según las normas de competencia y procedimiento que las mismas establezcan.4. Los Juzgados y Tribunales no ejercerán más funciones que las señaladas en el apartado anterior y las que expresamente les sean atribuidas por ley en garantía de cualquier derecho. 5. El principio de unidad jurisdiccional es la base de la organización y funcionamiento de los Tribunales. La ley regulará el ejercicio de la jurisdicción militar en el ámbito estrictamente castrense y en los supuestos de estado de sitio, de acuerdo con los principios de la Constitución. 6. Se prohíben los Tribunales de excepción.Artículo 119La justicia será gratuita cuando así lo disponga la ley y, en todo caso, respecto de quienes acrediten insuficiencia de recursos para litigar.Artículo 120 1. Las actuaciones judiciales serán públicas, con las excepciones que prevean las leyes de procedimiento. 2. El procedimiento será predominantemente oral, sobre todo en materia criminal.3. Las sentencias serán siempre motivadas y se pronunciarán en audiencia pública.

  • Constitution of the Kingdom of Spain
    URL:
    Constitution of the Kingdom of Spain
    Country:
    Spain

    Section 54 An organic act shall regulate the institution of the Defender of the People (Defensor del Pueblo) as high commissioner of the Cortes Generales, appointed by them to defend the rights contained in this Part; for this purpose he or she may supervise the activity of the Administration and report thereon to the Cortes Generales. Section 119 Justice shall be free when thus provided for by law, and shall in any case be so in respect of those who have insufficient means to sue in court. Section 241. All persons have the right to obtain effective protection from the judges and the courts in the exercise of their rights and legitimate interests, and in no case may there be a lack of defense.2. Likewise, all have the right to the ordinary judge predetermined by law; to defense and assistance by a lawyer; to be informed of the charges brought against them; to a public trial without undue delays and with full guarantees; to the use of evidence appropriate to their defense; not to make self-incriminating statements; not to plead themselves guilty; and to be presumed innocent.The law shall specify the cases in which, for reasons of family relationship or professional secrecy, it shall not be compulsory to make statements regarding allegedly criminal offences. Section 1171. Justice emanates from the people and is administered on behalf of the King by judges and magistrates members of the Judicial Power who shall be independent, shall have fixity of tenure, shall be accountable for their acts and subject only to the rule of law. 2. Judges and magistrates may only be dismissed, suspended, transferred or retired on the grounds and subject to the safeguards provided for by the law. 3. The exercise of judicial authority in any kind of action, both in ruling and having judgments executed, is vested exclusively in the courts and tribunals laid down by the law, in accordance with the rules of jurisdiction and procedure which may be established therein. 4. Judges and courts shall not exercise any powers other than those indicated in the foregoing subsection and those which are expressly allocated to them by law as a guarantee of any right.5. The principle of jurisdictional unity is the basis of the organization and operation of the courts. The law shall make provision for the exercise of military jurisdiction strictly within military framework and in cases of state of siege (martial law), in accordance with the principles of the Constitution. 6. Courts of exception are prohibited. Section 1201. Judicial proceedings shall be public, with the exceptions contemplated in the laws on procedure.2. Proceedings shall be predominantly oral, especially in criminal cases. 3. Judgments shall always specify the grounds therefore, and they shall be delivered in a public hearing.

  • Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia
    URL:
    Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia
    Country:
    Slovenia

    Article 22 Everyone shall be guaranteed equal protection of rights in any proceeding before a court and before other state authorities, local community authorities, and bearers of public authority that decide on his rights, duties, or legal interests. Article 23 Everyone has the right to have any decision regarding his rights, duties, and any charges brought against him made without undue delay by an independent, impartial court constituted by law. Only a judge duly appointed pursuant to rules previously established by law and by judicial regulations may judge such an individual. Article 25 Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to appeal or to any other legal remedy against the decisions of courts and other state authorities, local community authorities, and bearers of public authority by which his rights, duties, or legal interests are determined.

  • Ustava Republike Slovenije
    URL:
    Ustava Republike Slovenije
    Country:
    Slovenia

    22. člen Vsakomur je zagotovljeno enako varstvo njegovih pravic v postopku pred sodiščem in pred drugimi državnimi organi, organi lokalnih skupnosti in nosilci javnih pooblastil, ki odločajo o njegovih pravicah, dolžnostih ali pravnih interesih. 23. člen Vsakdo ima pravico, da o njegovih pravicah in dolžnostih ter o obtožbah proti njemu brez nepotrebnega odlašanja odloča neodvisno, nepristransko in z zakonom ustanovljeno sodišče. Sodi mu lahko samo sodnik, ki je izbran po pravilih, vnaprej določenih z zakonom in s sodnim redom. 25. člen Vsakomur je zagotovljena pravica do pritožbe ali drugega pravnega sredstva proti odločbam sodišč in drugih državnih organov, organov lokalnih skupnosti in nosilcev javnih pooblastil, s katerimi ti odločajo o njegovih pravicah, dolžnostih ali pravnih interesih.

  • Constitution of the Slovak Republic
    URL:
    Constitution of the Slovak Republic
    Country:
    Slovakia

    Article 46 (1) Everyone may claim his right in a manner laid down by law in an independent and impartial court and, in cases laid down by law, at another body of the Slovak Republic. (2) Anyone who claims to have been deprived of his rights by a decision of a public administration body may turn to the court to have the lawfulness of such decision reexamined, unless laid down otherwise by law. The reexamination of decisions concerning basic rights and freedoms may not, however, be excluded from the court's authority. (3) Everyone is entitled to compensation for damage incurred as a result of an unlawful decision by a court, or another state or public administration body, or as a result of an incorrect official procedure. (4) Conditions and details concerning judicial and other legal protection shall be laid down by law. Article 47 (…) (2) Everyone has the right to legal assistance in court proceedings, or proceedings before other state or public administration bodies from the start of the proceedings, under conditions laid down by law. (...) Article 48 (1) No one must be removed from his assigned judge. The jurisdiction of the court shall be laid down by law. Article 50 (1) Only the court decides on guilt and punishment for criminal acts.

  • Ústava Slovenskej republiky
    URL:
    Ústava Slovenskej republiky
    Country:
    Slovakia

    Čl. 46 (1) Každý sa môže domáhať zákonom ustanoveným postupom svojho práva na nezávislom a nestrannom súde a v prípadoch ustanovených zákonom na inom orgáne Slovenskej republiky.(2) Kto tvrdí, že bol na svojich právach ukrátený rozhodnutím orgánu verejnej správy, môže sa obrátiť na súd, aby preskúmal zákonnosť takéhoto rozhodnutia, ak zákon neustanoví inak. Z právomoci súdu však nesmie byť vylúčené preskúmanie rozhodnutí týkajúcich sa základných práv a slobôd.(3) Každý má právo na náhradu škody spôsobenej nezákonným rozhodnutím súdu, iného štátneho orgánu či orgánu verejnej správy alebo nesprávnym úradným postupom.(4) Podmienky a podrobnosti o súdnej a inej právnej ochrane ustanoví zákon. Čl. 47 (...) (2) Každý má právo na právnu pomoc v konaní pred súdmi, inými štátnymi orgánmi alebo orgánmi verejnej správy od začiatku konania, a to za podmienok ustanovených zákonom. (...) Čl. 48(1) Nikoho nemožno odňať jeho zákonnému sudcovi. Príslušnosť súdu ustanoví zákon.(2) Každý má právo, aby sa jeho vec verejne prerokovala bez zbytočných prieťahov a v jeho prítomnosti a aby sa mohol vyjadriť ku všetkým vykonávaným dôkazom. Verejnosť možno vylúčiť len v prípadoch ustanovených zákonom. Čl. 50(1) Len súd rozhoduje o vine a treste za trestné činy.

  • Constituția României
    URL:
    Constituția României
    Country:
    Romania

    Articolul 21 (1) Orice persoana se poate adresa justitiei pentru apararea drepturilor, a libertatilor si a intereselor sale legitime. (2) Nici o lege nu poate îngradi exercitarea acestui drept.(3) Partile au dreptul la un proces echitabil si la solutionarea cauzelor într-un termen rezonabil. (4) Jurisdictiile speciale administrative sunt facultative si gratuite. Articolul 24(1) Dreptul la aparare este garantat. (2) În tot cursul procesului, partile au dreptul sa fie asistate de un avocat, ales sau numit din oficiu.

  • Constitution of Romania
    URL:
    Constitution of Romania
    Country:
    Romania

    Article 21(1) Every person is entitled to bring cases before the courts for the defence of his legitimate rights, liberties and interests. (2) The exercise of this right shall not be restricted by any law. (3) All parties shall be entitled to a fair trial and a solution of their cases within a reasonable term. (4) Administrative special jurisdiction is optional and free of charge. Article 24(1) The right to defence is guaranteed. (2) All throughout the trial, the parties shall have the right to be assisted by a lawyer of their own choosing or appointed ex officio.

  • Constituição da República Portuguesa
    URL:
    Constituição da República Portuguesa
    Country:
    Portugal

    Artigo 20.º (Acesso ao direito e tutela jurisdicional efectiva) 1. A todos é assegurado o acesso ao direito e aos tribunais para defesa dos seus direitos e interesses legalmente protegidos, não podendo a justiça ser denegada por insuficiência de meios económicos. 2. Todos têm direito, nos termos da lei, à informação e consulta jurídicas, ao patrocínio judiciário e a fazer-se acompanhar por advogado perante qualquer autoridade. 3. A lei define e assegura a adequada protecção do segredo de justiça. 4. Todos têm direito a que uma causa em que intervenham seja objecto de decisão em prazo razoável e mediante processo equitativo. 5. Para defesa dos direitos, liberdades e garantias pessoais, a lei assegura aos cidadãos procedimentos judiciais caracterizados pela celeridade e prioridade, de modo a obter tutela efectiva e em tempo útil contra ameaças ou violações desses direitos. Artigo 29.º (Aplicação da lei criminal) 1. Ninguém pode ser sentenciado criminalmente senão em virtude de lei anterior que declare punível a acção ou a omissão, nem sofrer medida de segurança cujos pressupostos não estejam fixados em lei anterior. 2. O disposto no número anterior não impede a punição, nos limites da lei interna, por acção ou omissão que no momento da sua prática seja considerada criminosa segundo os princípios gerais de direito internacional comummente reconhecidos. 3. Não podem ser aplicadas penas ou medidas de segurança que não estejam expressamente cominadas em lei anterior. 4. Ninguém pode sofrer pena ou medida de segurança mais graves do que as previstas no momento da correspondente conduta ou da verificação dos respectivos pressupostos, aplicando-se retroactivamente as leis penais de conteúdo mais favorável ao arguido. 5. Ninguém pode ser julgado mais do que uma vez pela prática do mesmo crime. 6. Os cidadãos injustamente condenados têm direito, nas condições que a lei prescrever, à revisão da sentença e à indemnização pelos danos sofridos. Artigo 203.º (Independência) Os tribunais são independentes e apenas estão sujeitos à lei.

  • Constitution of the Portuguese Republic
    URL:
    Constitution of the Portuguese Republic
    Country:
    Portugal

    Article 20 (Access to law and effective judicial protection) (1) Everyone is guaranteed access to the law and the courts in order to defend those of his rights and interests that are protected by law, and justice may not be denied to anyone due to lack of sufficient financial means. (2) Subject to the terms of the law, everyone has the right to legal information and advice, to legal counsel and to be accompanied by a lawyer before any authority. (3) The law shall define and ensure adequate protection of the secrecy of legal proceedings. (4) Everyone has the right to secure a decision in any suit in which he is intervening, within a reasonable time limit and by means of fair process. (5) For the purpose of defending the personal rights, freedoms and guarantees and in such a way as to secure effective and timely judicial protection against threats thereto or breaches thereof, the law shall ensure citizens judicial proceedings that are characterised by their swiftness and by the attachment of priority to them. Article 29 (Application of criminal law) (1) No one may be sentenced under the criminal law unless the action or omission in question is punishable under a pre-existing law, nor may any person be the object of a security measure unless the prerequisites therefore are laid down by a pre-existing law. (2) The provisions of the previous paragraph do not preclude the punishment up to the limits laid down by internal Portuguese law of an action or omission which was deemed criminal under the general principles of international law that were commonly recognised at the moment of its commission. (3) No sentence or security measure may be applied unless it is expressly sanctioned by a pre-existing law. (4) No one may be the object of a sentence or security measure that is more severe than those provided for at the moment of the conduct in question, or at that at which the prerequisites for the application of such a measure were fulfilled, while criminal laws whose content is more favourable to the accused person shall be applied retroactively. (5) No one may be tried more than once for commission of the same crime. (6) Citizens who are unjustly convicted have the right to the review of their sentences and to compensation for the damages they have suffered, as laid down by law. Article 203 (Independence) The courts are independent and subject only to the law.

  • Constitution of the Republic of Poland
    URL:
    Constitution of the Republic of Poland
    Country:
    Poland

    Article 451. Everyone shall have the right to a fair and public hearing of his case, without undue delay, before a competent, impartial and independent court.2. Exceptions to the public nature of hearings may be made for reasons of morality, State security, public order or protection of the private life of a party, or other important private interest. Judgments shall be announced publicly.Article 771. Everyone shall have the right to compensation for any harm done to him by any action of an organ of public authority contrary to law.2. Statutes shall not bar the recourse by any person to the courts in pursuit of claims alleging infringement of freedoms or rights.

  • Constitution of the Republic of Poland
    URL:
    Constitution of the Republic of Poland
    Country:
    Poland

    Article 45.1. Everyone shall have the right to a fair and public hearing of his case, without undue delay, before a competent, impartial and independent court.2. Exceptions to the public nature of hearings may be made for reasons of morality, State security, public order or protection of the private life of a party, or other important private interest. Judgments shall be announced publicly.Article 77.1. Everyone shall have the right to compensation for any harm done to him by any action of an organ of public authority contrary to law.2. Statutes shall not bar the recourse by any person to the courts in pursuit of claims alleging infringement of freedoms or rights.

  • Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej
    URL:
    Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej
    Country:
    Poland

    Art. 45.1. Każdy ma prawo do sprawiedliwego i jawnego rozpatrzenia sprawy bez nieuzasadnionej zwłoki przez właściwy, niezależny, bezstronny i niezawisły sąd.2. Wyłączenie jawności rozprawy może nastąpić ze względu na moralność, bezpieczeństwo państwa i porządek publiczny oraz ze względu na ochronę życia prywatnego stron lub inny ważny interes prywatny. Wyrok ogłaszany jest publicznie.Art. 77.1. Każdy ma prawo do wynagrodzenia szkody, jaka została mu wyrządzona przez niezgodne z prawem działanie organu władzy publicznej.2. Ustawa nie może nikomu zamykać drogi sądowej dochodzenia naruszonych wolności lub praw.

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  • Commission Recommendation of 27 November 2013 on procedural safeguards for vulnerable persons suspected or accused in criminal proceedings
    URL:
    (Commission Recommendation on procedural safeguards for vulnerable persons suspected or accused in criminal proceedings)
  • Directive (EU) 2016/1919 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 October 2016 on legal aid for suspects and accused persons in criminal proceedings and for requested persons in European arrest warrant proceedings
    URL:
    (Directive on legal aid for suspects and accused persons in criminal and European arrest warrant proceedings)

    Article 4 - Legal aid in criminal proceedings ‘1. Member States shall ensure that suspects and accused persons who lack sufficient resources to pay for the assistance of a lawyer have the right to legal aid when the interests of justice so require. 2. Member States may apply a means test, a merits test, or both to determine whether legal aid is to be granted in accordance with paragraph 1. 3. Where a Member State applies a means test, it shall take into account all relevant and objective factors, such as the income, capital and family situation of the person concerned, as well as the costs of the assistance of a lawyer and the standard of living in that Member State, in order to determine whether, in accordance with the applicable criteria in that Member State, a suspect or an accused person lacks sufficient resources to pay for the assistance of a lawyer. 4. Where a Member State applies a merits test, it shall take into account the seriousness of the criminal offence, the complexity of the case and the severity of the sanction at stake, in order to determine whether the interests of justice require legal aid to be granted. In any event, the merits test shall be deemed to have been met in the following situations: (a) where a suspect or an accused person is brought before a competent court or judge in order to decide on detention at any stage of the proceedings within the scope of this Directive; and (b) during detention. 5. Member States shall ensure that legal aid is granted without undue delay, and at the latest before questioning by the police, by another law enforcement authority or by a judicial authority, or before the investigative or evidence-gathering acts referred to in point (c) of Article 2(1) are carried out. 6. Legal aid shall be granted only for the purposes of the criminal proceedings in which the person concerned is suspected or accused of having committed a criminal offence.‘ Article 5 - Legal aid in European arrest warrant proceedings ‘1. The executing Member State shall ensure that requested persons have a right to legal aid upon arrest pursuant to a European arrest warrant until they are surrendered, or until the decision not to surrender them becomes final. 2. The issuing Member State shall ensure that requested persons who are the subject of European arrest warrant proceedings for the purpose of conducting a criminal prosecution and who exercise their right to appoint a lawyer in the issuing Member State to assist the lawyer in the executing Member State in accordance with Article 10(4) and (5) of Directive 2013/48/EU have the right to legal aid in the issuing Member State for the purpose of such proceedings in the executing Member State, in so far as legal aid is necessary to ensure effective access to justice. 3. The right to legal aid referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 may be subject to a means test in accordance with Article 4(3), which shall apply mutatis mutandis.‘

  • Directive (EU) 2016/343 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2016 on the strengthening of certain aspects of the presumption of innocence and of the right to be present at the trial in criminal proceedings
    URL:
    (Directive on the strengthening of the presumption of innocence and of the right to be present at the trial in criminal proceedings)

    Article 8 - Right to be present at the trial ‘1. Member States shall ensure that suspects and accused persons have the right to be present at their trial. 2. Member States may provide that a trial which can result in a decision on the guilt or innocence of a suspect or accused person can be held in his or her absence, provided that: (a) the suspect or accused person has been informed, in due time, of the trial and of the consequences of non-appearance; or (b) the suspect or accused person, having been informed of the trial, is represented by a mandated lawyer, who was appointed either by the suspect or accused person or by the State. 3. A decision which has been taken in accordance with paragraph 2 may be enforced against the person concerned. 4. Where Member States provide for the possibility of holding trials in the absence of suspects or accused persons but it is not possible to comply with the conditions laid down in paragraph 2 of this Article because a suspect or accused person cannot be located despite reasonable efforts having been made, Member States may provide that a decision can nevertheless be taken and enforced. In that case, Member States shall ensure that when suspects or accused persons are informed of the decision, in particular when they are apprehended, they are also informed of the possibility to challenge the decision and of the right to a new trial or to another legal remedy, in accordance with Article 9. 5. This Article shall be without prejudice to national rules that provide that the judge or the competent court can exclude a suspect or accused person temporarily from the trial where necessary in the interests of securing the proper conduct of the criminal proceedings, provided that the rights of the defence are complied with. 6. This Article shall be without prejudice to national rules that provide for proceedings or certain stages thereof to be conducted in writing, provided that this complies with the right to a fair trial.‘ Article 9 - Right to a new trial ‘Member States shall ensure that, where suspects or accused persons were not present at their trial and the conditions laid down in Article 8(2) were not met, they have the right to a new trial, or to another legal remedy, which allows a fresh determination of the merits of the case, including examination of new evidence, and which may lead to the original decision being reversed. In that regard, Member States shall ensure that those suspects and accused persons have the right to be present, to participate effectively, in accordance with procedures under national law, and to exercise the rights of the defence.‘ Article 10 - Remedies ‘1. Member States shall ensure that suspects and accused persons have an effective remedy if their rights under this Directive are breached. 2. Without prejudice to national rules and systems on the admissibility of evidence, Member States shall ensure that, in the assessment of statements made by suspects or accused persons or of evidence obtained in breach of the right to remain silent or the right not to incriminate oneself, the rights of the defence and the fairness of the proceedings are respected.‘

  • Directive (EU) 2016/800 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 May 2016 on procedural safeguards children for who are suspects or accused persons in criminal proceedings
    URL:
    (Directive on criminal procedural safeguards for children)

    Article 6 - Assistance by a lawyer ‘1. Children who are suspects or accused persons in criminal proceedings have the right of access to a lawyer in accordance with Directive 2013/48/EU. Nothing in this Directive, in particular in this Article, shall affect that right. 2. Member States shall ensure that children are assisted by a lawyer in accordance with this Article in order to allow them to exercise the rights of the defence effectively. 3. Member States shall ensure that children are assisted by a lawyer without undue delay once they are made aware that they are suspects or accused persons. In any event, children shall be assisted by a lawyer from whichever of the following points in time is the earliest: (a) before they are questioned by the police or by another law enforcement or judicial authority; (b) upon the carrying out by investigating or other competent authorities of an investigative or other evidence-gathering act in accordance with point (c) of paragraph 4; (c) without undue delay after deprivation of liberty; (d) where they have been summoned to appear before a court having jurisdiction in criminal matters, in due time before they appear before that court. [...] Article 16 - Right of children to appear in person at, and participate in, their trial 1. Member States shall ensure that children have the right to be present at their trial and shall take all necessary measures to enable them to participate effectively in the trial, including by giving them the opportunity to be heard and to express their views. 2. Member States shall ensure that children who were not present at their trial have the right to a new trial or to another legal remedy, in accordance with, and under the conditions set out in, Directive (EU) 2016/343.‘ Article 18 - Right to legal aid ‘Member States shall ensure that national law in relation to legal aid guarantees the effective exercise of the right to be assisted by a lawyer pursuant to Article 6.‘

  • Directive 2013/48/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2013 on the right of access to a lawyer in criminal proceedings and in European arrest warrant proceedings, and on the right to have a third party informed upon deprivatio...
    URL:
    (Directive on the right of access to a lawyer in criminal proceedings and in European arrest warrant proceedings)

    Article 3 - The right of access to a lawyer in criminal proceedings ‘1. Member States shall ensure that suspects and accused persons have the right of access to a lawyer in such time and in such a manner so as to allow the persons concerned to exercise their rights of defence practically and effectively. 2. Suspects or accused persons shall have access to a lawyer without undue delay. In any event, suspects or accused persons shall have access to a lawyer from whichever of the following points in time is the earliest: (a) before they are questioned by the police or by another law enforcement or judicial authority; (b) upon the carrying out by investigating or other competent authorities of an investigative or other evidence-gathering act in accordance with point (c) of paragraph 3; (c) without undue delay after deprivation of liberty; (d) where they have been summoned to appear before a court having jurisdiction in criminal matters, in due time before they appear before that court. 3. The right of access to a lawyer shall entail the following: (a) Member States shall ensure that suspects or accused persons have the right to meet in private and communicate with the lawyer representing them, including prior to questioning by the police or by another law enforcement or judicial authority; (b) Member States shall ensure that suspects or accused persons have the right for their lawyer to be present and participate effectively when questioned. Such participation shall be in accordance with procedures under national law, provided that such procedures do not prejudice the effective exercise and essence of the right concerned. Where a lawyer participates during questioning, the fact that such participation has taken place shall be noted using the recording procedure in accordance with the law of the Member State concerned; (c) Member States shall ensure that suspects or accused persons shall have, as a minimum, the right for their lawyer to attend the following investigative or evidence-gathering acts where those acts are provided for under national law and if the suspect or accused person is required or permitted to attend the act concerned: (i) identity parades; (ii) confrontations; (iii) reconstructions of the scene of a crime. 4. Member States shall endeavour to make general information available to facilitate the obtaining of a lawyer by suspects or accused persons. Notwithstanding provisions of national law concerning the mandatory presence of a lawyer, Member States shall make the necessary arrangements to ensure that suspects or accused persons who are deprived of liberty are in a position to exercise effectively their right of access to a lawyer, unless they have waived that right in accordance with Article 9. 5. In exceptional circumstances and only at the pre-trial stage, Member States may temporarily derogate from the application of point (c) of paragraph 2 where the geographical remoteness of a suspect or accused person makes it impossible to ensure the right of access to a lawyer without undue delay after deprivation of liberty. 6. In exceptional circumstances and only at the pre-trial stage, Member States may temporarily derogate from the application of the rights provided for in paragraph 3 to the extent justified in the light of the particular circumstances of the case, on the basis of one of the following compelling reasons: (a) where there is an urgent need to avert serious adverse consequences for the life, liberty or physical integrity of a person; (b) where immediate action by the investigating authorities is imperative to prevent substantial jeopardy to criminal proceedings.‘